How sad our flower beds are with the onset of late autumn! The pitiful view of wilted flower beds is consonant with the overcast autumn mood. And so I want to color the lawn is not afraid of rain and frost paints!
There is a solution: plant chrysanthemums in your flower beds, they will provide you with a good mood up to the November snowfall with their bright persistent flowers! Let the sun in your garden!
Chrysanthemums: Mysterious Envoys of the East
Chrysanthemum in Greek sounds like a "flower-sun", and translated from Latin - "golden flower". Her homeland is the Far East. In Japan and China, the image of this large flower was decorated with symbols of imperial power: clothing, seals and portraits.
In Korea, they created elegant palace compositions using special low-growing chrysanthemums, which were called Korean. In Europe, this flower was considered the best decoration of the autumn garden. And for several centuries of growing and breeding chrysanthemums, this opinion has only strengthened!
Chrysanthemums are systematized on several grounds:
- by the method of cultivation (greenhouse, pot, soil),
- by the period of life (one-year, perennial),
- in terms of flowering (early, medium, late),
- on the diameter of inflorescences (large-flowered, small-flowered),
- on frost resistance.
Remember! The frost-resistant varieties include perennial ground Korean chrysanthemums.
How to plant chrysanthemums
Right in the ground in early spring you can sow annual chrysanthemums. They are not afraid of cold, they are unpretentious, they are pleased with long flowering up to the first frosts.
Large-flowered chrysanthemums are propagated by seedlings, transplanted into the ground after reaching a soil temperature of at least + 8- + 10 degrees, dug in October-November, when the temperature drops to + 5 degrees, and cleaned in a cold protected place (basement, greenhouse).
These beautiful flowers are suitable for cutting into bouquets, they are called - greenhouse chrysanthemums. The higher the plant, the larger its leaves and flowers, the worse it tolerates low temperatures.
Korean small-flowered chrysanthemums can be planted both in early spring and in autumn.
Autumn planting is preferable because:
- Autumn chrysanthemums show themselves in all their glory, you can choose a plant of desired color, height and flowering time,
- the place on the flowerbed is already free from faded annuals, and replanting new flowers will not break its design.
When planting chrysanthemums in the fall in central Russia, the following rules must be followed to ensure good survival of flowers:
- the time interval for planting should be no later than 2-3 weeks before the permanent frosts. The optimal time for planting: the third decade of September - the second decade of October,
- before winter, it is impossible to plant plants that have grown in a flowerpot before the transplantation: the root system is underdeveloped, it will not ensure the rooting of the flower before the onset of frost,
- tall chrysanthemums with large leaves (Indian) do not tolerate the winter cold after transplantation, the cuttings of these plants should be kept in a cold basement, with an air temperature of up to +5 degrees, and landed in the spring in the ground,
- only strong and healthy plants will survive the winter, so when choosing them you need to pay attention to the color of the stems and leaves: they must be natural in color, free of stains and growths,
- When buying, you need to choose those bushes, whose roots have young green shoots, which means that the plant has acclimatized and has already winterized in the open field.
How to plant chrysanthemums in the fall
Chrysanthemums prefer neutral or slightly acidic soil, moisture and breathable. For planting, they dig a shallow (30-40 cm) wide hole (flower roots are located horizontally along the surface of the ground).
1-2 glasses of construction sand are poured at the bottom to provide drainage, a cutting is put and covered with fertile soil to the lower leaves: add 2 parts of peat and rotted compost and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate to 2 parts of garden soil.
The earth around the plant is trampled and watered with warm, settled water. To ensure a better survival rate, almost all flower stalks are pruned, leaving 1-2 sprigs on a bush. This provokes the development of roots and rooting of the plant before frost.
If the weather is sunny, the plant is pruneed, making sure that the material does not touch the leaves, and watered under the root with a warm solution of potassium humate in accordance with the instructions for the preparation.
How to transplant chrysanthemum
Transplant do for:
- improve the appearance of the flower,
- increasing the landing area.
In the small-flowered Korean variety, weak, non-viable roots die after transplantation, which contributes to the improvement of its appearance: an increase in the quantity and quality of flowers.
Transplantation of this type of flowers is recommended 1 time in 2-3 years. Get the material for transplantation reproduction in the form of cuttings or dividing the bush.
Planted plants during the autumn pruning period, for this purpose they cut or break (preferably) shoots 5-8 cm long. All flowers from the stem should be cut off, leave several pieces of leaves. Cuttings are placed in a vessel with water or a root solution and covered with a transparent film to create a greenhouse effect.
After the roots appear in the plant (after 2-3 weeks), they are planted in separate pots with light fertile soil and placed in a cool place (+4 .. + 6 degrees). Watered no more than 1-2 times a month.
At the beginning of autumn (September), the dug bush is divided into several shoots by hand or shovel, trying not to damage the roots, or is cut with a sheath. Then they are seated in separate pits and shaded from the sun.
Autumn chrysanthemum nipping
The first pinching is done 2 weeks after chrysanthemum transplantation. To do this, remove the tip on the shoots. After another 2 weeks break off shoots over 2-3 nodes. The bush should go for the winter with stems no more than 5-7 cm in height.
Watering chrysanthemums in the fall
Only irrigated, preferably warm water is used for irrigation. Chrysanthemums love moisture, but its presence on leaves and flowers is not desirable. Watering preferably under the root, at a distance of 5-7 cm from the stem. After watering the soil need to mulch.
Spreading spherical Korean chrysanthemums inhibit the growth of weeds under their crown, but for young, weakened transplant plants, weeds are a real threat. Therefore, weeding is included in the mandatory list of care for transplanted flowers.
Preparing for the winter
To eliminate the risk of freezing of small-flowered chrysanthemums during strong winter frosts, it is protected by mulching and covering with spruce branches. Mulching is carried out with peat or compost layer at least 10 cm tall.
Snow - the best shelter for chrysanthemums. Therefore, the stems before hibernation are not cut down at the root to trap snow cover over the plant.
According to Eastern ancient wisdom, those who grow chrysanthemums are happy and live long. Be happy in your garden!
Planting in the fall and protection for the winter:
In order for the chrysanthemum to take root, it is necessary to plant it on time - at the beginning of autumn, then it will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather. When planting a bush radically cut. For winter, freshly planted flowers are necessarily warmed with a covering material.