Today, numerous manufacturers of solid fuel heating equipment offer us a wide range of metal furnaces and boilers, which from year to year is updated with new and new models. But despite all their advantages, the owners of non-gasified houses still have the usual brick stove to honor - numerous testimonials on thematic forums testify to this. What is the reason for truly nationwide love for this unit? Our article will not only provide an answer to this question, but also acquaint the reader with various types of furnaces and brick-building technology with their own hands.
Advantages and disadvantages of a brick oven in the house
So, let's try to understand why an old heater is often more preferable than its modern high-tech counterparts. There are several reasons:
- The furnace body is an excellent heat accumulator: Due to this property, a brick furnace has to be heated much less frequently than ordinary steel and even cast iron. Some species keep heat for up to 24 hours, while firewood must be thrown at the furnace of a metal furnace every 4–6 hours.
- The ability to accumulate heat makes a brick kiln more economical and less harmful to the environment than its metal "substitutes". The fuel in it burns optimally - with the greatest heat transfer and almost complete decomposition of organic molecules into water and carbon dioxide. The resulting excess heat is absorbed by the brickwork and then gradually transferred to the room.
- The outer surface of the furnace is not heated to a high temperature.
Due to this, the heat radiation generated by this unit is softer than that of hot steel stoves. In addition, the contact with hot metal burns airborne dust, emitting harmful volatile substances (this can be recognized by the characteristic unpleasant smell). Of course, they cannot be poisoned, but they certainly cause harm to their health.
- A brick stove (this does not apply to a stone) when heated gives off steam, and when it cools, it absorbs it again. This process is called oven breathing. Thanks to him, the relative humidity of the heated air always remains at a comfortable level - within 40–60%. When any other heating device is not equipped with a humidifier, the relative humidity in the room decreases, that is, the air becomes dry.
There is no place to put excess heat into the steel furnace, so it has to either be heated often by placing small portions of fuel, or be operated in decay mode. In the latter case, the operating time on one tab of the fuel increases, but it burns out with incomplete heat emission and with a large amount of carbon monoxide and other substances harmful to the environment - so-called. heavy hydrocarbon radicals.
It is not difficult to be convinced of this: a brick stove gives noticeable dark smoke only during kindling, while from a chimney a steel stove in which fuel smolders, black smoke knocks constantly. Metal solid fuel heaters of long burning (full-fledged, not so-called gas-generating furnaces that only imitate gas generation) are deprived of this drawback. But they are very expensive, have a complex structure and need power supply, without which a brick kiln is easily dispensed with.
What can be opposed to all of the above? The cooled room is heated by a brick oven for a long time. Therefore, homeowners are recommended to get an additional steel convector, which warms up the air in the forced mode while the stove is heated.
It should also be noted that the brick stove is a rather massive structure that should be built with the house. And ideally, an experienced master, who still needs to be found, should do this.
The use of brick ovens
The scope of application of furnaces to their main functions - heating and cooking - is not limited. Here are some other tasks that can be solved by such an aggregate:
- Smoking meat and fish.
- Remelting of scrap metal (cupola furnace).
- Hardening and cementing metal parts (muffle furnaces).
- Ceramic firing.
- Heating blanks in the forge workshop.
- Maintaining the required temperature and humidity conditions in the bath.
But in poultry houses, greenhouses, greenhouses and livestock farms, building a brick oven is not recommended: here she will have to breathe putrid fumes, which will lead to rapid deterioration.
Types of structures
The above scheme in different furnaces can be modified. The most common options are Dutch, Swedish, Russian, and bell-backed.
This scheme is called channel serial. Such a furnace is very easy to manufacture and its design can be easily adapted to any room, but the maximum efficiency for it is only 40%.
Very good option heating heating stove.
A very successful variant of the heating-cooking stove. Its scheme is called chamber. A chamber whose walls are washed by hot flue gases is used as an oven. The channel convector is located behind the furnace and occupies all the space from floor to ceiling. This scheme has a number of advantages:
- Efficiency at 60%
- in the oven at the side, you can install a heat exchanger to heat the water, which will be stored in the storage tank on the stove top,
- the gases come to the convector relatively cold (they burn out in the chamber section), therefore construction brick and a common cement-sand mortar can be used for its construction,
- a convector with such a shape warms up the room to the entire height as evenly as possible,
- near the Swedish oven, you can quickly warm up and dry out if you open the oven door.
Furnaces of this type are difficult to manufacture, require very high quality materials and need a foundation.
Russian stove bench
The scheme of the Russian stove, as well as the English fireplace, is called flowing. Convector it is not provided.
The scheme of the Russian stove, as well as the English fireplace, is called flowing. There is no convector in it. The owner of the Russian stove wins in the following:
- The efficiency reaches 80%
- the structure has an interesting appearance
- Such dishes of our national cuisine become available for cooking, which you cannot cook in the Russian oven otherwise.
Russian stove can be folded independently, if you clearly follow the drawings. The slightest deviations can spoil the design.
General device of the furnace, drawing
The design of the furnace is not particularly complex.
In the brick massif there is a chamber with a door in which the fuel burns - the firebox (in the figure - positions 8 and 9). In its lower part there is a grate (pos. 7) on which fuel is placed and through which air enters the furnace. Under the grate bars, there is another chamber, called the ashpit or blower, which is also closed by a door (pos. 4 and 6). Through this door, the outside air enters the furnace and through it the ash that fell into it is removed from the ash pan.
Through the hole at the rear wall, flue gases enter the hilo (pos. 11) - an inclined channel directed toward the front wall. Hilo ends constriction - nozzle. The following is a U-shaped channel, called a gas convector (pos. 16).
The walls of the gas convector heat the air moving through a special channel inside the furnace. This channel is called an air convector (pos. 14). A door (pos. 18) is installed at its exit, which is closed in summer.
The chimney has the following elements:
- cleaning door (pos. 12): through it, the smoke exhaust channel is cleaned,
- valve for setting the combustion mode (pos. 15),
- View (Pos. 17): It is also a valve, by means of which, after kindling, when all carbon monoxide has already evaporated, it closes the chimney in order to retain heat.
The insulation surrounding the chimney in the intersection of the attic floor and the roof is called a groove (pos. 23). At the intersection of the overlap chimney walls are made thicker. Such a broadening is called a flare (pos. 21), it is also considered a groove.
After crossing the roof, the chimney has another broadening - the otter (pos. 24). It does not allow rain moisture to penetrate into the gap between the roof and the chimney.
- 1 and 2 - the foundation with heat and waterproofing,
- 3 - legs or trenches: a furnace with such elements requires less brick, besides, it has an additional heating surface from below,
- 5 - the beginning of a special air duct (drier), by means of which uniform heating of the room in height is achieved,
- 10 - combustion chamber,
- 13 - kink air convector, called the overflow or pass,
- 20 - stove overlapping,
- 22 - attic floor.
Required materials, selection
The following types of bricks are used in the construction of the furnace:
- Building ceramic brick (red). They lay out the lowest ranks - the so-called podtopny part (indicated by oblique hatching in the diagram), as well as that part of the chimney, in which temperatures below 80 degrees are observed.
- Oven ceramic brick. It is also red, but in comparison with the building it has a higher quality (brand - M150) and withstands higher temperatures - up to 800 degrees. Outwardly, they can be distinguished by their size: kiln dimensions - 230x114x40 (65) mm, while for building - 250x125x65 mm. Furnace brick lay fire (furnace) part of the furnace, in the diagram it is indicated by hatching in the cell.
- Fireclay brick. This material is surrounded by a firebox inside. It withstands temperatures up to 1600 degrees, but its advantages are not limited to these. Chamotte brick combines high heat capacity (is a very “capacious” heat accumulator) and equally high thermal conductivity.
Note! Face brick in this case can not be used.
Due to the high thermal conductivity, it is impossible to lay out the fire part only with fireclay bricks - the stove will heat up too much and cool down very quickly due to intense heat radiation. Therefore, the external surface must necessarily be lined with kiln bricks, at least half a brick.
The dimensions of fireclay bricks are the same as those of the kiln. It is often recommended to determine its quality by the depth of color, but this method is valid only for those products for which the clay was mined in one place. If we compare fireclay clay from different deposits, then the color does not always give an objective characteristic: dark material may well be inferior in quality to light yellow.
A more reliable indicator of quality is the absence of pores and foreign particles distinguishable by the eye, as well as a fine-grained structure (in the figure, the quality sample is on the left). When knocking with a metal object, a high-quality chamotte brick should make a ringing and clear sound, and when falling from a certain height it breaks up into large pieces. Poor-quality knocking will respond with deaf sounds, and in the fall will crumble into many small fragments.
Also in the construction of the furnace used the following solutions:
- Cement-sandy: those parts of the kiln, which consist of ordinary building bricks, are placed on a conventional cement-sand mortar.
- Cement-sandy high quality: this solution, consisting of mountain sand and portland cement M400 and above, is used in the event that it is assumed irregular heating furnace. The fact is that the dried clay solution with insufficient heating can be saturated with moisture and limp again. That is why, in areas with temperatures below 200–250 degrees (in the diagram - oblique hatching with pouring), instead of clay, a high-quality cement-sand mortar based on mountain sand is used. We emphasize that this should be done only if the furnace during the period of cold weather will often stand idle.
- Clay solution. Mountain sand is also required for this solution. It is characterized by the absence of organic residues, due to which the seams would quickly crumble. But now it is not necessary to buy expensive mountain sand: excellent quality solutions are obtained on the basis of sand from ground ceramic or chamotte bricks.
- High-quality clay is more expensive than sand, so its quantity in the solution is sought to be minimized.
To determine the smallest required amount of this material, subject to the use of sand from ground brick, do the following:
- the clay is soaked for 24 hours, then mixed with water until it looks like plasticine or thick dough,
- dividing the clay into portions, prepare 5 options for the solution: with the addition of 10% sand, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (by volume),
- after 4 hours of drying, each portion of the solution is rolled into a cylinder 30 cm long and 10–15 mm in diameter. Each cylinder must be wrapped around a block with a diameter of 50 mm.
Analyzing the result: the solution without cracks or with small cracks in the surface layer itself is suitable for any tasks, with a crack depth of 1–2 mm, the solution is considered suitable for masonry with a temperature not exceeding 300 degrees, with deeper cracks the solution is considered unsuitable.
In addition to the standard tooling for masonry work, which includes:
- hammer pick,
- cutting for seams
- spade for the solution.
The stove should have a rake-order. It has a cross section of 5x5 cm, brackets for fastening in the seams and marks corresponding to the position of individual rows. Having installed 4 orders in the corners, it will be easy to ensure the verticality of the masonry and the equality of the width of the joints between the rows.
Calculation of a simple heating device
The method of calculating the furnace is extremely complex and requires a great deal of experience, but there is a simplified version proposed by I. V. Kuznetsov. It shows a fairly accurate result, provided that the house is well insulated outside. For 1 m 2 of the furnace surface area, the following heat transfer values are assumed:
- under normal conditions: 0.5 kW,
- in severe frosts, when the furnace is heated especially intensively (no more than 2 weeks): 0.76 kW.
Thus, a furnace with a height of 2.5 m and dimensions in terms of 1.5 x 1.5 m, having a surface of 17.5 m 2, will produce 8.5 kW in the normal mode and 13.3 kW in the intensive mode. This performance will be enough for a house of 80–100 m 2.
The calculation of the furnace is also very complicated, but today it is not necessary. Than to design and manufacture a self-made firebox, it is better to buy in the store ready: it is already calculated by all the rules and will cost less.
When choosing a firebox, consider the following:
- The firebox in size and location of fasteners must comply with the size of the brick used.
- For the furnace, which is used from time to time, you can buy a welded furnace of sheet steel, for permanent use you need to buy only cast iron furnace.
- The depth of the ash mine (lower firebox constriction) should be one third of the height of the combustion chamber, if most of the time the furnace is fired with coal or peat, and one fifth - if the fuel is wood or pellets.
The cross-section of chimneys that meet the standard requirements (straight vertical run, headroom height from the grate - from 4 to 12 m), is selected according to the recommendations specified in the SNiP depending on the furnace power:
- with heat transfer up to 3.5 kW: 140x140 mm,
- from 3.5 to 5.2 kW: 140x200 mm,
- from 5.2 to 7.2 kW: 140x270 mm,
- from 7.2 to 10.5 kW: 200x200 mm,
- from 10.5 to 14 kW: 200x270 mm.
It is impossible to accurately calculate the capacity of the stove, therefore, sometimes there may be a discrepancy between the adopted section of the chimney and the performance of the unit - the stove begins to smoke. In this case, simply increase the height of the chimney by 0.25–0.5 m.
Empirical formulas have been developed to determine the number of bricks, but they give an error of up to 15%. The only way to perform an exact calculation manually is to simply count the bricks in order, which will take only about an hour. A more modern option is to model the oven in one of the dedicated computer programs. The system itself will make a specification, which will indicate the exact number of whole bricks, as well as cut, shaped, etc.
The choice of location schemes
The method of installation of the furnace depends on the size of the house and the location of various rooms in it. Here is an option for a small country house:
In the cold season, such a stove will heat the entire building with high quality, and in summer, with an open window, you can cook quite comfortably on it.
In a big house with a permanent residence stove can be positioned as follows:
In this embodiment, the stove-fireplace, installed in the living room, is equipped with a purchased firebox made of cast iron with a door made of heat-resistant glass.
And thus, a brick oven can be installed in an economy class dwelling:
Considering the location of the furnace, you need to consider the following:
- A structure with more than 500 bricks must have its own foundation, which cannot be part of the foundation of a house.
- The chimney should not come into contact with the attic beams and roof rafters. При этом нужно учитывать, что в зоне пересечения чердачного перекрытия он имеет уширение, называемое распушкой.
- Минимальное расстояние от трубы до конька крыши составляет 1,5 м.
Из первого правила есть исключения:
- A cooker with a low and wide body, equipped with a heating shield, can be installed without a foundation if the floor is able to withstand a load of at least 250 kg / m 2.
- In a house with a strip sectional foundation, a furnace with a volume of up to 1000 bricks can be erected at the intersection of the foundations of the inner walls (including T-shaped). At the same time, the minimum distance from the stove foundation to the building foundation strips is 1.2 m.
- A small Russian stove is allowed to be erected on the basis of a wooden bar with a section of 150x150 mm (so-called opechie), supported on the ground or rubble masonry of the foundation of the building.
The preparatory work consists in the device foundation and laying of heat and waterproofing. If the furnace is equipped with trenches, a strip foundation is being built under it, it is possible to rubble. An ordinary stove (without trenches) is built on a monolithic reinforced concrete slab. On each side of the foundation should stand for the shape of the furnace not less than 50 mm.
Insulating "pie" is typed in the following sequence:
- roofing material is laid on the foundation in 2 or 3 layers,
- Basalt cardboard 4–6 mm thick or the same sheet of asbestos is placed on top.
- then put a sheet of roofing iron,
- it remains to lay the last layer - basalt cardboard or felt impregnated with highly diluted masonry mortar.
The laying can be begun only after the top layer dries to the roofing gland.
Before starting the masonry work on the floor in front of the future stove, it is necessary to build a fireproof coating, which is usually a sheet of roofing iron laid on the lining of asbestos or basalt cardboard. One edge of the sheet is pressed against the first row of bricks, the others are bent and nailed to the floor. The front edge of such a coating should be at least 300 mm from the furnace, while its lateral edges should extend beyond the furnace by 150 mm on each side.
Rules of laying in accordance with the order
The stove is placed in accordance with the order (see fig.).
Adhere to the following rules:
- The seams between the bricks in the roof of the firebox and the subfloor part can be up to 13 mm wide, in other cases - 3 mm. Deviations are allowed: upwards - up to a width of 5 mm, downwards - up to 2 mm.
- The ligation of the seams between the ceramic and chamotte masonry can not be done - these materials are very different in thermal expansion. For the same reason, the seams in such areas, as well as around metal or concrete elements, are given a maximum thickness (5 mm).
- Laying must be carried out with bandaging the seams, that is, each seam must overlap the adjacent brick at least a quarter of its (brick) length.
- The display of each row begins with corner bricks, the position of which is checked by level and plumb. So that verticality does not have to be checked every time, along the corners of the furnace, tension is strictly vertically cords (for this you need to hammer nails into the ceiling and into the seams between the bricks) and along them are oriented in the future.
- The doors and dampers are fixed in the masonry by means of knitting wire, laid in the seams, or by means of clamps made of 25x2 mm steel strip. The second option is for the firebox door (especially its upper part), the oven and the heat flaps: here the wire will quickly burn out.
In fluff and otter, only the external size of the chimney increases, the internal section remains unchanged. The wall thickness increases gradually, for which plates cut from bricks are added to the masonry. The internal surface of the chimney must be plastered.
How to make a heating unit with your own hands
The erection of the furnace body begins with the subfloor part.
- In the absence of sufficient experience, the rows should first be laid out without a solution and properly leveled, and only then should the row be laid on the solution. Also, beginners are recommended to lay out the underfloor part of the furnace in the formwork.
Having completed the construction of the furnace body, proceed to the construction of the chimney.
Features of the formation of the arch
Vaults are of two types:
- flat: the arches of this type are laid out of shaped bricks in the same way, but instead of a circle they use a flat pan. The flat vault has one feature: it must be perfectly symmetrical, otherwise it will crumble out very soon. Therefore, even furnaces with sufficient experience build this part of the furnace with the use of purchased shaped bricks and the same pallets,
- semicircular (arched).
The latter are laid out using a template, also called a circle:
- Begin with installation on the solution of the extreme support blocks - thrust bearings, which are pre-cut according to the drawing of the arch, made in full size.
- After the solution has dried, it is set to spin and lay the wings of the arch.
- The castle stones are hammered in with a log or wooden hammer, having previously applied a thick layer of mortar to the installation site. At the same time, they watch how the mortar is squeezed out of the wing masonry: if the masonry was made without disturbances, this process will take place evenly throughout the arch.
Circumference should be removed only after complete drying of the solution.
The angle between the axes of adjacent bricks in the semicircular arch should not exceed 17 degrees. With standard block sizes, the seam between them inside (from the side of the firebox) should be 2 mm wide, and outside - 13 mm.
Rules and nuances of operation
To make the oven economical, it must be maintained in good condition. A crack with a width of only 2 mm in the area of the valve will provide heat loss of 10% due to uncontrolled air inflow through it.
It is also necessary to heat the stove. With a strongly open blower, from 15 to 20% of heat can fly out into the pipe, and if during the burning of the fuel the furnace door is opened, then all 40%.
The wood that burns in the stove must be dry. To do this, they need to harvest ahead of time. Raw firewood gives less heat, and in addition, because of the abundance of moisture in the chimney, a large amount of acid condensate is formed, which intensively destroys the brick walls.
In order for the furnace to warm up evenly, the thickness of the logs must be the same - about 8–10 cm.
Firewood is laid in rows or a cage, so that there is a gap of 10 mm between them. From the top of the fuel tab to the top of the firebox, there should be a distance of at least 20 mm, even better if the firebox is 2/3 full.
Ignition of the main mass of fuel is produced with a splinter, paper, etc. It is prohibited to use acetone, kerosene or gasoline.
After kindling, the view must be closed so that the heat does not erode through the chimney.
When adjusting the thrust during firing, you need to be guided by the color of the flame. The optimal burning mode is characterized by the yellow color of the fire, if it turns white - the air is supplied with excess and much of the heat is released into the chimney, the red color indicates a lack of air - the fuel does not burn completely, and a large amount of harmful substances is released into the atmosphere.
Cleaning (including soot)
Cleaning and repairing the stove usually takes place in the summer, while in winter it will be necessary to clean the chimney 2-3 times. Soot is an excellent heat insulator and with a large amount of it the oven will become less efficient.
From the grate, ash must be removed before each fire.
Traction in the furnace, and hence its mode of operation, is governed by a view, gate valve and a blower door. Therefore, the state of these devices must be constantly monitored. In the event of any damage or wear, repair or replace immediately.
Among furnaces, it is considered the most multifunctional construction of bricks. It is equipped with a place to rest, called the bed. Under it have a cooking chamber - the furnace or the furnace, under which there is a blower. It should provide continuous burning of solid fuel. Such brick ovens for the house do-it-yourself also have a niche for kitchen utensils and keeping cooked food hot.
The standard dimensions of this type of furnace units are: 2 meters high, –2.5 meters long and 1.5 meters wide. Due to the impressive size of the Russian stove is able to heat the living space, an area of more than 40 "squares". But it also has a big drawback - for its operation requires a lot of solid fuel.
Its size is more compact compared to the Russian stove. The height of the Swedish brick construction is about 2 meters, and the length and width is not more than a meter. This small DIY brick oven is meant for:
- for space heating
- for cooking food.
A cast-iron stove is placed on 2 burners above the Swedish unit's firebox, and an oven is placed at the side. During the construction process, a stove is built in the kitchen, and the rest of the stove is built in another room.
A serious design flaw is a high degree of fire hazard. To prevent a fire, the Swedish oven is supplied with flaps.
This type of furnace units owes its appearance to Russian stove-makers, it was they who invented it. Intends to "Dutch" for heating the premises. The stove is very compact and has a high degree of heat transfer. It will take 10 hours to fully warm the cold room with it.
During the off-season, a Dutch brick-built stove is capable of retaining heat for 24 hours. Its structural device provides high heat transfer due to the winding chimney. In addition, the furnace has a roomy firebox.
The “Dutchwoman” is erected only with the use of kiln bricks, which accumulates heat quickly and gives off gradually. This building material for the construction of furnaces is very expensive.
How to lay out the oven and what you need to do
In addition to the design, the furnace design must comply with the fire safety requirements, therefore, the preparation stage for its construction is so important, which implies:
- Development of a detailed laying pattern for a stove with or without a stove.
- Determination of the installation site of the structure.
- The choice of materials.
- A selection of tools.
- Cost estimate for construction.
In addition to the above activities, you need to determine the number of maintenance workers, and perhaps they are not needed.
The end result of the construction depends on how well the project is designed. Now you can not develop a scheme - the furnace drawings with their own hands, and purchase ready-made documentation. When choosing such a project, it is necessary to make sure that the figures indicated in it are reliable, it also does not hurt to verify the availability of a phased detailed description of the construction.
When choosing the location of the furnace, first of all, pay attention to the area of the room and the design of the furnace. Since the process of how to lay out a brick oven at the cottage or in a house has many nuances, experienced stoppers advise novice craftsmen to build smaller models of future units.
Thanks to this, you can prepare for the upcoming laying and minimize errors and miscalculations. When complex designs of furnaces are chosen - laying your own hands for inexperienced craftsmen can be an overwhelming task. In this case, you should seek the help of professionals.
Selection and purchase of building materials
Regardless of what kind of furnace to be built, the same materials are used - these are bricks, clay, sand. The focus should be on choosing a brick.
4 types of bricks are offered for the construction of oven units:
- hand molding,
For facing the unit use ceramic products. It is advisable to buy a brick M-250 or M-500, which is more expensive, but more homogeneous than cheap products. It is able to withstand multiple cycles of heating - cooling. Dear brick has another advantage - excellent molding properties and decorative qualities.
Sand, when a brick stove is being built with its own hands to give or private household, you need to take a clean, without garbage and various impurities and therefore need to sift through a sieve.
Clay for furnace units is normal, lean or oily. The proportions of the preparation of the mortar and the technology of laying bricks depend on what kind of it is chosen. Stoves prefer to use clay that has a normal fat content.
Preparation of tools
To fold the furnace in the country or in a residential building with your own hands will require different tools: construction, measuring and auxiliary.
From construction tools needed:
- for trimming bricks - Bulgarian,
- for sifting sand - a metal sieve with a cell of no more than 2 millimeters,
- to seal the solution - jointing,
- for masonry mix - combined kerma,
- perforator plus nozzle mixer to it,
- for cutting bricks - hammer pickaxe.
You also need to prepare the measuring tools:
- tape measure at least 5 meters long
- to control the verticality - plumb,
- wooden oven line about a meter long,
- to check the flatness of the laying - the rule (there can be no slots between it and the wall),
- construction and flexible levels.
Auxiliary tools include buckets, containers, etc.
Arrangement of the basis for the brick furnace
When we put the furnace with our own hands, first of all, they ensure the distance between the chimney pipe and the roof overlap equal to at least 15 centimeters. Then you can begin to mark the foundation, which should exceed the parameters of the furnace construction in all directions by 15 centimeters.
It is better to form it when arranging a common house foundation. For a stove to serve for a long time, its foundation must not be connected with the foundation of a household. The fact is that their natural shrinkage is different due to the different degree of stress.
First, the pit is poured with concrete, and then the foundation under the furnace is made of bricks. Pre-set wooden formwork.
When the base is ready, its upper level should be 19 centimeters below the floor surface. The foundation is not constructed for a fireplace, but they calculate the load on the floor of the upper floors. The base is necessarily waterproofed using roofing felt or roofing felt.
Brick masonry for the house
First of all, you need to study the drawings of the stove with their own hands from bricks. Then prepare the solution and put the first row with a spatula and trowel. Often, novice home craftsmen are sure that they should not “pity” the solution. In fact, on the contrary - the thinner the layer, the stronger the brickwork will be.
The work is performed as follows:
- With one hand hold the brick on weight.
- Striking light blows, make a mark of the place of cleavage.
- Keeping a brick in weight, it is sharply and precisely cut into pieces according to the marks made.
- When building with their own hands a stove on the wood for the dacha or at home, the first row should be laid out immaculately. First put the outer row of bricks, then the middle, and the seams are carefully filled with mortar, avoiding the formation of voids.
- The initial rows are built from the whole material, while the vertical seams should not coincide. But further bricks need to be cut. They are laid with the chopped side inside the array of the structure. This moment is important in the construction of chimney channels and the firebox. The fact is that chips will be a place where soot accumulates, clogging up the chimney.
Features of the construction of arches and arches do it yourself
When constructing arches and vaults, they also use drawings of a brick furnace with their own hands for a garden or other structure. Bricks are laid according to the technology of gradual inlet, with a thickness of at least two rows.
The thickness of this overlap can not be less than 2 rows. For the opening of the firebox, use the "castle" display or masonry by the method of "jumper" - the bricks are installed on a metal corner vertically. The metal product can be exchanged for a wooden frame.
For the construction of pipes using silicate brick that can withstand temperature extremes and precipitation. It is resistant to the acidic environment formed by the contact of smoke and water vapor. It is important that there are no irregularities and chips in the chimney. When the furnace design is ready, a control furnace is carried out in 2–3 weeks.
Large and small brick DIY ovens in private homes are popular. But the main thing is to build the unit correctly so that it will last for decades.
The main types of furnaces
Before embarking on self-laying stove familiarize yourself with the features of existing varieties of such units. Stoves are:
- heating Designed exclusively for heating. Such furnaces have an extremely simple design and are laid out in the shortest possible time and with the least effort compared to structures of other types,
- heating and cooking. The most popular and popular option. At the same time warm the house and allow you to cook,
There are also improved varieties of stoves with a built-in stove or even a full oven.
Dutch laying with their own hands
In a separate category are stoves. This is a great option for a modern private house. Such designs perfectly cope with the tasks of space heating and have an attractive appearance. Правильно выложенная и отделанная печь-камин станет достойным дополнением интерьера как маленького загородного домика, так и дорогой частной виллы.
Такими бывают каменки
Схемы современных печей различают их не только по предназначению, но и по особенностям формы. Чаще всего в частных домах устанавливаются агрегаты прямоугольной и квадратной формы. Но при желании вы можете выложить круглую печь. Choose a specific option, taking into account the characteristics of the room and your own preferences.
The figure shows the simplest brick stove for heating and cooking
The furnace, of course, can be laid out with your own hands and numerous schemes will help you to do this in the shortest possible time. However, when performing such work, remember that any furnace, regardless of its purpose, shape and other characteristics, must fully comply with current fire safety regulations.
The choice of location and type of foundation for the stove
Laying the foundation for the stove
Before you start laying the furnace, pay due attention to finding a place to place it. For example, if the unit is placed in the middle of a room, it can give off much more heat, warming itself from all sides and heating the air around it evenly.
If the stove is placed against the wall (and this option is used most often), cold air will constantly “walk” around the floor. Therefore, in this regard, you need to make a decision on your own.
Pre-determine the installation location of the furnace door. This element must be installed so that in the future you can conveniently and quickly load fuel into the stove, not carrying the garbage from wood or coal throughout the house. Usually the furnace door is located on the side of the kitchen or some obscure premises.
The finished brick stove will have a rather impressive weight. For the device to stand as reliably and as long as possible, it is necessary to prepare an individual concrete foundation for it.
Features of the furnace design
Traditional brick kilns have a fairly simple design. However, the seeming simplicity at first glance makes it possible to achieve very high rates of productivity and efficiency.
The main elements of the brick furnace body are the firebox and the chimney. Cooking stoves are additionally completed with stoves and / or ovens, it is also possible to install a tank for heating water.
Scheme of the Russian stove
The firebox is the main part of the furnace unit. Firewood or other fuel used for heating is loaded into the firebox. A fireman can have a wide variety of sizes. In determining the appropriate dimensions, several important factors need to be considered, such as:
- type of fuel used. If you stoke wood with a firewood, make a firebox 50-100 cm high,
- performance required
- required volume.
For the arrangement of the firebox, use a fireproof brick. The wall thickness of the structure under consideration cannot be less than half of the brick.
The chimney is also among the main elements of any heating furnace. The chimney is designed to discharge flue gases with various harmful inclusions formed during the operation of the furnace.
Rules for the construction of a brick chimney
At the design stage of the chimney, try to think everything over so that its design has the minimum number of twists and turns. Ideally, the chimney should be completely vertical. Any kind of bending will lead to a deterioration of thrust and reduce the efficiency of space heating.
The ash pan chamber is one of the important elements of the brick kiln design. In this compartment will be collected ash. Also through the ash pan air is supplied to the inside of the unit, to the fuel. The ash chamber settles down under the grate grate and is equipped with its own door. Traditionally, the height of the ashpit is 3 bricks.
What mortar should be used for masonry?
Reliability and durability of the finished furnace directly depends on the quality of the masonry mortar. Masonry will be carried out using a mortar on a sandy-clay basis.
In the preparation of the solution is nothing complicated. Take the clay, cover it with water and soak it. Sift the mixture through a sieve, and then stir it into “earthen milk.” Finally, add some water to get a sufficiently viscous and plastic solution.
Remember, the reliability and durability of the furnace directly depends on the correct preparation of the masonry mortar. Do everything as it should - the stove will effectively heat your house for many years. Break the technology or decide to save a lot on materials - the thermal unit is unlikely to be able to reach its full potential and stand for any length of time.
Mortar used for masonry
The main stages and important features of the laying of the furnace
It takes 3-4 weeks from the moment of the foundation filling to the start of construction. During this time, the base will gain the necessary strength and will be able to withstand the weight of the brick kiln. The work in question requires maximum responsibility and concentration on the part of the performer. Any mistakes can lead to irreparable consequences, so tune in to work in advance and set aside enough time to complete it.
The laying of the furnace is carried out in several stages.
First stage. Lay out the ash pan and the lower part of the first cap of the brick. Laying should be carried out using the previously considered sand-clay solution.
Second phase. Install the ash pan door in the masonry. To fix the door, use galvanized wire.
Install the ash pan door in the brickwork
The third stage. Place a grate above the ashtray chamber.
Set the grate above the ashtray chamber.
Fourth stage. Mount the firebox. Cover the inside of this compartment with fireproof brick. Bricks lay out "on the edge." At this stage, you need to use a special masonry mortar. It is prepared in the same way as the standard one, but instead of simple clay, refractory is taken, i.e. fireclay. Secure the door of the combustion chamber with a steel plate and wire you already know.
Fifth stage. Continue the standard masonry until you reach the 12th row. After reaching this row, turn off the combustion chamber and smoothly lay the tile with the burners. This plate should be made of cast iron. Check the leveling of the paving using the building level.
The sixth stage. Lay out the first cap. It is built in the left edge of the stove. At the same stage, the channel for the summer course is being settled.
Seventh stage. Install the stove and lay the walls of the cooking compartment. Maintain the aforementioned lower cap.
The eighth stage. Set the valve for the mentioned summer run channel. This valve is located in the inner corner of the cooking compartment.
The ninth stage. Keep laying up to the 20th row. After reaching this row, turn off the cooking compartment and the first cap. Be sure to leave in the solid laying the required number of holes for the summer course and the lifting channel, as well as the vent of the cooking compartment. Place the bricks on the corners of steel - so you will provide a higher strength and reliability of the stove.
Tenth stage. Close the brewhouse door with hinged fire doors. It is better that the doors have heat-resistant glass inserts. Such a solution will allow you to monitor the process of burning fuel and admire the flame.
Eleventh stage. Install cleaning doors for easy removal of soot. To install, choose a place that you will be the easiest to get to.
The twelfth stage. Lay the cap walls almost to the top edge of the wall opening. At the top, turn off the stove with a pair of rows of bricks. Fill the gap between the top of the stove and the bridge. This will provide additional thermal insulation and slightly increase the heating efficiency.
Thirteenth stage. Lay out a decorative belt on the upper perimeter of the unit.
Fourteenth stage. Proceed to the device chimney. It is better that the chimney was brick. This design will last much longer than the same metal or asbestos pipes.
In the end, you will only have to lay out the chimney to the end and, if desired, complete the external finish of the stove. The simplest option is plastering. For the rest, be guided by your own preferences and an affordable budget.
Thus, laying the stove, though not a simple event, but it is quite possible to do it yourself. It is enough to simply understand the technology and follow the instructions in everything. Remember, materials for work must be of the highest quality. And the oven-proven schemes for years will allow you to build a unit on your own that will heat your home for many years without any problems and complaints.
The principle of operation of such furnaces is as follows: the air moves into the pump room, goes up and, bypassing the grate, exits through the pipe.
Cons direct-flow furnaces:
- Low efficiency, due to the fact that along with the cold air from the oven goes and warm, which could still be used to heat the room.
- Due to the fact that such furnaces make them bricks, which keeps heat well, the room warms up evenly and retains heat.
This type of furnace - advanced direct flow. That is, due to the many channels, the warm air does not immediately go down the chimney, but, following them, heats the room. When installing channel furnaces should take into account the linear dependence of efficiency on the length and number of channels.
These furnaces are used to trap heat in the room. The warm air, in accordance with the laws of physics, tends upwards, where it is kept by the cap. Cooling down, air currents become heavy and fall down. And, since cold air is no longer needed, it comes out through the roll.
Advantages of bell-type furnaces:
- Provide uniform heating of the room due to its design.
- Soot can be easily removed, as it accumulates in one place - under the hood.
Classification depending on the material
- Autonomy. That is, once “filling” the furnace, you can not worry about it for a long time.
- Heat retention. Brick buildings poorly conduct heat, so it remains in them for a long time.
- Easy to install, do not require a foundation.
- Not flammable.
- Heat up quickly.
- Huge selection of furnaces on the external data.
- It is not required to revet in addition.
- There are automatic cast iron stoves that independently regulate the temperature.
- High efficiency.
- Performance is relatively less dependent on the amount of fuel.
- Low price.
- Quite quickly cooled and require additional heating.
Preparatory work, necessary materials and tools for work
How to build a stove with your own hands? Consider the preparation:
- Foundation. If the furnace is calculated large (more than 500 bricks), then you need to build an additional foundation for it. If the oven is small, it is not necessary.
- Thermal insulation is required for all types of stoves: for large and for small ones.
- Chimney. In no case should the chimney adjoin the beams on the ceiling. Also, the distance between it and all the beams should be about the same.
- Trumpet. The protrusion of the pipe must be above the roof by half a meter, but not farther than a half.
- The location of the furnace. Place should be chosen in accordance with the data on the pipe and chimney, that is, take into account what will be above the stove.
If these points are taken into account, then there are some more tips:
- It is better to arrange the stove so that it heats as many rooms as possible. For example, if there are several adjacent rooms in a house, the stove should not be located in one of them, but in between so that it will heat everything.
- If you need to heat one room, then it is better to arrange the stove closer to the wall, but not abutting it.
The oven is Dutch.
It refers to the channel type.
- Simple masonry
- It takes relatively little space, as it has an elongated shape.
- Heats up quickly.
- It weighs relatively little.
- Allows cooking.
- No need to heat regularly to maintain performance.
It turns out that the oven - “Dutch” will not fit as the main source of heat and will not be able to heat a large room. But such a furnace is convenient for small rooms and irregular use.
- Does not take much space.
- Simple construction.
- Low prices for material and fuel.
- Average efficiency.
- Not very long keeps warm.
A regular rectangular oven is an average option that is suitable for standard warming up of a not very large room.
Oven - "Swede."
Refers to the heating-cooking type.
- Allows cooking.
- High efficiency.
- Fast warming up.
- "Saves" fuel.
- Relatively small size.
- There are modern options with an oven, hob, place to dry clothes.
- Acceleration duct required.
- It has a difficult laying for a beginner.
The stove - "Swede" is suitable as the main source of heat in the room, can completely replace the stove and has many designs, but it is difficult to assemble.
Stove with fireplace.
- Very low fire hazard.
- High efficiency.
- Heat the room evenly.
A stove with a fireplace is suitable both for decorating the house and for targeted use as a heater.
How to build a stove with your own hands? First, make drawings. In order to make drawings, you need to know what must necessarily be part of the furnace.
The furnace consists of the following levels:
- Rubble masonry.
- Bookmark depth
- Solid stove.
The composition of the array:
Composition of the pipe:
- The cap.
- Metal cap.
- Riser pipe
- A metal sheet.
- The neck of the tube.
The order is a detailed scheme of the brick masonry.
How to build a stove with your own hands? Consider how to lay brick on the example of a Russian stove.
Row number ..
- Designed for waterproofing the foundation. Laying down bricks and ¾. When laying, use cement-sand mortar.
- The second row is the basis for the walls of the zone of stool.
- The third row is the walls of the wall (3/4 brick).
- The fourth row - support bake.
- The fifth row is located in the corners in order to create a support arch. Also use this row for laying out the bake.
- The sixth row is laid out on a pattern of wood, which will be a temporary collection of trusteeship.
- The row for the arch begins to lay from the edges to the middle. The central brick is driven in by a mallet to ensure durability. Also, the bricks should be placed as close as possible to each other, and in the openings between them put brick fragments.
- Mantle walls consist of bricks of this row.
- The walls of the furnace and the walls of the cold stove are laid out in this row.
- Final row for custody. Between bricks, fill the gaps with sand, for the sake of isolation.
- Strengthening of the roofing overlap with the addition of beveled bricks.
- Begins using clay-sand cement. Shetzka masonry. The brick should go flat, but then you still need to polish it.
- The bricks of this series will be a pole and a cooking chamber. Additional installation arc of the mouth.
- The walls of the pole and the hearth.
- The walls of the pole and the hearth.
- The walls of the pole and the hearth.
- Fold support for the arch of the cooking chamber.
- Made up of refractory brick vault.
- Hearth wall.
- Hearth walls. Fill the gap with sand.
- Sandstone, the beginning of the samovar.
- The end of the overlap. Installing a damper.
- The channels of the samovar and peretrubya.
- The same channels.
- Additional channel for view.
- The same channels.
- Install half-doors.
- Sewing the same channels.
- Sewing the same channels.
- Sewing the same channels.
- The connection pipe and the damper.
- Valve installation.
- Pipe laying
33+ laying pipe.
How to build a furnace with your own hands: a description of the process.
- Lay the foundation of.
- Put the first row (on the cord).
- The following rows are put using a level.
- To control the corners with dodger.
- From 1 to 11 rows to use cement-sand mortar, then - clay-sand.
- The output pipe is carried out at the end of all work.
- Carefully follow the instructions during installation.
- Choose a drawing that you can do.
- Place the stove not close to the walls, but not in the center of the room (unless, of course, it is not a traditional Russian).
- Take care when transporting refractory bricks as they are very fragile.
- The side walls of the furnace are the warmest, so place them closer to the places that need to be carefully heated.
- Do not forget about automated furnaces that will control the temperature.
The laying of any furnace, from the above, will not cause difficulties with careful planning and perseverance. Good luck!
Brick stoves for home
In the houses and cottages, the most frequently used are “Dutch women”, whose wall thickness is half the brick. If you heat such stoves from one to two times a day, you can easily provide comfortable temperature conditions in a medium-sized room.
Taking into account the dimensions of the heating furnaces, they use two main ways of smoke rotation:
- in the “Dutch” of small size, where the firebox and the furnace itself have common walls, the arrangement of smoke channels of the bell type is carried out at the top,
- For large furnaces, a combined smoke system is used, in which the smoke channels are located from the sides of the firebox and on top of it.
Dutch oven for the house of the angular type
Another type of heating furnace is the “Dutch” corner type. Since they have an angular shape, these ovens are characterized by the fact that they take up less space, which allows to significantly increase the usable area of the room by setting the stove in the corner.
Угловые кирпичные печи часто устанавливают, потому что нет возможности изготовить прямоугольный фундамент.
To heat a 2-storey house or cottage, use bunk brick heating furnaces. An autonomous stove with its own firebox is installed on each floor.
The structure of modern heating furnaces includes a grate. With this solution, it became possible to deliver oxygen to the place of combustion of firewood, in the amounts that are necessary to ensure combustion. This is the reason that the combustion of fuel occurs at an intense pace, and with more uniformity. New smoke protection systems provide an opportunity to reduce the length of smoke channels. Smoke enters the stove smoke before it is cooled under the influence of excess air.
The above, allowed us to make modern heating furnaces more compact, reduce the time spent on the furnace, as well as improve efficiency.
Laying masonry stoves for home
Laying the stove for the house, this is the first thing that a person who decides to arrange for heating in his home with a stove is required. In this material we will look at what schemes of laying brick brick ovens exist, what are their features and differences.
Laying stone stove can be done in the following ways:
When arranging the stove in the first way, the plaster of the stove is not required, since the filling of all joints is carried out with mortar. The thickness of the walls of the furnace determines the way in which the bricks are stacked. The walls are laid out in the thickness of one brick, and half of the brick. Sometimes, it is possible to meet a laying in 3,4 bricks.
To work on the arrangement of the stove it is imperative to use a stove brick. It is also called "red brick", full-bodied. Do not, under any circumstances, use bricks that were taken from a disassembled structure, expanded clay blocks or slit bricks.
Laying the first row is just a brick, not using mortar. The brick is equal, it defines the front wall, the places in which all the doors will be located. These operations can be called the last "estimate." When these actions are done, the bricks fall with the mortar.
After that, begin to lay the corners. The next stage, on the advice of experts - is the arrangement of the contour of the entire stove. Using shears, a cord is drawn from the ceiling to the corners of the stove. With these vertical lines, you can easily navigate while working.
Given the model of the stove you have chosen, you should determine the areas in which they will be located: a blower, a combustion chamber, an ashpit. The door under the ash pit is installed when the third row of bricks is laid out, after one row the ashpit is laid out.
After that, the arrangement of the firebox. Each door is attached with baked wire. When you get to the calculation of the vault, you will need to make a sawn bricks. A calculation will be required to ensure good bridging between the bricks. Laying of the vault begins after the second row of bricks is laid after the fire door.
For lining the combustion chamber use a special refractory brick. Since the facing brick and brick masonry have different temperature characteristics, the installation of the facing to the furnace itself should not be rigid. During the installation of the chimney, you should take care of the arrangement of a special valve, the adjustment of which should be done smoothly and easily.
Bake do-it-yourself drawings video
A stove with your own hands, drawings, videos that you watch will help you get an idea of how a three-channel heating kitchen brick stove is made.
Consider the ordering of the furnace, which we will do with our own hands:
Install the bleed door 130x140 (mm)
Instead of cast-iron doors for cleaning the channels, we will install two halves of bricks on the edge.
We put the grate size 370x240 (mm). To install it, we cut a niche in the bricks so that there is a gap around the perimeter of the grid-bar the size of one centimeter.
We cut two bricks at an angle of forty-five degrees in the direction of the grate, to roll the coal into the furnace.
We install the first smoke valve, which, in the open state, ensures the summer mode of the furnace.
Install the fire door size 250x180 (mm).
We stitch the face of a brick in the form of an oval, for the best passage of gases with the least resistance.
To clean the channels, install half a brick on the edge.
We cut out the grooves in the bricks for the installation of a cooker of 300x720 (mm).
We make bricks in the shape of an oval.
Install the second smoke valve.
Twentieth, order as in the eighteenth.
In addition, you can watch the video, for a complete perception of the laying process
So, you can assemble an inexpensive oven with your own hands.
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The device and schemes of furnaces for the house
1. Layout of the masonry heating furnace of two tiers
2. Laying square stove with lower heating
3. Schemes of furnaces for the house with a predominant lower heating
4. Furnace masonry developed by B.
5. Laying of the furnace created by the Thermal Engineering Institute
Conventionally, heating furnaces can be divided into two categories: modern devices and outdated designs. Instead of used imperfect heat units used for a long time, manufacturing companies produce advanced models of heating appliances based on the latest technologies.
But in private households and country cottages, heating brick stoves are still widely used, and the schemes of stoves for the house are very diverse.
Unfortunately, year after year there are less and less experienced stoves capable of repairing or redoing them.
At present, classic wood stoves for houses, which have characteristic advantages, are not used for heating the premises, but to give the interior a unique and distinctive character.
Layout scheme of a two-tier heating furnace
The device of two-tier heating furnaces, shown in the photo, is a structure of two parts located one on the other.
The parameters of each of them - 165x51x238 centimeters. Heat transfer of the lower part of the furnace is 3200 kcal per hour, and the top is 2600 kcal / hour.
In furnaces for private households provide a brick display with voids in order to facilitate the weight of the structure and save material consumption. Both parts of bunk ovens have completely the same device.
In such heat units, a channel-free smoke system is used. According to the stove laying scheme, gases from the firebox fall into the upper cap with a nozzle. After cooling, the gases descend and, at the location of the bottom of the firebox, go through a sub-roll into the mounted exhaust pipe.
At the bottom of the furnace chimney passes through the upper half of the structure. For this reason, the last one has a smaller heating surface.
The upper part of the structure has a separate chimney.
The device of the heating furnace of a two-tier construction is characterized by the simplicity of laying bricks, and the scheme of moving gases is simple. The lower half of the unit is cleaned through the door located in the rear wall, and for the upper part this door is located in the side wall (more detailed: “Heating furnaces for the house are masonry with their own hands”).
For the operation of the heating structure used coal or anthracite. The pipes for both parts are equipped with two smoke valves.
Usually, the upper part of the voids in the two-tier heating furnaces is covered with solid reinforced concrete slabs, which contributes to the strength and stability of the entire structural array.
The laying of such stoves should be performed at a high professional level, since their alteration or repair is not an easy task (read: “How to repair a brick furnace with your own hands”).
Carefully lay out the chimney to the bottom of the heating bunk construction.
If leakage is allowed in the masonry, the wall separating the two pipes in the upper part will transmit heat even in the case when two smoke valves are closed.
If you wish, you can combine different types of furnaces that have a rectangular or square shape and operate on different types of fuel into a single array.
Laying square stove with lower heating
The oven in the photo is different combined or mixed smoke system. The parameters of this design are 102x102x238 centimeters. Its heat output is 4200 kcal / hour.
The construction of square-shaped heating furnaces with lower heating assumes that the firebox in it has a relatively large height.
The lateral openings (2 pieces each) located symmetrically on both sides serve to divert gas into the chambers. They are located in the outer side walls of the structure.
Then the gas is lowered through the chambers connected by a channel under the firebox behind the ash compartment.
From the side chambers gases through the bottom podkidki enter the risers and they rise up.
Consequently, the schemes of furnaces for a square-shaped house with a lower heating amount to 3 caps — an upper cap and 2 large-sized chambers.
In this heating design, you can use any type of solid fuel.
If it is planned that the stove will operate on coal or anthracite, the walls of the firebox should be laid out exclusively of refractory bricks.
Schemes of furnaces for the house with a predominant lower heating
If the heating design has a predominant lower heating, its size, as a rule, is 115x56x231 centimeters at a heat emission of 2640 kcal / hour.
In accordance with the smoke exhaust system, this furnace is referred to as combined channel heat units with bottom heating.
When a scheme of stove heating of a private house is created using such a construction, it is assumed that the flue gases from the firebox will first be lowered and then climbed along the riser to the roof (see also: “Kuznetsov's heating furnaces: drawings and ordering with your own hands”).
From there, in two parallel passages, they will go down to the 16th row of brickwork, and then go to the last of the lifting risers, which goes into the chimney.
The above design is rational and simple because it can provide a good heating of the furnace in its lower part and it has the self-regulating movement of gases in both channels located in the upper part, which serves as a cap with a nozzle.
The principle of operation of the structure ensures that the air can pass through the bottom of the hood and at the same time it does not cool down.
The laying of this furnace is simple to implement and it can be built in the room partition in such a way that the fuel door and the front wall will go out into the corridor.
The unit can be operated on coal and wood.
Furnace laying developed by V. Groom Grzhimailo
Depicted in the photo, channelless layout of the stove heating furnace was developed by Professor V.
Groom Grzhimailo. In this heating structure there is no smoke. It has a rounded shape and is placed in a sheath made of sheet steel. The gases move in the furnace not due to the thrust created by the chimney, but under the action of gravity. As a result, cooled and heavier gases descend to the bottom, and light hot ones rise to the top.
This device of the furnace for the house consists of two parts - the firebox is located at the bottom.
In its overlap there is a small hail (orifice), which ensures the passage of flue gases to the upper part, which represents the chamber without flue gas.
She looks like a cap upside down, shaped like a glass.
Due to this feature, such heating structures are called channelless or bell-shaped.
The heated gases in them do not enter their mouths into the chimney, because they first go up under the ceiling, and when they cool down, they descend along the walls to the base.
From here they fall into the chimney and under the influence of traction are carried away to the atmosphere. One vertical incision is located across the firebox, and the second horizontal - along it.
Along the walls of the structure from the ceiling in the direction of the arch, there are buttresses designed to increase the internal surface of heat absorption and to better perceive the heat of the brick massif from the exhaust gases.
The fins heated by gases allow the stove to retain heat for a longer time.
The creation of this furnace is not difficult.
Its advantage is as follows:
- in the case when the smoke valve on the pipe is not tightly closed, the upper part of the device will not cool down from the cold air entering the firebox.
The air entering the fuel compartment through the slots in the ash and fuel door rises through the mouth. But since it is heavier than the hot gases in the cap, it immediately pours into the side channels and goes into the chimney. As a result, the entire portion under the heel is not subjected to cooling.
As for the drawbacks of the scheme of furnaces for a house of this design, the main one is the predominant heating of the upper part. In order to level this minus a little, it is necessary to arrange holes in the walls of the firebox in the 5th row of brickwork.
The stove functions perfectly on lean coal and anthracite. If the unit is heated with firewood, especially damp, the cracks between the buttresses will be clogged with soot. It will be rather difficult to clean them, because the clean-up doors are in the 8th row, which does not allow to completely fall into all the intervals of the buttresses, and then the smoke will get into the root pipe.
Channelless constructions created on the principle of free movement of gases make a rectangular or square shape.
The laying of the furnace created by the Thermal Engineering Institute
The schemes of furnaces for the home, developed at the Thermal Engineering Institute by engineer Kovalevsky, are 100x85x217 centimeters.
They use the firebox of mine type, intended for the use of coal.
Along the channel, flue gases fall under the ceiling, from where into the two side channels. Then they go to the bottom and are moved along the collecting duct to the smoke riser. If the smoke valve is open, then the gases are vented to the atmosphere.
The peculiarity of the furnace arrangement scheme lies in the different thickness of the walls of the smoke channels.
The first of them, coming from the firebox, is called the fire channel. It has an outer wall with a thickness of 3/4 bricks. The rest of its walls are laid in half-brick.
This heating structure does not fit into the iron casing. Its laying differs in simplicity.
The efficiency of the furnace engineer Kovalevsky is 75-80%. The disadvantage of the heat unit is the possibility of overheating its upper part, since the hottest gases are sent to it. Down the furnace they will get completely cooled, as a result of which the degree of heating of the lower part is insufficient.
A certain amount of gases from the firebox enters the side channels through the screws, which increases the heating of the lower part of the outer walls (read also: “Gas stove for the house - convenient heating”).
Smoke turns free from soot raids by cleaning them. The grate can be extended and thereby facilitate the care of the combustion chamber by lowering slag into the ash pan or steel box located under the grate. The smoke in the construction is diverted to the packed pipe.
To date, these brick kilns prefer to build the owners of country houses and suburban buildings.
In the struggle for fuel economy, and therefore money, improved designs began to appear.
Now there are a considerable number of different types of new heating devices, which can also be paid attention to.
An interesting diagram of the furnace for the house shown in the video:
How to fold a brick oven with your own hands
In thick joints, the mortar is chipped and the masonry becomes fragile. The solution should tightly fill the seam, squeezing out of it. During laying, we follow the rule for tying up bricks. Each vertical seam must overlap with the brick of the next top row.
Usually such a seam runs in the middle of the brick lying above. This, however, is not always possible to achieve. In some places you have to lay a brick so that the overlap is less than half the length of the brick. In any case, it must be at least a quarter of the length of the brick.
It is not recommended to place the fractions of the brick with the hewn or cut side inside the smoke channel. The disturbed surface is weakened and may collapse under the influence of high temperatures.
It is better to lay the furnace furnace out of fireclay bricks, since
It withstands higher temperatures. Dressing the seams of masonry from fireclay and kiln brick is not desirable because of the different coefficient of linear expansion.
Therefore, from fireclay bricks lay out either the whole row, or make the lining of the firebox on the edge. Between the lining and fireclay brick leave a gap of at least 5 mm.
Installation of clean and blowing doors
Before installing the door, we check for tightness of the blade to the frame, free rotation of the blade in the hinges, the absence of distortions, the possibility of fixing their closure and the presence of mounting holes in the masonry.
Defects are fixed before installation or replace the door.
В отверстия дверок вставляем вязальную проволоку длиной 50-60 см, сворачиваем ее вдвое и скручиваем.
На кирпичную кладку в месте установки дверки наносим раствор. Устанавливаем дверку, проверяем вертикальность и горизонтальность и фиксируем ее при помощи кирпичей.
Затем закладываем концы проволоки в швы кладки.
При установке печных приборов надо помнить, что чугун и кирпич при нагревании расширяются не одинаково.
This especially affects the behavior of devices installed in the high temperature zone. If they are sealed tightly into the stove, then when heated, the cast iron will tear the masonry. Therefore, the grate, furnace door and stove should be installed with gaps. The grate is laid without mortar with a gap of at least 5 mm on all sides. It must be freely removed for replacement in the event of a burnout or breakdown.
Installing the furnace door
The furnace door is installed, as well as the blower, only turns into asbestos to fill the temperature gap.
Check the verticality and horizontal doors and fix with bricks and boards.
With intensive use of the furnace wire can be burned off. To prevent this, the upper part of the door can be secured with a clamp. The clamps are made from strip steel with a section of 25x2.0 mm. Ears should protrude beyond the door frame at 100-120 mm.
Clamp is attached to the door with rivets or bolts and nuts.
The door is blocked by hanging half a brick from each side
or brick to the castle.
For an opening larger than 250 mm, the overlap is made with a wedge bar.
The row on which will be installed, the plate lay out first without a solution.
Put the plate on top and outline its location. Then we choose a groove in the brick, taking into account the temperature gap of 5 mm in all directions from the plate. We lay out a brick on the solution. We fill the groove with a solution, put the asbestos cord into it along the perimeter of the slab, lower the slab into place and lay it down with a mallet, making it horizontal.
The oven is also wrapped with asbestos around the perimeter and a half-brick width.
The side of the oven that goes to the firebox is laid out with a brick on the edge, and on top of it is covered with a layer of 25-30 mm mortar to prevent the walls of the oven from burning through.
Masonry arches and vaults
When laying stoves, it is often necessary to block various furnace holes, fireboxes and various chambers, using bridges of simple and complex shape. The overlap in the wall is called the arch, and the overlap between the walls is called the arch.
The number of bricks in the arch and rows in the vault should be odd. The average odd brick is castle.
Any jumper start with a bookmark heels that perform on the template. Since the height of the arch or vault is different, the heel angle changes.
Do not use one form of heel for all arches and vaults.
These photos show the installation of the circle and the laying of the arched ceiling of the barbecue firebox.
And the following photos show the laying of the arch to overlap a niche for firewood.
They say that it’s better to see once than to read 100 times, so especially for you I have prepared a video guide “Furnaces with my own hands”, which shows all the nuances of laying a brick kiln in a video format.
I define the basic rules for laying the stove, which may not even be known to the stove journalist or the person who decided to turn on the stove:
• The weight of the furnace with the pipe installed without foundation must not exceed 750 kg.
It is about 0.5 m of walls or 200 bricks.
If you lay the base of the slab, you should check the possibility of switching the chimney between the supporting beams in the attic and tile.
• The base of the furnace should not be tied to the base of the house, and the design of the furnace should not be covered with the supporting structures of the building.
You can allow them to be in places of excision and edema. This is done in order to avoid damage to the stove in case of uneven resettlement at home.
• Wooden elements of the house and smoke must be at least a quarter of a meter.
• If the stove does not need to be closed, the water for the wall solution must be potable or rainwater without salt, otherwise all salt on the surface of the brick will appear as a white coating.
• Sand for mortar should be used by the quarry (not the river), because the particles of river sand have a rounded surface, which makes the solution fragile.
• Stove and fireplace - brick column on clay mortar.
And even the smallest heels or side impacts from the supporting structures of domestic cracks are formed, which can cause a fire.
What to look for in the manufacture of brick bricks
Protect yourself and make sure that the oven lasts as long as possible - this is the main task, which is to build a solid base, horizontal wall and the verticality of the massage itself.
Therefore, after laying the foundation, the upper platform must be carefully planned. A layer of roofing felt is superimposed on it, 1-2 cm of sand is poured on top and leveled, and the first colorless brick is put. Repair the gasket and press the hammer on the protruding bricks. The horizontality of each line is checked using the level specified in the rule. The rectangle of the first line is checked by comparing the length of the diagonal.
When you place each line, check its flatness using the rule on the wall. After installing two types, to ensure the verticality of the furnace box, you need to pull the strings 1-3 mm thick at the corners of the wall.
The attachment points to the ceiling are determined by the tow line. Above, the water line is lowered in such a way that the weight falls to the top of the outer corner of the furnace. On the floor on the ceiling, from which the groove is lowered, the nail leans, a rope is attached to it. At the lower end, the second nail is tied and pulls the rope, we insert the nail under the corner brick of the first row so that the cable is strictly stretched along the corner.
Then the vertical of the rope is exposed to a tray, which bends the upper nail in the right direction. Therefore, repeat all four corners.
• The seams should be 5 mm thick. To do this, place the strips for laying along the edges of the seam, distribute the mortar, place the brick and place it in place with the impact of the handle. After drying the solution, remove the gaskets.
• Exterior walls should not have more than two kinds without stitching, otherwise cracks may occur.
• The proportion of bricks can be obtained with the help of the Bulgarian, and the wall should be minimized, since the brick is more susceptible to destruction.
• Parts of cigarettes are located close to the seams.
• In an area that changes the direction of the flow of a smoky bottom, the door is always defined as a hole for cleaning, or “brick ejection” that extends 5–10 mm from the wall is better, it is easier to understand than the necessary cleaning of the chimney.
• The gasket must be designed in such a way that the brick does not rely solely on the door frame or in the oven, and closes over them or is made with a wedge-shaped lock or a vaulted arch.
This is done to simplify the replacement of unsuccessful furnace equipment.
• Clips (narrow metal profiles), as well as other steel parts, should be used less, because the metal heats up longer than clay, and can no longer be destroyed by this coupling. To avoid this, place steel tapes loosely, without solution, or wrapped in a layer of asbestos.
The oven door, including the oven, is positioned so that it can be heated without affecting the wall. If you want to do this, you can use asbestos with a layer of 5 mm with which you come into contact with the vineyard.
• The grid and cast iron plate are laid with a minimum pitch of 5 mm on all sides so that they can be easily removed for replacement.
Place them without a solution (you can put a plate on the asbestos or asbestos layer) and fill the slots with sand.
• The grilles should be placed in the firebox under smoke of up to 70-150 mm so as not to fall out when the coal door is opened and were laid along the recesses of the firebox, and the ash will be difficult to clean the poker when cooking the furnace for subsequent ignition.
• Doors and corners should be fixed in the wall, which is screwed into the holes and steel wire with twin wires.
At the other ends of the twisting past the nail and pull the wire, hold it in the near vertical seam.
• The space between the oven and the side wall of the oven must be covered with bricks.
• The length of the chimney, regardless of the pipe frame, should not exceed 7 m, otherwise the draft will be insufficient and smoke will occur in the chimney.
• The walls of the chimney should be smooth and even.
To the solution in the chicken, the vertical channels do not get inside the furnace, and the foam plug is wrapped in a damp cloth and suspended inside the chimney on the wire.
Periodically remove and clean it, make a canopy out of the channel with a damp cloth.
• For fire safety, the distance from the oven ceiling to the ceiling should be at least 35 cm.
• For the same purpose, the overlap must consist of at least three types of continuous blocks.
• To protect the floor under the stove fireplace, place a metal heating sheet.
• The approximate ratio of the size of the fireplace inlet to the surface of the heated area is 1:70.
• The ratio of the cross-sectional area of a rectangular tube at a height of 5 m to the entrance to the fireplace should be about 13%, the height of the chimney 10 m - about 10%.
• In the case of the prevailing wind, a fire must be installed (or, as you call it, a smoke chamber, an umbrella on a pipe, a cap on a pipe).
Protects the oven from smoking in windy weather and protects it when it rains. Tags:
Since ancient times, brick has been used to build a stove. Thanks to modern technologies, it has become possible to use other building materials for these purposes.
Despite this, the brick remained at the leading position among all masonry materials, brick heaters are in great demand.
Many people build ovens for their own homes, as this process is quite simple.
For the construction of the furnace of brick with your own hands, you must have a small idea of the construction. It will not be difficult to put such a furnace, as it does not require further lining. (See also: brick stove)
For such work a small amount of tools is needed, namely:
Capacity for solution.
Types of brick ovens
Currently, there are certain types of heating furnaces bricks, some of which are intended for heating homes, others for the preparation of tasty and healthy homemade food, and others perform only decorative functions.
Also known models that perform several functions at once, these include a heating and cooking stove made of bricks. This type of furnace is also called “Swede”, and in some areas they are called “Dutch”.
Fireplaces are no less famous.
In this case, the opinions of different people are divided. Some believe that the fireplace should stand alone, others are completely satisfied with the built-in stove.
The second option is the most economical in terms of space and use of consumables. Such a furnace quickly warms up the room. In addition, the brick mini-furnace with their own hands does not require much knowledge and skills in construction.
So, it can become a decoration of absolutely any home.
A brick grill is a simple device, although it looks quite difficult. This oven can be used as an alternative to ordinary brazier.
Therefore, its construction in the yard of your own house will not be difficult. (See also: brick ovens for summer cottage)
It is important to remember: the order of brick furnaces belonging to a particular type, are very different from each other.
Requirements for ovens
Most of the sites that are devoted to this topic, set themselves the task of selling the already finished furnace project. And what do the people who decide to build a furnace on their own, but they do not have enough experience and knowledge to create projects of heating furnaces made of bricks.
In order to significantly facilitate your work, you need to understand what are the requirements for modern brick ovens.
It is worth noting that these parameters are used by professional architects in the drafting of absolutely all types of brick kilns. The list of requirements includes: (See also: Do-it-yourself construction of the furnace)
Ability to keep warm for a long time.
Compliance with fire safety regulations.
Good heating of the entire volume of the furnace.
Easy to operate.
Preparation for the construction of the furnace: determining the location
The laying of brick heating furnaces begins with the determination of its location, based on their purpose.
The heating stove is best placed in the center of the house, since if it is at least one side adjacent to the wall facing the street, its efficiency will be lost. In addition, undesirable temperature fluctuations may occur that negatively affect the life of the home. And also on the efficiency of the chimney.
The combined oven must be located in the same way as the heating one.
The only condition is that the brick firebox looked at the kitchen. A stove should be placed in the living room fireplace.
Preparation of the solution
Next, you need to make a cement mortar. For its preparation, clay is filled with water. However, it should be sifted in advance, without stones. This will make the laying more durable. (See also: Brick stove to give)
Important: properly prepared clay solution is a guarantee of the durability of the stove.
Soaked clay is mixed with the same amount of sand.
After that, water is poured into the container, the volume of which is equal to ¼ of the volume of clay. The solution must be thoroughly mixed so that there is not a single lump. The mortar should have a liquid consistency, so that when pressed on the brick it is squeezed out of the seam.
Before starting to put a brick on the mortar, it is recommended to produce dry masonry.
It is also recommended to pre-make jokes and podsovku, which not only saves time, but not to make mistakes during masonry, which must be done strictly according to the drawing.
ATTENTION: in no case is not allowed to take measurements on the eyes, as this can lead to disastrous results.
To keep the correct direction when laying, you need to check its verticality, ligation of the seams, the internal structure, the correctness of the seams and horizontal laying. (See also: How to put the stove)
Before you start using a brick, it is dipped in water for a few seconds. As a result, it will not absorb the moisture that clay emits.
When laying a brick, it is necessary to press it as hard as possible so that the solution is strongly extruded.
Thus, it is possible to achieve a more solid construction. Compact heating furnaces made of bricks require adherence to the thickness of the mortar due to its design features. It should be at least 3 and not more than 5 millimeters.
Excess solution is removed with a trowel, it will save it.
The oven door is secured with wire.
If this is neglected, there may be a backlash that will cause the door to fall out. For more secure fastening, the wire is inserted into the box and twisted in half. After this, it is required to make a slot in the upper edge of the brick block into which the wire will be inserted.
Important: the connectors must match the door box.
Even one millimeter gap should not be allowed to form.
At the end of the laying is required to dry the oven. To do this, open all windows and doors. The oven will dry completely only after 15 days. The fact that the stove is ready for use, shows the disappearance of all raw traces.
Detailed brick masonry instructions
After determining the location, the first row is put, on which a sheet of thick polyethylene film, roofing material or hydro-insol is placed further.
This is necessary for waterproofing devices. The size of the site should be 780 to 350 millimeters. After that, sand is sifted, which is then poured in a layer of one centimeter. To avoid the formation of projections, the ground is carefully leveled. Verification is carried out by building level.
Next, fit twelve bricks without the use of clay mortar.
In order not to be mistaken with the constructed structure, dry laying is also checked by the building level. At this most important series can be considered ready.
After that, the entire surface is filled with a thin layer of mortar and a blowing door is placed, which is to be wrapped with asbestos cardboard and cords made of the same material.
The door is secured by annealed wire, after which you can prepare for the formation of the next row.
The third row must be laid out of fireclay bricks, which is painted in yellow.
The grate fits on the same row. The fourth row fits on the edge. Also at this stage it is necessary to make special stands inside the chimney. It is worth noting that the bricks of the back wall are put without using a mortar.
Due to the fact that this space is made under the wells, which are called areas for the purification of the furnace from soot, they are called expelling.
A little later, the installation of the furnace door.
So that she could open from the bottom up, she was wrapped with asbestos cord, and then fixed with wire. For a while, it was supported by bricks. That it is established strictly vertically.
Далее начинается кладка пятого ряда, при этом необходимо держать ориентир на углы кладки, которая была сделана ранее. Кирпичи кладутся также на ребро. Это последний ряд, который укладывается таким образом.
Изготовление задней стенки осуществляется с помощью двух кирпичей, которые кладутся на ребро.
И уже с последующего ряда слой выкладывается, начиная с трех четверок.
Схема и кладка кирпичных печей
Это позволит выполнить более прочную перевязку швов.
On the eighth row, a mowed brick is being assembled, which acts as a smoke tooth. The ninth row must be moved back a little to provide support during door opening. Before installing the hob, install asbestos cord, which is pre-soaked in water. From the same row a chimney is formed, which should expand into the fuel chamber.
Next, a valve is installed, which, like the other doors, is fixed with asbestos material, which is pre-lubricated with liquid clay.
This is done in order to prevent the passage of smoke into the room. At the very end of the chimney is mounted, which must be docked with a metal pipe. If it is shifted to the side, an overlap of three rows of bricks is required.
At the end of the work, the inside of the stove is cleaned of clay and water through the bricks.
A piece carved out of polyethylene material is put on the hob. This is done in order to further avoid the appearance of yellowness. On this brick stove is ready. We must not forget that it will be possible to use it only after it dries completely.
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How do order drawings help lay out brick ovens for your home?
- The laying of the red oven brick.
- Masonry refractory (fireclay) brick.
- Fireplace door.
- The blower door.
- Metal tank for hot water.
- Metal bunker for bath stones.
A drawing of the furnace, where its dimensions are indicated.
The furnace inside the stove is made of heat-resistant refractory bricks. The gap between the red and refractory bricks is 15 ... 20 (mm). Behind the firebox, at the level of the grate, a metal water tank is installed.
A metal bunker is placed on top of the firebox, into which stones with a slide are laid. The presented construction with an open stove quickly heats the steam room, and if the stones have cooled, you can burn fuel while taking bath procedures.
- red brick, 65 x 120 x 250 (mm) - 181 (pcs.)
- refractory refractory brick, 65 x 114 x 230 (mm) - 72 (pcs.)
- clay - 60 (kg)
- refractory clay - 35 (kg)
- sand - 32 (kg)
- smoke valve - 140 x 270 (mm)
- furnace door - 250 x 205 (mm)
- double door - 250 x 135 (mm)
- cast iron grate - 250 x 252 (mm)
- water tank - 250 x 555 x 760 (mm), stainless steel sheet with a thickness of 3 (mm)
- Stone bunker - 260 x 320 x 350 (mm), stainless steel sheet 3 (mm) thick
- square metal mesh, wire diameter 2 (mm), cell size 15 ... 20 (mm)
Masonry stove stoves for bath designs E.Ya.
1st row. Brick masonry is brought to the level of the floor or above it.
2nd row. Install the door blew, begin laying of refractory bricks, while strictly adhere to the rules of dressing bricks.
3rd row. According to the order.
4th row. Lay the door blew three bricks, whose faces are cut at an angle, as shown in the figure.
5th row. In refractory bricks, grooves are cut out and a grate is installed in them.
6th row. Put the door of the furnace and install a metal tank for hot water.
Odd rows of red brick masonry, tied with a strip of welded square metal mesh.
At the corners, a strip of mesh is bent at an angle of 90 °.
The width of the slot under the grate should be 5 ... 8 (mm) larger than the outer dimensions of the grid.
7th and 8th row. According to the order.
9th row. Lay the door of the furnace with three bricks, whose faces are cut at an angle.
10, 11, 12th row. According to the order.
13th row. According to the order.
14th row. Lay the metal tank for hot water and set the metal hopper for stones.
Drawing of a metal bin for stones.
15, 16 row. According to the order.
17 row In the bricks cut the grooves and install the valve in them.
18 row. Closes the smoke valve.
Drawings of the furnace for a bath of brick design E.Ya.
Kolomakina and the ordering scheme are discussed in the presented material.
The time of heating water and stones is 150 ... 180 (min.)
In the next article, you can get acquainted with the device of a bath stove with a heat exchanger.