Felt cherry is a fruit shrub that deserves close attention of gardeners and breeders. This tree is of East Asian origin and only in the middle of the XX century was recognized as a cultivated plant by growers of Europe and America. The popularity of felt cherries among gardeners is easy to explain - the extraordinary taste of fruits and the high ornamental status of the bush.
The natural habitat of felt cherries is the mountainside of China, Korea and Mongolia. There are historical facts that representatives of this species have previously met on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. But they did not find recognition from gardeners and were not introduced into culture. By assumption because of the low quality of the fruit.
Felt cherry is a shrub with several trunks reaching a height of 1.5 to 2 m and a spreading crown. It is very rare to find tall plants up to 3 m or more. Perennial shoots - brown light, dense and thick. Annual shoots of greenish-brown light with three lateral fruit buds. Fruit formations are active for 3-4 years.
A characteristic feature of the shrub - the pubescence of the trunks, leaves and fruits. This is a protective function of the plant against external factors. Hair (trichomes) reflect the sun's rays, preventing overheating of the shrub. Additionally, it makes the fruit resistant to transportation and storage. Soft blond hairs in the aggregate resemble felt, which explains the specific name - felted cherry.
Small leaves of oval shape with a corrugated surface. In the summer they are painted in dark green light, in autumn they get an orange tint. Blossom simultaneously with flowers.
The flowers are pale pink, gradually becoming white. The flowering phase begins at the end of May and lasts from 10 to 15 days. During this period, decorative shrub reaches its maximum. Located on a very short stalk, the flowers cling tightly to the stems, and the shrub takes on the appearance of a large blooming ball. Flowers tolerate lowering the temperature to -3 ° C.
Polymorphic shrub fruits - vary greatly among different varieties and seedlings within the species. The average weight of a single berry ranges from 1 g to 4.5 g. The color of the fruit is from pink to dark cherry, less often you can find shrubs with white berries. The flesh is juicy and tastes from sweet to sweet-sour. Inside there is an inseparable small bone.
The fruiting phase of different varieties varies from mid-June to mid-August. On average lasts up to 10 days. The stability of the fruit on the branches is high. Depending on the variety, it is possible to collect from 5.5 kg to 14 kg of berries from one bush.
The frost resistance of felt cherries is high - the shrub can withstand temperatures as low as -40 ° C. Winter hardiness is average, the weak point of the shrub is the preying of the root collar. Cherry life expectancy is small, from 8 to 10 years.Ripe berries of felt cherry on a bush
Description of varieties of felted cherries
For better pollination and stable annual yield, you need to plant several varieties of this species on the site. An interesting option: combining varieties with different ripening periods, you can harvest a fresh crop for 40-45 days.
- Princess. Compact (1.2-1.5 m) and high-yielding shrub. The fruits ripen in the third decade of July. With one bush can collect 10 kg of berries. Fruit weight 3-4 g, sweet taste with a slight acidity. The fruits ripen after July 20. Advantages: lack of root growth, resistance to coccomycosis. Disadvantages: selflessness and instability to moniliosis.
- Salute. Shrub, reaching a height of 1.6 m. Fruits in early July, berries from 2 to 4 g, sweet taste. Productivity of 11 kg from a bush. A characteristic feature of the berries - the transverse seam on the surface. Advantages: self-fertility and high decoration. Disadvantages: susceptibility to moniliasis.
- Fairy tale. Low shrub up to 1.3 m. Full ripening at the end of July. Berries from 3 to 3.5 g, yield up to 10 kg. The taste of berries is sweet and sour. Advantages: winter hardiness, semi-dry separation of fruits. Disadvantages: self-infertility, low resistance to moniliosis, chopping of fruits at bulk yield.
- Natalie. Vigorous shrub reaching a height of 2 m. The fruits ripen in the period from 10 to 15 July. The average weight of berries is 5 g, the pulp is dense, the taste is sweet-sour. The yield of adult shrub 6-7 kg. Lifespan 18 years. Advantages: the durability of the shrub relative to other varieties of this species. Disadvantages: chopping fruits at high yields, sensitivity to high humidity.
- Damanka. Vigorous shrub up to 3.2 m in height. The fruits are shiny, almost black in color, weighing about 3 g. The average yield of 8 kg per bush. Full ripening of berries comes at the end of July at the beginning of August. Advantages: the taste of fruits that are considered the best among the varieties of this species, the relative stability of moniliosis. Disadvantages: self-infertility, drought sensitivity.
Despite the species affiliation, felt cherries are genetically very different from ordinary and steppe cherries, and by all indications are much closer to other crops: plum, apricot and peach.
This feature must be considered during the cultivation of shrubs of this species.Felt Cherry Blossom
Selection and preparation of the site for planting
Felt cherry loves intense and diffused light. In thickened plantings or in shaded areas, shoots are drawn out, and fruiting is reduced.
This damage often occurs in winter, when a dense cover of snow falls on the unfrozen soil. When the root collar is damaged, the development of root shoots stops, which leads to the destruction of the shrub.
Therefore, you need to choose a site on an elevation where the snow cover is a thin layer. To minimize the risk of subsidence in the fall, the soil should be stumped around the root collar to a depth of 7-10 cm and covered with coarse sand.
The shrub grows well in loamy and sandy soils with a light texture and high aeration with a depth of groundwater not exceeding 3 m. The main cherry roots are felt at a depth of 35 cm, so this layer of soil must be structured and rich in nutrients.
The selected area is dug up and at the same time fertilizers are applied for each 1m 2:
- manure or compost 15 kg,
- potassium chloride 120 g
- superphosphate 250g.
After this, a landing pit is formed with steep walls 50 cm wide and 45 cm deep. The upper part of the soil is laid for future filling of the pit. The plot and landing pit for spring planting is prepared in autumn, for autumn during the summer.
How to plant and care for a tree sapling in the suburbs?
Felt cherries can be planted in spring and autumn. Given the average winter hardiness of the shrub, experienced gardeners recommend doing this in the spring, when a stable temperature of + 15 ° C is established. In this case, the plant will maximize the root system and surface coverings. This gives more guarantees of survival than when planting in the fall.
For planting choose a seedling up to two years. Quality planting material - sapling up to 1 m in height, with a healthy root of at least 25 cm in length and with a mass of fouling roots.Ready Felt Cherry Crop
To fill the landing pit will need:
- manure or compost 3 buckets,
- superphosphate 40 g,
- potassium chloride 20 g,
These components are mixed with delayed soil. If the level of soil acidity is high, add 300 g of lime to them. A good option is a drainage layer at the bottom of the pit of limestone rubble, which will regulate the acidity of the substrate, and ensure the flow of water from the pit. At the bottom of the pit you need to stick a stake (1.5 m) for garter seedlings. The recommended scheme of planting shrubs 2x1m.
In the center of the pit, you need to form a mound and spread the roots of the cherry over its surface. It is important that the root collar remains approximately 5 cm above the ground level. This will prevent its penetration after shrinking of the ground. The roots of the seedling are filled with the soil mixture and the surface is compacted.
The seedling needs to be watered with 2-3 buckets of warm water and, after the soil has subsided, add soil to the voids. After that, the near-barrel circle is mulched with peat or sawdust.
While caring for felted cherries, it is important to remember about the weak points of the shrub: thickening of the crown, susceptibility to fungal diseases and support of the root system. The rest of the cherry unpretentious and does not require the special work of the gardener.
Basic rules of care:
- Watering. Irrigation is done only in very dry weather, constantly monitoring the level of humidity.
- Liming. Cherry is sensitive to soil acidity. With a strong deviation from the average alkaline reaction in the shrub metabolism is disturbed. This immediately affects fruiting, so soil liming is carried out every 5 years.
- Disease prevention. Mandatory processing fungicides in the fall and spring. This procedure is carried out in September and before bud break in spring. For this tree sprinkled Bordeaux liquid.
- Top dressing. In the first two years, the seedling is not necessary to feed. Adult shrubs feed twice a season. In the autumn, after harvesting, a superphosphate (15 g), potassium chloride (20 g) are added to the tree trunk per 1 m 2: ammonium nitrate (20 g) in the spring before bud break.
- Preparing for the winter. Young seedlings bend to the ground and covered with spruce branches or straw. The pristvolny circle is mulched by peat (30 cm).
- Pests. Shrub rarely affected by pests. The danger for cherries is only a massive defeat of the site by aphids and flaps. In this case, apply chemical insecticides.
Shrubs of all sorts of cherries of this type are prone to thickening of the crown. This significantly reduces their productivity, so be sure to form a crown and in the following years to maintain the optimum degree of density.
Shrub crown formation is carried out in the third year after planting. To do this, choose a sunny day in mid-March, prepare a sharp shears and garden var.
Pruning is carried out before the start of sap flow, which is activated at the beginning of the wake-up phase of the kidneys. If these deadlines are missed, it is better to wait for the fall, when the tree goes into a state of relative rest. Otherwise, the shrub will spend energy to restore injuries, and slow down the development process. Often, when this cherry is sick.
- 10 -12 strongest branches are selected,
- sick, damaged and dry branches are completely removed,
- increments greater than 50 cm are shortened by 1/4.
In subsequent years, you should always adhere to these parameters, controlling the growth of gains. The task of the annual pruning is the maximum access of light to the crown.
With the aging of the bush is held rejuvenating pruning. During this procedure, several side shoots are removed. As a result, annual shoots will appear near the cut point. After this, it is necessary to cut off all the old shoots above them. Similar pruning is carried out to enhance growth and restore frozen bushes.
Cherry felt is propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. Each method has its own characteristics, on the basis of which it is necessary to choose the most acceptable option. Seed propagation
During the selection of planting material, it is important to pay attention to the condition of the bush. The best seed qualities are the bones of fully ripened fruits, compact shrubs without drooping painful branches with shiny, healthy bark.
The bones are separated from the pulp, washed with water and dried on a dry surface in a shaded room. After that, they are placed in layers of wet sand and cleaned in a cool room.Berries of one of the varieties of felt cherries on the bush
Sow bones for the winter. For this, a ridge of air-permeable and well-cultivated soil is prepared in advance. Bones are sown in the ground for 15 days before frost.
- on the surface of the ridge form a furrow with a depth of 2 cm and a row spacing of 30 cm,
- bones are planted together with sand at a distance of 50 cm from each other,
- the surface of crops is mulched with sawdust or peat,
- after the fourth leaf appears, the plants are thinned, leaving only strong sprouts,
- when the seedlings grow to 30 cm, pinch 1/3 of the main root,
- until the end of the growing season, three supplements are carried out with nitrogenous fertilizers,
- watering only in dry weather, twice a week.
The seedling is transplanted to a permanent place after two years. Planted shrubs in this way come into fruition after 4 years.
Felt cherry - description
What is felt cherry?
Typically, this sort of cherry grows in the form of small shrubs, and sometimes in the form of a slender, low-growing tree, which in height reaches one and a half or two meters. When the spring sun warms, the garden is transformed by the flowering of felt varieties of cherry. This tree is very light-loving and in spring it pleases with its lush crown, which is full of white and pink flowers.
Toward the summer, the fruits of a round form, the drupes, begin to ripen on a branched plant, they should be very close to each other. The flowering of this beautiful shrub begins in the beginning of the month of May, and the felt cherry blossom begins earlier than the usual varieties. The fruits are ready for collection already in the beginning or middle of July. The advantage is that the felt variety is a fast-growing culture.
After planting, the felted cherry begins to produce its crop in a year. But the disadvantage of this plant is that after five years it starts producing less fruits. Fruits can appear only on those branches that have grown new. Those branches that have been bearing fruit for five years begin to die off gradually, therefore this fact should be taken into account when pruning the branches.
Felt cherry growing conditions
Felt cherry does not tolerate the soil, which contains a lot of groundwater. Roots can soak and scour, which leads the tree to destruction. If you find a good and easy soil for planting, it will bear fruit every year. It is better to choose a place on a hill and openness to the sunlight.
The felt variety of cherries tolerates frost well, but does not tolerate the melting of snow in spring, followed by the May frosts. To tree was comfortable, you can delay the beginning of flowering. To do this, trample snow under the cherry, if possible, clear it. If you clear a little snow, you can throw straw or sawdust, this will help keep the cherry from thaw hated by it. The plant begins to wake up a little later and begins to bloom when all the spring frosts pass.
Rejuvenating pruning felt cherries
What you need to do to get a high yield of felt cherries?
The plant perfectly yields its fruits for five years, but in the sixth year of flowering, it is necessary to take certain measures. You must first prune to rejuvenate felt cherries. This is done as follows:
- First you need to remove the driest and oldest twigs.
- The best developed escape needs to be left.
- If the gain of shoots of felt cherries is less than twenty five centimeters, then it should be cut. This is done in order to stimulate the growth of new shoots.
- Shorten the need for two or three branches per year.
- If there is a damaged branch, then it is also worth cutting, this action is called sanitary pruning.
- With good care and a variable anti-aging pruning felt cherry can bear fruit for another ten years.
Protection of felt cherries from diseases and pests
When it is time for the kidneys to swell, you need to process the felt cherries with special preparations that contain copper, for example, Oxy. Chloroxide copper can save the shrub from various diseases. Felted cherries have diseases such as verticillus wilt, moniliosis. Monilioz happens more often it leads to the defeat of buds, young and fruit branches. These diseases greatly inhibit the cherry, they are dangerous for it, if not processed on time, then there will be no harvest.
Seed propagation of felt cherries
It is not difficult to reproduce felt cherries. The plant multiplies by planting seeds in the fall in the prepared open soil to a permanent place. If you sow ten seeds, seven of them will surely sprout in spring. The seeds are prepared as follows: release it from the fruit, slightly dried. Dried seeds should be mixed with sand for a while and stored before planting in open soil. Keep must be in a cool place.
With the onset of October, the bones of felt cherries are ready for planting. To do this, make a groove depth of five centimeters, it is possible and less, it all depends on the soil looseness. In these grooves you need to put the bones, sprinkling them on top of the sand. Then you need to close all the usual land. The plant should grow next year in May.
If you create a favorable environment and take good care of the seedlings of felt cherries, they will grow quickly. In the first year after planting, the plant reaches a height of fifty centimeters. When a lot of bones are snapped and sprouted, they need to be planted so that after three or four years the sprout becomes a shrub. Такие кустарники начинают плодоносить обычно через четыре года после посадки косточек.
Если войлочную вишню выращивать из косточек, то ее деревце формируется красивой и обильной кроной, что является залогом будущих богатых урожаев. Felt cherry perfectly adapts to the soil and terrain, and the garden microclimate does not frighten it either.
Felt cherry - description and photo
Felt cherry photo:
Felt cherry blossoms, photo:
The appearance of the leaves, berries, shoots, peduncles directly justifies its name - they are all covered with a soft fuzz.
She has short stems, and the flowers first have a pink tint, which then turns white.
The berries are most often red, but individual cultivars have pink, white, even black fruits. They are absolutely not sour, their sweetness is to their liking. It is because of the delicate sweet taste that it is sometimes called baby cherry. Berries quickly reach a state of maturity (less than 2 weeks). The core of the fruit is mostly tender, soft, but individual varieties can be quite dense (such as sweet cherry).
Jams, marmalades, preserves are made from it, although the small stone is rather difficult to separate from the pulp. Compotes, juices, even homemade alcoholic beverages from this berry are simply excellent. In addition to the pleasant taste, the fruit contains organic acids, vitamins (especially C, B), carbohydrates. It is noteworthy that according to the iron content, these berries are far ahead of apples! As mentioned above, in addition to growing for the sake of harvest, you can safely use these low shrubs to create hedges, strengthen the slopes. It turns out, from whatever side you look - in all respects it is a useful, very nice culture.
Felt cherry is good for everyone: it has an attractive appearance, compact size (which is important for small areas), but it has one small “disadvantage”. We are talking about a short lifespan - about 10 years. If you surround her with care, competent care (in particular, anti-aging crown trimming), then you may be able to extend its life cycle to 18-20 years. As for the size, the adult shrub usually grows up to 2-2.5 meters, but never exceeds 3. This feature optimizes the process of harvesting, solves the problem of sites with a small area. Forming pruning is much more convenient with such relatively small dimensions of the tree.
Cherry felt - how it grows and where, growing conditions
She prefers light, fertile sandstone or loam, and it is best for a non-acidic, well-drained soil to prevail at the place of cultivation. It will not grow on peatlands or marshy soil. Excessive moisture affects the growth, the ability to produce color, fruit, resistance to cold. Also, it must be placed in extremely sunny places, as it does not like shade or even partial shade. Returning to the pH indicator of the soil, you need to mention: if you have it sour, then it should be preliminarily lime (in spring or autumn).
Felt cherry, bushes with fruits, photo:
The important point is that in order to get a generous harvest, it is necessary to plant at least 3 bushes of different varieties close to each other. This is necessary for a better pollination! Self-fertile varieties are “Summer”, “Fairy Tale”, “Delight”, “Triana”, “Jubilee”, “Ogonyok”, “Eastern Smuglyanka”, “Tsarevna”, “Beauty”, “Children's”, “Mechta”, “ East. Of the most self-infertile cultivars, the most well-known are “Autumn Virovskaya”, “Natali”, “Ocean Virovskaya”, “Alisa”. Berries usually ripen by the middle of summer, and in the southern regions by mid-June. Despite significant genetic differences with ordinary cherries, the close proximity of these two representatives, namely, their simultaneous flowering, has an extremely positive effect on the taste and size of the berries of Chinese cherries.
Flower buds and green berries of felted cherry, photo:
This culture tolerates temperature drops quite well, sometimes to - 27 ° C ..- 30 ° C, but it reacts very negatively to spring (or winter) thaws. It would be better if at the very beginning of spring you scoop up more snow under the bushes, propchete it more tightly, and put additional sawdust on top. So you protect the bush from temperature changes.
The advantages of growing felted cherries:
- It can be eaten already when the remaining fruit representatives only form the ovary.
- Because of the low acid content, the berries are endowed with excellent taste, which allows you to use them any (raw, in the form of jam or juice, as raw materials for sauces, pickles or pickles).
- Good adaptability of culture to the conditions of the region where it grows. Drought resistance and frost resistance is also a plus.
- The seedling begins to bear fruit in the second year of life in open ground (most varieties). Berries ripen pretty early, long held on the branches.
- Differs in high productivity, at normal leaving fruits literally stick round branches.
- The lack of root shoots - in this culture, it does not appear at all.
- A beautiful element of landscape design (hedge, border design, the main detail in mixed plantations).
This is an unpretentious culture, its cultivation will not require you to have subtle agrotechnical knowledge, even a beginner can successfully plant a shrub and care for him. Well, finally, - felt cherry is very beautiful as a flowering tree or with branches covered with fruits. As a leafy shrub, it is also good.
Cherry Felt - planting and care
The most acceptable time for planting seedlings is autumn or early spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed. If you plant bushes in the fall, then no later than September. For these purposes, usually take seedlings that are already a year or two. Slightly above it was said that the place for landing should be sunny. Also, it should be as far as possible protected from strong winds, drafts. Make sure that there is no stagnation of water in the place intended for planting, the presence of closely flowing groundwater. This factor should also be considered during the melting of snow in the spring. That is why a small hill is the most acceptable option for planting this crop.
Felt cherry has a root system that is very sensitive to excessive moisture. Therefore, this moment is one of the most important when landing, even on the dais, it should not be too deep, so that the root neck does not block. It (the root neck) should be located above the level of the soil, because its penetration will subsequently lead to the destruction of the shrub. Soil requirements are also mentioned above, but if the nuance with the soil is of secondary importance, then the absence of excessive moisture, the location of the root collar during planting is one of the mandatory conditions.
- The width of the pit should be no less than 60-70 cm, and the depth should be no more than 50 cm. If you are trying to do everything according to the rules, then carefully mix the rotted manure (3 buckets), phosphorus (50 g), lime (500-700 g) , potassium (25-30 g) - the amount of additives calculated for approximately 1 square meter of land. Fill the planting hole with this soil mixture.
- The roots of the seedling should be carefully trimmed - approximately 20 cm, dip it in the clay solution prepared in advance (clay + water).
- We place the seedling in the hole (do not forget about the root neck) and fall asleep with the same emerald, slightly compacted, generously pour water. In general, it is recommended to plant a bush no more than it used to grow in the nursery - if you take planting material from there.
- The place around the bush can be mulched, for example, with peat.
As mentioned above, for a positive result, you need to plant at least three cherries in one area. Make sure that they do not grow too close to each other, but not too far (optimally - 2-3 meters). Of course, using already grown seedlings is very convenient. But you should also know that this culture is propagated by layering, cuttings, even sowing seeds. With proper care in a good place from one bush you can expect from 7 to 10 kg of tasty sweet fruits.
As for the autumn planting - if September has already passed, and you just got a sapling, then the planting can be done next spring. Seedlings should be placed in a suitable container, sprinkled with earth, taken to the basement. There, they safely overwinter, and in the spring you plant them, only preliminarily carry out a thorough revision of the roots, remove the damaged or dried fragments. Further "duty" care is to loosen the land, watering, removing weeds.
As for dressings, shrubs can be fertilized immediately after flowering, adding nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and organic additives to the soil of the trunk circle (at the rate of 40 g: 80 g: 30 g: 7 kg). Once in five or six years, soil chalking is performed.
Felt cherry - breeding
If you are interested in the whole process "from scratch", then you can try the method of reproduction by planting seeds. Collect pits from ripe fruits, wash, dry them. At about the end of the summer, you take a container with wet vermiculite or pure river sand (also wet), place bones there, leave them like this until October. At the appointed time, form shallow beds (3-4 cm), lay the seed. With the arrival of spring in this place you will see young growth, which in the same year will already reach about 50 cm in height. You will choose the best representatives from young saplings, spread them out more seldom (at a distance of 1.5-3 meters from each other), as it should be for the bushes. This method does not guarantee 100% preservation of the original varietal characteristics, but opens up wide horizons for breeding experiments.
Propagation by cuttings - this option will require special conditions, more time, unlike all other methods. Plus, this way you can get varietal representatives of a single species. This venture is carried out in July. The stalk is taken from a branch of the second or third order, it must be at least 15 cm in length, and for this purpose last year's wood should be kept on the branches themselves. On the already separated cutting must be at least 2 cm of the same wood. Further, the cutting is kept for about 15-18 hours in water with the addition of a growth regulator (for example, “Heteroauxin”), and then vertically buried in the ground according to the “scheme” - 2 cm with bark and 1 cm of the green part of the cutting! After planting, the bed should be covered with a film (create a “greenhouse”), regularly irrigate the seedlings, and protect from bright sunlight for the first 4 weeks. After a couple of weeks, appendage roots will appear in the cuttings, and after 4 weeks - difficult to root.
Reproduction by layings will not be difficult. In early spring, an adult bush should look after a good one-year escape. By escaping, you need to draw a groove, to a depth of 8 cm, lay the escape, pin it with a wire clip to the ground. Next, the shoot is filled with fertile soil, generously watered all summer. With the arrival of autumn on such a layer will already be formed fibrous roots, new shoots. It is divided into parts or left without division, in the end we get a new planting material.
Felt cherry pruning in spring
This is exactly the fruit shrub that most need regular pruning. Pruning should be both forming the crown, and sanitary. If this is not done, then the felt cherry will quickly turn into a thick bush, into the crown of which the air, pollinating insects, and sunlight cannot penetrate. But all sorts of different diseases, parasites, on the contrary, will feel great in such conditions. Productivity will decrease, over time the bush can simply die.
Felt cherry pruning is carried out in early spring - this is the best time for this procedure. It is important that the buds have not yet had time to blossom, sap flow has not started, then all the forces of the plant will focus on flowering, fruit ovary.
The shrub undergoes formative pruning from the first year of life. Side branches that grow inside the crown, as well as dried, damaged or frozen over the winter are subject to removal. Old branches that no longer give fruit, also need to be removed. Multiple branches, which, taking into account the fruit that started, will too burden a tree, should also be removed.
On average, you should have about 12 powerful, healthy, productive shoots. Taking into account the fact that the entire harvest "concentrates" on those branches that are one year old, a radical pruning is carried out in old shrubs (9-10 years). This method allows you to completely replace the old skeletal branches of the new young.
Pruning can also be carried out in the fall, but it is necessary to take into account the new growth of the branches. If the weather is warm, the shoots continue to actively grow, and then freeze with the onset of frost. Those branches that are 1 year old, which have reached 70 cm in length, need to be shortened by about one third. With the arrival of autumn, the so-called sanitary procedures are more relevant - cleaning the foliage, removing the affected branches (if there is such a thing). Everything removed must be burned, and wound sites covered with garden pitch.
Pruning in the spring is also thinning the crown, lightening its center, for better penetration of air currents, the rays of the sun.
Felt Cherry Varieties
In general, all varieties of this crop can be divided into three subgroups according to maturity: early, medium, late. Cherry berries of different varieties may have different colors. Of course, it is unrealistic to describe all varieties, but I would like to mention the most popular ones that are often planted out.
- Natalie is a fairly common variety, beloved by our gardeners. Low bush (1.5-2 m), with a lush sprawling crown, blooms with large flowers (in the second half of May), gives the same large dark red berries (an average of 4 g). From one bush can be removed 8-9 kg of fruit with dense flesh. If you try to pick a berry from a branch, it is relatively easy to separate from the stem. Harvest time falls around the twenties of July.
- The fairy tale is probably one of the lowest bushes, since its maximum height is 1-1.3 meters. The shrub has a not too thick crown, which greatly facilitates the process of pruning, gathering fruits. It blooms by the end of May, you can pick berries at the end of July. The fruits themselves are not small, about 3.5 g, slightly elongated, very dark in color. It is a little harder to remove a berry from a branch than, for example, the Natalie variety, because of a deep-seated stalk. From an adult bush can get about 10 kg of fruit.
- Salute - a shrub boasts an oval sprawling crown, which is about the same width as its height (1.5 - 1.7 m). It blooms by the end of May, the harvest gives after 2 months. Oval berries are not located close to each other, their weight is medium-large (3-3.5 g), bright pink in color, closer to scarlet. Berries, foliage, and shoots of the bush are distinguished by increased pubescence. Productivity is high - about 10 kg of fruits can be collected from an adult bush.
- Delight - a variety that is best suited for growing in central Russia. Shrub often grows up to 1.5 m in height, has a dense, spreading crown. Flowers are arranged quite tightly to each other. Each fruit weighs about 3.3 g, has a bright scarlet color, a funny shape - a deep recess for the stem, a slightly sloping top, pronounced strip seam. The pulp of berries is dense, slightly fibrous. Shrub blooms in mid-May, the harvest can be harvested by the end of July. 8-9 kg of fruits can be removed from the bush.
- Oceanic virovskaya is a shrub 1.8-2 meters high, the branches of which are literally plastered with bright burgundy fruits (2.5-3 g). This variety has a very short stem (about 0.2 cm), the flowers bloom in the second half of May, the fruits ripen by the end of July. One adult bush can give 8-9 kg of berries, which are sweet enough, pleasant to the taste, but have practically no usual cherry aroma.
- Alice is a low shrub, about 1.5 m tall with an oval-shaped crown. This variety has good resistance to cold, as well as to drought. Diseases such as coccomycosis, nodulation do not touch him. The berries (weight about 3.5 g) have a dark maroon color, ripen by the end of July. From one bush you can collect 8-9 kg of sweet juicy berries. The stem (0.7 cm) allows you to more or less comfortably remove the fruit from the branches.
- Summer - this variety has morphological signs of felt and sand cherries. The first couple of years the bush grows inactive, has a high resistance to pocket disease, winter-hardy. Berries (weight 3-4 g) are light red in color, have an average resistance to transportation. Ripens by the 20th of July, after which the fruits can hold on to the branches for a rather long time (about a month). From the bush you can collect 7-8 kg of fruit.
- Damanka - a shrub of this variety can reach 2 m in height, the crown is spreading, rounded. The weight of the berry is about 2.5-3 g. The variety is characterized by late ripening (late July / early August), the fruits have an intense dark maroon (almost black) color. The berries themselves are very sweet, in taste they are considered among the best among the other varieties of felt cherries. One adult bush gives about 8-10 kg of fruit. Winter hardy look.
- Children's - a relatively low grade - 1.5-1.8 m in height, crown moderately thickened. Berries on short stalks are very close to each other (like sea-buckthorn). Fruit weight is 2-4 g, juicy, sweet with a light acidity. Очень зимостойкий вид, может выдерживать морозы до -25..-27ºС. Даёт цвет к началу мая, а в июле уже можно собирать урожай. С одного взрослого куста можно снять до 10 кг плодов.
Если задаться целью, правильно рассчитать сроки цветения, плодоношения отдельных сортов, то можно посадить у себя разные сорта. The difference between the ripening period is about 20-30 days, so if you like this berry, you can provide yourself with fresh portions of fruit for quite a long time. Plus the fact that almost all the fruits after ripening for a long time kept on the branches.
Felt cherry - diseases and pests
Sometimes it happens that the appearance of a shrub indicates a problem: the foliage fades, the foliage curls, the fruit that has just started to shrivel or shrivel. Alas, this culture is also prone to disease, like all green inhabitants of our sites.
Very often, illnesses of felt cherries have similar symptoms. It is important to establish the correct diagnosis, apply the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. The country first-aid kit of each of us includes Bordeaux mixture, garden water, lime, and copper sulphate. Also required is the presence of fungicides, insecticides, because these drugs, compositions are most often used to treat plants, trees, shrubs.
Consider the most common diseases.
Moniliasis or monilial burn
It is manifested by the appearance of small cracks on the bark of a bush, from which gum stands out. The foliage fades, turns yellow, the branches gradually dry out, from the outside it looks really like a bush has burned with a strong heat. Monilia fungus is responsible for this process; it spreads very quickly throughout the plant, striking healthy shoots. If time does not take action, felt cherry will die. First you need to remove all the affected fragments (and burn).
But it is better not to wait until the first signs of the disease appear. The best control is prevention. For prophylaxis, just before the beginning of flowering, the whole shrub is treated with one of the products - “Horus”, “Fundazol”, “Topaz”, “Topsin”. They are diluted with water (10-15 g + 10 l of water), if it rains, the irrigation procedure should be repeated after the end of the flowering phase.
If the shrub was saved, then in the fall, next spring (before bud break), such treatments will need to be repeated. For these subsequent irrigations, you can also use the Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate (3% solution).
Klesterosporiosis or perforated spotting
The cause of this disease is the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum, which is activated at high humidity, dampness. This fungus is so tenacious that it easily endures the winter, is actively being taken to deal with the arrival of spring. Initially, dark spots appear on the leaves, which then turn into holes. The dark edging of the edges of the hole signals to us that this is precisely klyasterosporioz, and not some other disease. Wind, insects carry the spores of the fungus from infected plants to healthy ones.
The bark of the shrub also suffers - there are cracks seeping with gum, as a result, the disease engulfs the bush, growth slows down, leaves are shed, shoots dry out. Preventive measures can be considered the timely thinning of the crown, the application of fertilizers that give vitality to the shrub, the cleaning of foliage, all sorts of excess growth.
With the arrival of spring, it is recommended to carry out triple treatment of the bushes: irrigation with Bordeaux mixture, until the buds have blossomed, irrigation with the Kuproksat preparation for slightly open buds, repeated spraying with Kuproksat 2 weeks after the first treatment. If the shrub is already sick, then a radical cutting of all the affected fragments is made.
The causative agent of this disease is a parasite fungus that lives in foliage. In the case of a diseased shrub, the leaves turn yellow first, then dark dots appear on them, as a result, the plant discards the leaves completely. Spring treatment with fungicides helps fight this scourge, although most varieties of felt cherries are very resistant to this disease. The time spent pruning, processing "Fundazol" is a kind of shield from coccomycosis.
And again the fungus, this Taphrina, appears very noticeably - after the end of the flowering phase, seedless fruits appear, shriveled, flat (in appearance like a deflated balloon). Inside the fruit are disease disputes, where they ripen. As soon as you notice this, you should immediately remove all infected shoots with fruits, burn them. The plant itself must be treated with fungicides. Prophylactic spring treatments with Fundazol, Fitosporin-M, Abiga Peak, Albit, and Skor will help you. They also process the plant after removing the diseased fragments.
Pocket disease, photo:
As for the pests, the scythe, aphid, the plum moth, the leafworm also do not overlook the felt cherries.
An ash-soap solution helps for aphids (1 piece of laundry soap + a glass of ash + 10 l of water), and if this is a particularly neglected case, the drugs Commander, Iskra, Avant, Agravertin, Admiral (insecticides ).
Spring preventive irrigations with the use of Prophylactin help (half a liter of the preparation + 1 bucket of water) help from the leaflet. If the case has already taken a serious turn, then you will be helped by means of pyrethroids, such as Accord, Alfashans, Fatrin, Alfatsin. Processing should be carried out on a cool day (not higher than + 23 ° C), since during the heat these drugs become ineffective.
From the plum moths help placed traps with a sweet sticky content (berry compote + glue or thick sugar syrup), butterflies flock to the smell and die, stuck in a sticky mass. Such traps should be regularly cleaned, pour fresh bait mixture.
With regard to chemical procedures, immediately after the flowering phase is completed, the shrub should be treated with “Decis” or “Alatar” - this will destroy the first fossils. The second time, at the end of July, the plant is again processed by “Karbofos” - this is already a trick to combat the second invasion of the pest.
The struggle with the shield is rather difficult, if only because the insects are protected by a strong chitinous shell. In order to get rid of the pest, mechanical scraping of harmful “scutes” + subsequent treatment of the plant with “Actellic” is applied. If the problem has taken a serious scale, then absolutely all the affected parts of the shrub are cut and burned. The cherry itself is processed by “Preparation 30-D” (insectoacaricide). The same preparation is recommended to carry out spring preventive spraying (500 g + 10 l of water).
Shchitovka on felt cherry, photo:
As for hot fans of Chinese cherry - mice, they are usually used against a metal grid with small cells, which is wrapped several times with a bush. Thus, rodents will not get to the bark, they will not be able to eat it. This should be done in the fall, as mice even in winter (under the snow) can make their way to the cherry.
Summing up, we can say that an integrated approach to prevention, protection will help to save your plantings from pests and diseases. Do not forget about the rules of planting (root neck), about regular spring or autumn pruning. Spring prophylaxis sprays, appropriate care during the whole season (as well as after it) should also be remembered. With the arrival of autumn be sure to dig pristvolny circles. If you follow these simple truths, the felt cherry, growing and caring for it, as well as collecting a generous harvest will give you only positive emotions.
Cherry Felt: photo and description
The natural conditions of the spread of felt cherries are the mountain slopes of Mongolia, Korea and China. There are historical facts that representatives of this kind of tree were previously encountered on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. However, they were not introduced into the culture, as they did not find recognition from gardeners. It is believed to be due to the poor quality of the fruit.
In our country, felt cherries have gained fame after its description by Michurin. After evaluating the characteristics and experimental plantings, this scientist noted the importance of this type of cherry for development in gardening.
- Felt cherry - This is a shrub with several trunks that reach a length of 1.6-2.1 meters and have a spreading crown. It is quite rare to see mature trees up to 3.5 m and above. The perennial plant has thick and dense shoots of brown color. In turn, the annual trees are brown-green with 3 fruit lateral buds collected. At the same time, fruit branches are active up to 5 years.
- Characteristic feature of this tree - pubescence of fruits, leaves and trunks. This is a protective function of the shrub against external factors. Trichomes (hairs) do not allow the plant to overheat, as they reflect the rays of the sun. This additionally makes the berries more resistant to storage and transportation. In the aggregate, the light and soft hairs are similar to felt, this causes the varietal name of the tree - felt cherry.
- Flowers - pale pink, over time, get a white color. The flowering stage occurs at the beginning of June and lasts 12–17 days. At this time, the decorativeness of the tree reaches its peak. The flowers on a rather short stalk are covered with dense branches, and the plant receives the appearance of a flowering large ball. Flowers can tolerate a decrease in temperature to minus 5 degrees.
- Leaves with a corrugated surface, oval, small. In summer, they are painted in a rich green color, in autumn - they have an orange tint.
- The frost resistance of felt cherries is pretty good. - The tree can withstand a temperature drop of -45 ° C. It has an average winter hardiness, the weak point of the plant is the neck heating around the root. The life span of the shrub is insignificant and is about 7−12 years.
- Stages of fruiting different varieties may vary from early July to early September. Approximately it lasts up to 2 weeks. High resistance of the berries on the branches. Taking into account the variety from one tree, you can collect about 7−15 kg of berries.
- Polymorphic fruit - significantly different in different varieties. The approximate weight of a berry varies in the range of 1.2−5.5 grams. The color of berries from dark cherry to pink, in rare cases, you can see a tree with white fruits.
Felt cherry: growing and care
Regardless of the variety, genetically felted cherry is significantly different from steppe and ordinary cherry, much closer in all indications is to other cultures: peach, apricot and plum.
This feature should be taken into account if you plant this type of shrub in your home.
Preparation and choice of location
This tree loves scattered and intense lighting. In shaded areas or in thickened plantings, shoots begin to stretch, and fruiting deteriorates.
During the selection of a site for plantingIt is necessary to take into account the main drawback of this plant - root neck heating. This damage often occurs in wintertime, if heavy snow falls on unfrozen land. During damage to the root neck, the development of root shoots ceases, which leads to the death of the tree.
because it is necessary to select a plot on an elevation, in which the cover of snow lies a small layer. To minimize the risk of subsidence in the fall, earth should be ground near the root neck to a depth of 8–12 cm and sand should be poured into the hole.
This tree is well developed in sandy and loamy soils with high aeration with a depth of groundwater of no more than 3.5 meters, as well as a light soil texture. The main roots are at a depth of 40 cm, so this layer of the earth must be rich in nutrients and structured.
The chosen place is being dug up and feeding at the same time for every 1 square meter. m .:
- superphosphate 300 gr.,
- potassium chloride 150 gr.,
- compost or manure 20 kg.
Then they form a landing hole with steep walls 60 cm deep and 55 cm wide. The upper part of the ground should be put aside for future filling of the hole. The landing hole and the site for spring disembarkation must be prepared in the autumn, for the autumn landing - during the summer.
Care for felt cherries in the Moscow region
You can plant felt cherries in autumn or spring. Taking into account the average winter hardiness of the plant, experts advise that this should be done in spring, when the temperature stabilizes in the region of + 15C. In this case, the shrub will strengthen the maximum surface covers and root system. This provides more guarantees of a good survival rate than during planting in the fall.
For planting you need to choose a sapling up to 2 years. Qualitative material for planting is a sapling up to one meter in height, with a mass of overgrowing roots and with a healthy root in length not less than 30 cm.
To fill the landing hole will be needed:
- potassium chloride 25 gr.,
- superphosphate 45 gr.,
- compost or dung 2 buckets.
These components are mixed with the deposited earth. When the level of soil acidity is significantly increased, then you need to add 350 grams to them. to lime.
In the middle of the pit, you need to make a mound and spread the roots of the tree along its surface. The most important thing is that the root neck should be approximately 7 cm above the ground level. This will prevent its penetration after shrinking of the soil. The roots of the plant are filled with soil mixture and the surface is rammed.
The seedling must be poured 3−4 buckets of water at room temperature and after shrinking the ground, the void should be supplemented with soil. Then the near-stem circle is milled with sawdust or peat.
How to trim?
Trees of all types of cherries of this variety prone to thickening of the crown. This significantly reduces their productivity, therefore it is imperative to form a crown and in the following years optimally maintain the level of density.
Formation and pruning of the crown of cherries is done in the third year after disembarkation. What it is necessary to choose in the middle of March is a sunny day, to prepare a garden pitch and a sharp shears.
Pruning is done before the onset of sap flow., it is activated at the initial stage of the awakening of the kidneys. When this time is missed, it is advisable to wait for the fall, when the shrub begins to go into a state of relative rest. Otherwise, the plant will expend strength to restore injuries, which will reduce the development processes.
- choose 12−15 most strong branches,
- completely dry, damaged and diseased branches are removed,
- increments greater than half a meter are cut by a quarter.
In the following years, you must constantly adhere to these recommendations, controlling the development of gains. The main goal of the annual pruning is the maximum coverage that should come to the krone.
Given the aging of the tree is anti-aging pruning. At the same time cut several side shoots. As a result, annual shoots are formed near the section of the slice. Then you need to cut off all the old shoots above them. In the same way, pruning is done to restore frozen bushes and enhance growth.
Sections are performed only on the developed kidneys. So on the cut surface will not begin to collect water. During the removal of whole branches, the cut is carried out on the surface of the annular influx, the failure to comply with this rule leads to a significant development of tops. Large wounds need to be covered with a small layer of garden pitch.
Description of the species and common varieties
Felt cherries belong to the subfamily Plum. The homeland of this species is considered to be China, Mongolia, and Korea, where wild nature shrubs can still be found in nature today. An already cultivated plant was brought to Europe in the 20th century.
Felt cherry is a small spreading shrub, most often oval in shape, reaching a height of 1.5 m, usually with several trunks at the base. Sparse pubescence is present on thin branches and leaves. It blooms like other cherries in spring with white or pink large flowers. For pollination and abundant fruiting, you will need two specimens planted side by side. Fruits are red-burgundy, ripen by the end of June and are actively used for the preparation of desserts and preservation.
All varieties of felt cherries are conditionally divided into 3 categories depending on the time of fruit ripening:
Early ripening varieties:
- Children's variety forms a medium thickening crown, requires regular pruning. Fruits up to 4 g in weight, ovate-ovoid, bright pink color with a sweet-sour taste. Productivity to 9 kg,
- Variety Tale forms a medium-height bush. Fruits of burgundy color, weighing up to 4 g. The yield per adult bush is 8-10 kg.
- Variety Spark. Compact rounded bush. Large, weighing up to 4 g, fleshy, red fruits ripen in mid-July. The taste of cherry sweet and sour. Productivity to 8 kg from an adult bush,
- Oriental Dark Sort forms a stunted up to 1.2 m in height, rounded dense bushes of medium frost resistance. When excessive soil moisture is affected by moniliosis. Small fruits ripen closer to July 22. It is famous for its high yield - up to 12 kg per shrub,
- Sort Alice srednerosly bush with a dense crown up to 1.5 m in height. Fruiting begins in the second year after planting. The variety is frost-resistant, medium winter hardiness. Fruit up to 3.5 g, in fruitful years the fruit shrink.
Late ripening varieties:
- Sort Damanka. Recently bred variety. Its fruit is compared to other large-sized, fleshy, maroon color. Productivity to 10 kg.
- Variety Chocolatnitsa. Особенностью сорта является почти черного цвета мясистые плоды и высокая до 2,5 крона. Урожайность высокая.
Important! При выборе саженцев ориентируйтесь на природные условия вашей местности. Для холодного климата больше всего подходят раннеспелые сорта.
Войлочная вишня: посадка и уход в условиях средней полосы
Felt cherry is a self-fruit tree, that is, if you want to get a harvest, then you need to plant several copies at once next to cross-pollination.
Choose a place for landing sunny, preferably on a small hill. In the shade, the yield of cherries is much lower. Stagnation of moisture in the soil and the proximity of groundwater, this type of cherry does not tolerate. Seedlings are planted in spring or autumn in loamy, sandy or sandy soil.
Before planting felted cherries, first prepare a planting pit: add rotted manure, lime and mineral fertilizers necessary for growth (phosphorus and potassium). In order for the sapling to start and immediately grow, cut the lateral roots by 20 cm. After planting, pour the shrub abundantly, and close the trunk circle carefully and grumble.
As a rule, fruiting begins 2-3 years after planting. Care for felted cherries is completely uncomplicated. From the gardener it is required to loosen the tree trunk once a year in spring, to water, feed and thin out the crown during the dry season. With optimal care, cherry fruits annually.
Top dressing and crown formation
The shrub is fertilized twice a year: the first time in the spring before flowering, and the second - after the harvest. The first feeding must contain nitrogen. Fertilizers are distributed around the perimeter of the tree trunk, and then they dig up the soil to a depth of no more than 5 cm. Fertilizers applied in the autumn should not contain nitrogen in order not to provoke undesirable growth in winter.
For better fruiting, maintaining optimum thickness and height of the crown of felt cherries, it is recommended to regularly carry out formative pruning in the fall or spring. All broken, diseased or frostbite shoots should be removed. At the first pruning, at least 6 main skeletal branches are left on the bush. Subsequently, annual shoots are shortened annually to 40 cm.
Important! Excessive pruning in the autumn can cause the entire bush to freeze.
Diseases and pests
Felt cherries are considered to be the least susceptible to diseases and pests. However, the most recently cultivated varieties are often affected by a dangerous fungal disease - monilial burn. A sign of this disease is the withering of flowers, leaves, and later on young shoots. If you do not fight the disease, then after 2-3 years you can lose the whole bush. To cure the plant will help double treatment with basezol. The solution is sprayed with a shrub during flowering and immediately after harvest, and the affected shoots are cut, grabbing a few centimeters of the healthy part. Excessive soil moisture and stagnant melt water causes the root collar to disintegrate and the entire bush to die. Low pruning helps to save the plant. To prevent shrinkage of the bush, plant a seedling on a hill.
Felt cherry: description
The culture received its name because of the characteristic pile on the branches, leaves and fruits, similar to felt. Trees grow to a maximum of 2.5-3 meters in height. The berries contain organic acids, carbohydrates, vitamins of group B, PP, C. They ripen 7-10 days earlier than regular cherries, do not crumble.Culture is propagated most often by rooted cuttings and air layering. On seedlings of plum, apricot, cherry plum, you can plant a felt cherry by eye or cutting. The plant is also used to strengthen the slopes, creating hedges. The main lack of culture is fragility, but thanks to competent pruning the life span of a tree can be increased from 10 to 20 years. Thus, cherry felted has a description, in many respects similar to cherry ordinary.
Proper planting of felt cherries also includes the selection of the site that is optimal in illumination. For abundant fruiting, the tree needs a lot of sunlight, otherwise the berries become smaller, deformed, and later mature. Therefore, it is not necessary to plant a plant in the shade of other trees.
Felt cherry: what should be the soil for a rich harvest
Before planting felt cherries, it is necessary to choose the right soil for it. The best option would be light (sandy, loamy), fertile soil with a neutral reaction and good drainage. Excess moisture in the soil can kill the plant. In the acidic earth it is necessary from time to time to make lime.
For pereovleniya on the site should be planted several varieties or several seedlings, depending on the characteristics of the variety. So, the self-fertile varieties of felt cherries include Delight, Children's, Oriental, Beauty, Dream, Summer, Spark. To the self-infertile - Natalie, Alice, Autumn Virovka and others.
Important!It is not recommended to plant felt cherries near coniferous trees.
How to prepare a pit for planting
The optimal size of the pit for planting:
It is necessary to make:
- 3 buckets of organic fertilizers,
- 800 g of lime,
All components should be poured into the bottom of the pit and mix thoroughly.
How to plant a felt cherry
The roots of the seedling before planting should be cut to 20-25 cm and carefully smeared with a clay mash. Planted it at the same depth at which the plant grew initially.
Important!It is impossible to deeply deepen the root neck of a tree into the ground, as it will die in this case. The neck should not be below 3-4 cm of soil level.
After planting, the land is plentifully watered, compacted and mulched with organic fertilizer or peat.
Caring for the soil is a prerequisite to successfully grow felt cherries. It includes:
- timely destruction of weeds that deprive the tree of nutrients,
- periodic loosening of the ground to ensure the flow of air and moisture to the roots. At the same time trying not to go more than 5 cm,
- soil moisture in dry periods.
Top dressing and watering
Feeding of felt cherries can be carried out immediately after flowering. To do this, in the tree circle each tree contribute:
- 5-7 kg of organic fertilizers,
- 70 g phosphate,
- 30 g of nitrogen,
- 20 g of potash.
Every five years, the soil under the plant should be lime.
Felt cherries are poured over if during the growing season and the formation of the fruits there is a clear lack of precipitation. Excessive moisture can damage the plant's root system and affect fruiting.
Major pests and plant diseases
Despite the fact that felt cherries are characterized by resistance to diseases, there are diseases that can attack her. Monilioz (monilial burn) is caused by spores of the fungus that fell on the leaves of the pistil and eventually penetrate deep into the shoots. Usually the disease makes itself felt in the flowering period. By the end of May, the branches and leaves wither. In rainy weather, the disease develops faster than in the dry. For prevention, it is necessary to spray seedlings with fungicides (Fitosporin-M, Abigak-Peak, Bordeaux liquid). Affected shoots cut out. Coccomycosis is a fungal disease that leads to early abscission of foliage. Because of this, the natural cycle of the cherry is broken, the immunity is reduced. Struggling with the disease treatment shoots Bordeaux mixture, the drug "Horus". The pests of felt cherries include:
To protect against them, cherries require adherence to agricultural cultivation, including the destruction of fallen leaves, cocoons of hibernating caterpillars, as well as the proper feeding. In the spring, we can recommend spraying of plants with ash extract and watering the branches with a warm, weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Felt Cherry: Harvesting
Three years after planting, the felted cherry begins to bear fruit. Up to 4 kg of berries can be harvested from a single tree. The crop ripens on all plants at the same time or at short intervals. The color of the fruit depends on the variety - from pinkish to dark red.
If you plan to transport cherries, it is better to pick them as soon as they are fully formed and become characteristic of the mature fruit color. Felt cherry is an excellent option for those who want to grow an unpretentious plant that not only gives tasty and healthy fruits, but also pleases the eye with delicate foliage and abundant flowering.
Did you know?Berries do not tolerate transportation, so they rarely go on sale.
How to cut felt cherries
Felted cherry pruning is a necessary procedure for those gardeners who want to extend the life of their plants. After all, on average, this bush actively fructifies up to ten years, and with regular rejuvenating scraps, you can give it another 5-7 years of crop yield.
The main number of ovaries is formed on the branches of this year, so the old ones should be regularly updated. A large-scale rejuvenating pruning of felt cherries is held every five years, but every year (in the spring before bud breaks or in the fall after the onset of frosts) the crown is thinned. At the same time on the bush should be no more than 10-12 developed shoots, diverging in sides and not thickening the center. Everything that grows inside the crown, ruthlessly removed on the ring. In exactly the same way, once every 2-3 years, part of the skeletal branches is removed so that young ones grow to replace them.
It is important to know! Annual shoots should not be longer than 60 cm, so if they clearly outgrow, shorten them, so that the tree will send strength to fructification, and not building branches and foliage.
How to propagate felt cherries
Reproduction of felt cherries can be done in three ways: stones, cuttings and layering. True, in the first case, young plants will not inherit the varietal characteristics, and will retain only the species.
So, if it doesn't matter what kind of felt cherry you have, you can pick ripe berries from the tree, remove the pulp from them, wash and lightly dry. Then mix them with sand and put them in the refrigerator until October. In the middle of autumn, sow the bones in the depth of 3 cm and do not forget to mark this place on the garden. In the spring there will be seedlings that will grow by 30-50 cm over the season and will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
If you want to preserve the variety of felt cherries, it is better to resort to the second and third methods of reproduction. The cuttings culture is carried out in the first half of summer, while the young growths have not yet begun to woody. Cuttings 15 cm long are cut so that the base has a piece of old wood of 2-3 cm. Then the cuttings are immersed in Kornevin or another stimulator of root formation (according to the instructions) and begin to prepare the cuttings.
Felt cherry for rooting requires special conditions - stable humidity, the absence of direct sunlight and sudden temperature changes. For this, a small film design with shading will do. At the same time, the cuttings need to be deepened by only 3 cm (the whole lignified part and 1 cm of the green part).
Finally, if you already have a felt cherry on the plot, but one bush is not enough for you, you can propagate it by layering. To do this, in the spring, bend down the last year's sprout, pin it down or press it with a stone and sprinkle it with soil. Over the summer, the sprout will give roots and become a separate plant, and you can plant young felt cherries in the fall.
If felted cherry appeared in your garden, care, cultivation and pruning may seem difficult for you in the first couple of years, but then, when the bush begins to actively bear fruit, you will rejoice that you have brought this capricious beauty.