The characteristic and description of the variety of tomato Marusia says that we are dealing with a medium-early variety of German selection, widely distributed throughout the world. The Russians loved him for his unpretentiousness and excellent taste.
It is undemanding to the conditions for cultivation: it can be cultivated both in northern latitudes in the shelter and in the south - in open areas, and he is not afraid of even severe temperature drops during day and night hours, which is good news for many amateur gardeners.
The plant belongs to the determinant and reaches no more than 1 m in height. Judging by the description of tomato Marusya, he begins to bear fruit within 110 days after the formation of the first leaflets.
As a rule, the bush is formed in 1 or 2 stems, removing all stepchildren to the first brush with flowers. In the northwestern regions, Marusia tomatoes can already be eaten at the end of July, when they will acquire an intense red color and thickly rivet the shrub, hiding behind some fresh greenery in some places.
Fruits reach 80–90 g in weight. One to one, they are well suited for canning, but also in salads they perfectly reveal all their qualities. Here are the characteristic advantages and disadvantages of the variety Tomato:
- Stable high yield - 6.5–7 kg per 1 sq. M.
- High resistance to temperature extremes, drought and diseases - verticillus and fusarium wilt.
- Another important advantage is that the variety is not a hybrid, which means it is possible to collect seeds and use them to grow the fruits of the tomato Maroussia.
- It tolerates long-term transportation.
- Of the disadvantages can be identified only one - a short period of fruiting. It lasts only 30–45 days.
Growing tips and tricks
The peculiarity of seeds purchased in a specialty store is that they do not need to be disinfected, but if you purchased them from your hands, it is better to disinfect them to ensure their good immunity and increase the yield of tomato marus, as evidenced by numerous reviews.
For 50–55 days before transferring to the soil, deepen them in a special soil consisting of 2 parts of turf soil, the same amount of humus and 1 part of sand, not forgetting to sprinkle them on top. Observing all the conditions for growing, wait until 2 leaves appear and dive into pots.
As soon as the threat of frost has passed, transfer it to the open ground, planting plants at a distance of 60 cm from each other. A week before planting, do not forget to add potash and phosphate fertilizers to the soil. Do not forget about the treatment of plants against pests.
Konfidor will help to cope with the whitefly, and soil treatment with a mixture of lime, ash and tobacco dust will relieve the slugs. In general, diseases and pests of such tomatoes are not terrible, but only if you follow the rules and foundations of cultivation, water and fertilize the soil in time, loosen it, and bring in mulch.
For prophylaxis, spraying with phytosporin with whey, iodine and wood ash can be performed. This will protect plants from late blight. Spraying with soapy water will bring great benefits. This is such an interesting and good variety. Interested in an article? Hurry up to share it with your acquaintances and friends in social networks!
Performance, Characteristics and Parameters
The fruit plant is a deciduous shrub, the size of which reaches from 50 to 100 cm. It does not require tying, as is usually done with other tomatoes. Tomatoes grow almost like grapes: they are interconnected, which resembles a bunch of grapes - 10 tomatoes each. This distinguishes tomatoes "Maroussia" from others, gives it some originality. This variety has high resistance to fusarium wilt and verticillus.
Escape has one or two. Good foliage, leaflets rich green color. The inflorescences have the usual structure, the first tassel of the flower is formed at the height of the sixth - seventh leaf and then alternately after each one leaf or two. Faceliness during flowering and fruiting does not darken the ovary, but protects them from sunburn.
Tomatoes are red fruits similar to the shape of a plum. The mass of one tomato is 60-80 g. Each tomato has 2-3 chambers in structure. The fruits themselves are dense, are composed of a lot of dry matter. Their taste is soaked, the surface is hard, not thick, they rarely crack and do not fall from the bushes before gathering.
In general, the tomato "Marusya" does not look like a standard bush or a hybrid. One square meter of growing varieties is not excluded that give up to 7.5 kg of tomatoes. In the northwestern side, the first fruiting is already brewing on July 28-30, attributed to the mid-early sample. The harvest usually stops at the end of the summer season. Medium early (110 days), determinant - after the formation of the main stem, the plant growth ceases - the variety “Marusya” is grown on open ground and in film greenhouses.
In the fresh form they use it just like that, also in salads, soups, stews and other dishes, they make tomato paste, ketchup and drinks from them. Still small volumes of tomatoes are dried (dried).
The advantages of the variety "Marussia":
- stable to diseases, especially to fungal infections - Fusarium and verticillous wilt,
- without doubt, experiencing daytime and nighttime temperature differences, including heat,
- constant yield, high density of vegetables,
- calmly withstands long transportation
- fresh can be stored for a long time
- fits infinitely in the interest of salting,
- corresponds to the masterly nursing, and also sells well in stores,
- drought resistant
- bears fruit with insufficient care or adverse weather changes,
- excellent in taste and appearance,
- does not fall from the bushes to the harvest,
- no need to tie up.
Among the shortcomings can be noted only a small period of fruiting - not more than one and a half months.
We must remember that these tomatoes do not pass on the seeds, they are bought every time before planting.
Seeds are purchased in stores. Before sowing, sunflower seeds are best disinfected in a light composition of potassium permanganate for 15-20 minutes. From time to time a solution is prepared, which includes “artisanal” medicines, aloe liquid and water. But the best anti-infective biological remedy "Fitosporin" (4 drops in a cup of water). Prepared seeds, put in cheesecloth, wrap and leave in the solution for 24 hours.
Before disinfecting seeds, it is also necessary to carry out an “inventory”, taking away seeds that will germinate and which will not. To do this, take a vessel with water, add a pinch of salt, pour the seeds out of the bag. Stir liquid and wait 5-7 minutes. Seeds that float to the surface are discarded, they are hollow.
Messing around with seedlings
The method for growing need to choose a seedling. Good time for sowing - 50-55 days before planting in the ground.
Prepare boxes or special cassettes, in them impose a special soil: one part of sand, two parts of humus and sod land. The temperature should be at least 16 degrees.
Land for seedlings, accumulated in the street, also disinfected. Watered with boiling water or potassium permanganate divorce. But such procedures are harmful because they destroy all the existing microflora - unkind and beneficial.
In this regard, it is better to take the soil at the supermarket, or to do such procedures two weeks before planting, so that the soil cools down well.
The prepared container is filled for 2/3 of the prepared ground. Then plant the seeds and sprinkle them on top. If they are planted in cassettes, then one seed is placed in one recess, in boxes they are planted side by side at a distance of 2-4 cm apart. Then cover with foil and put in a warm, sunny place.
Some people do not take time to grow seedlings, and buy ready-made. But by mistake you can buy the wrong kind of tomatoes that you want. It is difficult or almost impossible to distinguish the varieties of tomatoes in seedlings, but they are still distinguished by the height of a laid flower brush. Buying ready seedlings can be justified, since the seeds themselves are not expensive hybrids are not cheap.
Caring for the first germination
The first sprouts can be seen after the 6 days passed after sowing. As the sprouts appear, the seedlings are left uncoated for 2 hours, then the time increases every day. While the seedlings just do not get stronger, it can not be watered. It feeds on moisture through the superficial spraying of the earth, otherwise the seed will deepen or be damaged. The temperature must be monitored so that it is low, the seedlings will quickly stretch into growth, and transplantation will not be easy for her.
In sprout, two leaves appear, which means it can be transplanted into separate pots. You can do this with great care, in the hope of not breaking the roots, with a teaspoon.
Seedlings hardened before planting. Do it for 2-3 weeks. Pots or cups with sprouts carried out on the street in the afternoon for a quarter of an hour, increase the duration of presence on the street, even in non-warm time. Repeat until the seedlings begin to stand the night.
Prior to planting, it is necessary to inquire about the weather, as even small frosts can destroy the seedlings. After the end of the frost planted in the ground. The emergence of the first flower indicates the planting. If it is still quite cold outside, and the first flowers began to appear, carefully cut them off. Thus, the transplant will slow down.
Before you start to grow seedlings, it is necessary to create necessarily fertilizing the land for the week with a complete mineral fertilizer with the addition of useful elements: phosphorus and potassium. “Marusya” will feel comfortable on loam and sandstone with an intermediate reflex (pH level within 5-6, not more than 6.5). And also at the time of planting tomatoes subacidism of the earth is of great importance.
Vegetable should be planted at a distance of 60 cm between the bushes, 70-80 cm between rows. There is such a planting scheme - spacious beds: between rows should be at least one and a half meters, and the bushes are planted more closely. Many believe that you can expect more of a rich harvest. And the places left between the beds can be planted next year, so the soil will rest.
This variety loves moisture, but will not tolerate water retention. Water with some cold water. So that the soil or the soil around the tomatoes does not dry out, after a little watering, plow slightly. Plants of tomato varieties "Marusya" branches a little, but to increase the yield, some gardeners cut off the side processes.
All tomatoes eat well. Therefore, they need to be fed from time to time. Suitable organics - bird droppings, mullein, yeast. After this food, minerals are used: phosphate, potash, nitrogen. For example, a mixture of ammonium nitrate (25 g), potassium salt (15 g), boric acid (1 g), superphosphate (60 g). True, it is better to stop adding nitrogen, since it forms an extra green mass, and it takes away strength from the tomato, which, of course, reduces fertility.
Pests and diseases
As a rule, the tomato “Marusya” almost does not fall ill with many different diseases, including late blight. Recall that tomatoes of this sort do not have cracks, but still, if they are improperly watered, you will notice cracks. You need to configure the correct adjustment of watering, and then everything will be fine.
There is such a pest as whitefly. Get rid of it will help medicine "Confidor." It happens that the crop is attacked by slugs. In such a situation, it is necessary to recycle the land around the bushes with a composition of tobacco dust, ash and lime. Well, if you meet a spider mite, then use the drug “Malophos”, spray it on the bushes according to the instructions.
After which vegetables can you plant a Marusya tomato?
The beds on which you decided to plant tomatoes, it is best to plant peas first. His green mustaches and chaff will very well fill the soil with nitrogen, which is very necessary for the favorable lifting of tomatoes. Peas are mainly planted to supplement fertilizer, apply as mulch and attach to liquid fertilizer.
The list of the best predecessor vegetables:
- squash, squash,
- cabbage of all varieties (white, red, Peking, broccoli, Peking, etc.),
- cucumbers, exotic too (African, Mexican, serpentine, Antillean, red and others),
- pumpkins of all varieties,
It is not recommended to plant tomatoes in the beds where there have been peppers (sweet, capsicum), eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes.
Fruit assembly and shelf life
Naturally, we collect red tomatoes. Only with the advent of cold pores need to quickly collect all the tomatoes before the frost. Otherwise, the fruits will spoil. Collected green fruits will turn red in the room. Green tomatoes are allowed to use in the preparation for the winter.
Variety "Marusya" has a strong skin, but still the shelf life of red tomatoes - 10 days, green - from three weeks to two months. Tomatoes are not recommended to be stored in the refrigerator, but should be kept in places with temperatures of 20 degrees and above.
- use plastic or wood crates
- keep in a dry place
- place the tomatoes up "ass" one layer, between them put peat, dry sawdust,
- put boxes in warm places
- before laying clean pedicel.
Culture refers to the determinant mind. Bushes have a very neat and compact look. These tomatoes will be a real decoration of the garden. In height, they can reach 50-60 cm. In rare cases, Marusya-type tomatoes grow to 1 m.
The branches are slightly raised, the foliage is light green in color, the stalks are strong and powerful despite their small size. One of the benefits of this tomato is its ease of care. The plant due to its compactness does not require additional support, does not require tying and pinching. Variety of tomato Marusya refers to mid-season species. The first harvest is carried out in 100-115 days after the first shoots.
The fruits of tomato Marousi description have the following:
- Fruit shape plum-shaped, slightly elongated.
- The color of the tomatoes is bright red, without any stains or patches around the stem.
- Their rind is thick and glossy. Fruits are not prone to cracking.
- The weight of one tomato on average is 60-80 g.
- Inside there are 3 chambers with a small amount of seeds.
- On one brush can form up to 7-8 fruits.
- Fruiting varieties have a long - from the second half of July until the end of the season.
- Productivity is high. On average, 7 kg of tomatoes are removed from one adult bush.
- Tastes high enough. Tomatoes present acid and sweetness at the same time. Fruits can be used universally. They are ideal for preserving, preparing fresh salads and a variety of tomato products. Due to these qualities, tomatoes have a good demand in the vegetable markets.
- The harvest can be stored for a long time in a cool and dry place. Fruits can be safely transported over long distances. They are quite dense and do not lose their presentation for a long time.
Grow a grade Maroussia on the site under the force even a beginner. The plant is unpretentious in the care and resistant to various fungi and pests. The tomato is not demanding to the soil, but this does not mean at all that it does not need fertilizer and top dressing.
The method of growing this type of nightshade is seedling. When purchasing seeds, you should pay attention to the information on the package. In it, the manufacturer of the seed gives recommendations on the cultivation and care of the plant.
Seedlings begin to grow from late February - early March. For sowing seeds take the appropriate capacity. Many gardeners prefer to use wooden boxes or special containers for seedlings.
Before planting, Maroussia seeds can be processed with a growth stimulator and a weak solution of manganese. This will allow to disinfect the planting material and activate growth in it.
There is a considerable variety of seed treatment methods before planting, in which both vegetable and chemical components are used.
The soil for planting tomatoes should be light and loose. Many gardeners prepare it themselves by mixing peat, soil and sand in equal proportions. Planted seeds to a depth of no more than 2 cm.
The container with seedlings is stored in a warm room where the temperature does not fall below +20 ° C. As soon as the first shoots break through, the box is transferred to the sunlight, most often the most convenient place is window sills or heated loggias.
After 15-20 days the seedlings need to dive. To do this, you can use ordinary plastic cups or peat pots. Planting material needs to be watered and fed in time with a chlorine-free water-soluble complex fertilizer. This will help the young shoots to form a healthy root system and gain the necessary trace elements for growth.
On open beds, seedlings are planted with the onset of warm weather and the absence of frost at night.
For 1 m² have 3-4 bushes. The wells are best to immediately mulch and pour with warm water. Первую подкормку осуществляют через 10 дней после посадки. До появления первой завязи плодов нужно произвести профилактическую обработку против грибков и вредителей.
Описание томата Маруся
Tomato Marusya entered into the state register and is sold in specialized stores. Due to its characteristics and taste, it is grown not only in individual farms, but also on an industrial scale.
Tomato Marusya refers to the determinant, its bushes stop growing after the ovary of the fruit. The variety is non-hybrid. The term of ripening of tomatoes from 105 to 110 days, it is classified as a variety of medium early term, which ripens by the third decade of July. It is necessary to take into account the climate of the growing region of Marousi, because of which the dates may shift by 5-10 days. The description and photo of tomato Marusia can be obtained not only from online sources, but also on the cover of seed packaging.
The stem of Tomato is strong, it is formed into 1-2 stems, medium-root sprout growing from 50 cm to 100 cm. The plant looks decorative.
The leaves are dark green, pubescent, dissected into large lobes, pinnate, emit a strong tomato flavor. A stalk with leaves is formed not only along the stem, but also covers the brush with fruits, protecting it from sunburn.
On the branches are formed small, yellow flowers in the hands of 4-8 pcs. The first is formed at the level of the sixth leaf, then in the sinus of each subsequent leaf.
Fruits of tomatoes Marusya - plum-shaped, as in the photo, bright red color, fragrant, collected in a neat brush. They do not come off after ripening, firmly attached to the stem on the bush. Tomato weight Marousi from 60 gr. up to 100 grams, the size of the fruit is medium. The skin is dense, but not rough, the middle is juicy and fleshy. Inside they are divided into 2-3 chambers, contain a lot of dry substances, therefore they have a long shelf life and are well transported.
Yield and fruiting
Due to its quality characteristics from 1 square. m. can be collected from 6 to 8 kg of ripe fruit. To increase yields, pasynkovanie, which allows you to remove from one bush to 2 kg of fruit.
Variety of tomato Marusya bred for cultivation in the open field, greenhouses. In the southern regions maturation occurs in mid-July. In the Western and Northern regions - the end of July. Fruiting lasts about one month.
Scope of fruit
Tomato Marusya is used to make salads, tomato paste, canning in general, to make tomato juice. They are consumed fresh and cooked together with other ingredients (baked, fried, boiled).
Resistance to diseases and pests
During the tests of the characteristics of the variety, it was revealed and a description was made that the tomato Marusya tolerates temperature fluctuations, and even during long rains, bad weather conditions are rarely affected by viruses and fungi.
Verticillary wilting can spread quickly throughout the bush, starting with the lower yellowing and withering leaves. To this disease, the tomato showed high immunity, as well as to fusarium.
The variety has moderate immunity to late blight (brown rot).
Fruits and bushes of Marousi are rarely attacked by spider mites and slugs, only with strong constant humidity. It is easy to deal with this problem by laying around a layer of sand, sawdust and making drainage grooves.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Advantages of planting and growing varieties of tomato Marusya:
- fruits do not crack or fall off,
- during transportation does not deteriorate,
- has a high-quality, beautiful presentation,
- fruits of long shelf life
- tomatoes are suitable for salting and canning, the skin does not crack when boiling water is poured,
- the variety is resistant to temperature changes and diseases,
- has a rich tomato flavor and strong aroma.
The disadvantages of cultivated varieties include:
- need for garters due to heavy brushes, but not always,
- a short period of fruiting, before the end of summer gives the entire crop,
- you need to pinch to the first brush, then the yield increases.
Soil for tomato should be rich in organic matter, light, breathable. For its preparation take sand 1 part, 2 parts of turf land, peat, ash and rotted manure in 1 part. All mix and fill cups 2/3 (plastic, peat, or box), watered the ground with warm water. Seeds are laid out in 1-3 pieces. in a glass or sown in rows in a box, sprinkled with a mixture of soil for 1-2 cm. From the top of the container, cover with glass or plastic wrap and put in heat. After 4-7 days, after germination provide good daylight, exposing the seedlings on the window sill or under special lamps.
Before planting, the seeds are stratified, keeping 1-2 days in wet gauze in the refrigerator. Sowing seeds carried out for 50-60 days before planting seedlings in the ground or greenhouse since February.
A pick is needed after the appearance of 2-3 leaves, in separate containers with prepared soil.
Tomato transplantation takes place in late April - early May, depending on the region, the warmer, the earlier. On 1 square. m. 6-9 plants are planted at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other, between rows - 50-70 cm. It should be transplanted when the ground warmed to 18-20 ° C. The procedure is carried out in the evening.
- Dig holes 15 cm deep, 10-15 cm in diameter, put a layer of humus on the bottom and pour with warm water.
- When the water is absorbed, plant one plant in each well, before it pinch off the edge of the main root, so the lateral roots will grow better and the stem of the tomato will grow stronger.
Aftercare for tomatoes
In the care of the tomato Marusya unpretentious, but to increase the yield should be pasyonie up to 6-7 leaf. Watering is carried out 1 time in 2 days, every day - in dry weather before the formation of fruits, after which the amount of watering is reduced to 2-3 times a week. For irrigation, use settled water heated to the sun or add fertilizers (1 matchbox of saltpeter per 10 liters of water) during the period of formation, growth of stems and shoots. When fruits are formed, they mulch the soil with hay, sawdust, organic fertilizers.
For growing a rich harvest and preventing diseases, the soil around tomato is loosened (1-2 times a week) and weeds are removed.
Proper care involves tying bushes when the first brushes with fruits are formed. Strong supports are prepared in advance, which need to be gently pressed at a distance of 5-8 cm from the bush, so as not to damage the root system and tie it up with an elastic or soft rope, but not tighten it so that the stem does not pass during further growth.
Tomato Marusya is one of the popular varieties grown in Russia, and in the post-Soviet space on an industrial scale and on the dacha plots. Due to its qualitative characteristics, it is appreciated by farmers and gardeners.
It’s worth starting with the fact that “Marussia” is just a variety, not a hybrid, and for those who understand the difference, a lot has already been said.
Important!The variety is derived by long and painful artificial selection of the best of the best of its kind. Hereditary traits in such plants are firmly fixed (if, of course, to exclude the possibility of cross-pollination), and therefore such crops can be grown from seeds obtained from the previous harvest. A hybrid is a quick and, as a rule, a very successful result of crossing two different varieties, absorbing all the best from their parents. These plants always compare favorably with varietal plants in many respects, except for one thing: their excellent properties are not transferred “by inheritance,” which means that the seeds will need to be bought every time.
“Marusya” received official recognition in 2007, when this child of Russian breeders passed state registration as a variety of tomatoes recommended for cultivation in private homestead farms, as well as on an industrial scale, both in open ground and under film. The variety is suitable for almost all regions of the middle zone. The bush is low, from 50 cm to 1 m, determinant (growth stops after reaching a certain size), standard, that is, not needing a garter. Main escape one, sometimes two. Leaves of usual type, have saturated green color, foliage is good, during flowering and fruiting does not create an extra shade of ovaries, but at the same time protects them from possible sunburn.
To determinant varieties also include tomatoes "Katyusha F1", "Riddle", "Rio Fuego", "Klusha", "Star of Siberia", "Raspberry Giant".
The inflorescences are simple, the first flower brush is formed at the level of the sixth and seventh leaves and then after each leaf or two.
Gardeners and gardeners who have experience in growing a variety note its advantages such as:
- abundant and friendly fruiting,
- resistance to sudden temperature fluctuations
- drought tolerance,
- heat resistance
- the ability to get good yields under adverse weather conditions and inadequate care,
- high external and taste characteristics of fruits,
- the ability of the fruit to keep on the branches for a long time and firmly
- good crop yield
- no problems with the garter,
- resistance to tomato-like fungal infections, such as verticillous wilt (wilt) and fusarium.
- relatively short period of fruiting (not more than one and a half months),
- not very low yield.
Fruit characteristics and yield
In terms of maturity of the harvest, “Marusya” should be attributed to medium-early varieties: the first fruits appear approximately three and a half months after the sprouting of the seedlings, for a temperate zone this is approximately the end of July.
Fruits are plum-shaped, have medium size (60-80 g each) and a beautiful bright red color. Grow large brushes, up to ten tomatoes in each. Thus, up to 2 kg of crop can be harvested from each bush per season, which, taking into account the recommended planting scheme, is about 7 kg per square meter. m. Such indicators can not be called a record, because, according to the existing classification, high-yielding varieties of tomatoes involve picking at least 3 kg of fruit from a bush, but are compensated by other benefits of the variety.
Did you know?Wild tomatoes (they are still preserved in South America, where this plant comes from) have very tiny fruits - their weight does not exceed 1 g. For comparison: cherry tomatoes, which are considered the smallest, weigh 10 grams or more.
A tomato has two or three chambers with a small number of seeds. The flesh is sweet and quite juicy, at the same time, the high content of dry substances in tomato ensures its good transportability and long-term storage. A moderately dense skin protects the fruit from cracking, which, together with the correct and identical shape, makes these “cream” optimal for pickling and salting.
We recommend to learn how to plant tomatoes according to the Terekhins method.
However, the excellent taste qualities of Marusya tomatoes make it possible to use them in a variety of ways - to use fresh, whole or in a salad, add to soups, stews and other dishes, twist them into tomato paste, ketchup or juice. In addition, the small size and plum shape of these tomatoes are ideal for drying (curing).
Selection of seedlings
Not every summer resident has the opportunity to grow seedlings on their own. For this, at least, you need a suitable place. Fortunately, there are people who are ready to take on this work, in other words, you can buy ready-made seedlings. In this case, however, you will have to be content with a much more limited variety selection, in addition, there is a risk of buying the wrong tomato that was announced. And yet, when it comes to annual vegetables, especially not a hybrid, the seeds of which are very expensive, and therefore the temptation to replace them with “something simpler” is very large, buying ready-made seedlings is quite justified.
Important!Do not deceive yourself: it is impossible to determine the variety of tomato by the appearance of the seedlings! At best, we can talk about the differences between tall (indeterminant) and short growing (determinant) plants, but even in this case, the only reliable indicator is the height of the flower brush.
Hence the advice. If you are not sure of the honesty of the seller, do not focus on the variety, just choose healthy seedlings, following the following rules:
- all seedlings should be about the same size,
- bushes must be strong (the optimum thickness of the stem - 4-5 mm, this is about the diameter of a pencil),
- The maximum height of young tomatoes is 30 cm, preferably less.
- the number of these leaves is from six to eight (for the indeterminant varieties, other norms apply),
- leaf color is dark green without any signs of yellowness and dryness, including cotyledon leaves,
- well, if the bush already has the first flower sprig (among other things, it is possible to judge about the variety of tomatoes in the place of its placement),
- all parts of the bush should be completely intact, no broken branches and torn leaves, especially signs of rot, mildew, wrinkling, blackened stem (do not forget to look at the leaves on the inside, this is where the “traces” of the pests are often hidden)
- it is better if the seedlings are sold in individual cups.
VIDEO: HOW TO CHOOSE A QUALITY CROWNYou can not buy:
- too high seedlings (it will be hard to settle down after transplantation),
- actively flowering seedlings, especially with ovaries (during the flowering period, the plant should already be in a permanent place in order to “concentrate” on preparing for fruit set),
- plants with very long branches (they were most likely grown in heat, which means that they are weakly hardened and can die when there is a sudden cold snap, which is very likely in the spring),
- too lush seedlings with bright emerald leaves, sometimes twisted down (this is an indicator of stimulation with nitrates, such plants later form a lot of green mass, but they give a low yield),
- pale, sprawling seedlings with yellowed leaves.
The non-compliance of the above criteria with at least one plant is grounds for completely abandoning the purchase of any item from the seller. One of the common mistakes is to choose healthy plants according to the “best of the worst” principle. The problems that manifest themselves in one bush will surely appear on others. But later.
Soil and fertilizer
“Marusya” will best feel on sandstone or loam with a neutral reaction (pH level is within 5-6, but not higher than 6.5).
When planting plants, the acidity of the soil plays an important role. If you do not know what level of soil acidity in your area, we advise you to familiarize yourself with the ways to determine it.The best predecessors for tomato are:
- cabbage, and any of its types (red, white, cauliflower, Beijing, broccoli, etc.),
- cucumbers, including exotic varieties (Mexican, Antilles, African, serpentine, red, etc.),
- squash or squash,
- pumpkin - all kinds
- green onions
If there is an opportunity to give a bed a rest, having grown siderats on it, use it surely! Peas are best suited for this purpose: its green shoots and cleaver perfectly enrich the soil, saturating it with nitrogen, which is necessary for good growth of tomatoes. Sometimes peas are even specially planted in order to subsequently lay in the compost, use as mulch or add to liquid fertilizer.
Important!Tomatoes should not be planted after any crops of the Solanaceae family (eggplant, potatoes, pepper (sweet and chilli), tomatoes).
To get the most out of the land for tomatoes it is best to cook in the fall. To do this, you need to dig up the bed and make a tab of organic fertilizers - compost or rotted manure.
In the spring just before planting, it will only be necessary to supplement the “composition” with the necessary mineral additives, focusing on the potash and phosphorus components.
Tomatoes are heat-loving crops that need very good lighting. The less shaded area will be selected for this plant, the faster the tomatoes will gain its bright red color and the sweeter their flesh will be.
Temperature "addictions" in this variety of tomatoes are as follows:
- to start seed germination the air must warm up to + 14-16 ° C,
- The best seedlings are formed in the range of +12 to +15 ° C at night and from +20 to +25 ° C during the day,
- optimal performance for cultivation in open ground - + 18-20 ° C at night and + 20-25 ° C during the day,
- the bush stops growing if the temperature drops to +10 ° C,
- flowering and fruiting cannot develop normally when the air temperature is below +15 ° C or above +35 ° C,
- if the thermometer drops to zero, the plant in the open ground may die,
- besides, tomatoes do not like the differences between day and night temperatures (“Marusya” in this sense shows particular stability, but only in comparison with some other varieties).
Growing from seed to seedlings at home
Growing tomato seedlings at home is troublesome, but fascinating and very rewarding. It is important to strictly follow the main rules, and “Marussia” will respond to you with friendly and confident growth.
Check out the best varieties of pink and yellow tomatoes.
Tomato seedling develops quite quickly, so it is very important that by the time of planting it does not reach too large sizes. Experts advise starting the process 60 days before the proposed landing in open ground, but this period may be too long. It all depends on how favorable are the conditions for the growth of seedlings. If you can provide seedlings with optimal temperature conditions and plenty of sun, it’s better to postpone a couple of weeks.
On average, you should focus on the end of February - the beginning of March.
Quality material and proper seed preparation is half the success.
Seeds for seedlings can be prepared independently, but it is better to purchase them in a good specialty store, where the material has been carefully selected and properly prepared. But even in this case, before sowing seeds should be strengthened and protected from possible infections. The classic method of disinfection is keeping seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15-20 minutes. (sometimes they use diluted with water in equal proportions aloe juice and other disinfectants of “handicraft production”), but it is much more effective to use modern biological preparations, such as, for example, “Fitosporin”.
Find out what dosage of the drug "Fitosporin-M" should be used for the treatment of garden crops.This method of processing does not conflict with those that could be used by the seed producer (in contrast to the same aloe juice); in addition to the usual disinfection, it has a general stimulating effect on the future plant and significantly increases its yield.
To prepare the solution, 4 drops of Fitosporin are used per glass of water. Prepared seeds are wrapped in gauze and dipped in solution for a day. After that, they need to be planted immediately, because the soaking has started the process of “spelling”, and if the seed does not fall into the ground in the near future, the embryo will die.
Before disinfecting seeds, it is also useful to carry out their “inventory”, rejecting those specimens that still do not germinate. To do this, just pour the contents of the bag into a glass of water, to which a pinch of salt has been previously added. Shake the liquid thoroughly and wait 5-7 minutes. All seeds that after the specified time will remain on the surface, you can safely throw away - they are empty. Subsequent work is carried out only with those specimens that have fallen to the bottom.
Content and location
The best packaging for growing seedlings - special cassettes, sold in abundance in specialized stores. If this is not possible, you can use ordinary wooden or cardboard boxes with a depth of 7-10 cm, but it is less convenient to work with them.
Get acquainted with the peculiarities of growing seedlings in peat tablets.
For the subsequent picking, in any case, a larger individual container is required. Ideally, peat cups, which are planted in the ground along with a bush, will be used as such, which eliminates damage to the roots and minimizes the plant's stress from changing the place of residence. But it is quite expensive (especially if there are many seedlings), so you can use regular disposable cups and other containers of similar size.
Optimal conditions for growing tomato seedlings suggest:
- maximum of natural lighting, and if it is not there - lighting up with the help of special lamps,
- abundant moisture
- a sufficient amount of heat (optimal performance was indicated above).
Did you know?The record for growing tomatoes is China. The Celestial Empire accounts for about 16% of the total tomato crop produced in the world.
Seed planting process
For the cultivation of tomato seedlings, you can purchase ready-made soil mixture (universal or specially for seedlings), in this case no preliminary treatment is required for it. If you dug up the earth somewhere on the street, it, like the seeds, must first be decontaminated. To do this, you can pour it with boiling water or a solution of the same potassium permanganate (some prefer to ignite the soil in the oven). Such procedures have one major drawback: they kill the entire microflora, both harmful and useful. Therefore, it is better to still acquire the soil in the store or, in extreme cases, carry out soil disinfection at least two weeks before sowing the seeds, allowing the soil to stand in a cool place.
The seeding process is as follows. The prepared cassettes or boxes are filled with soil for 2/3, wet seeds are carefully laid out on its surface (you can use a knife or a toothpick), after which a thin layer of earth is poured.
Cassettes are convenient because one seed is placed in each cell. If a box is used, the seeds are laid out in rows with a gap of 2-4 cm apart.
VIDEO: SEED FOR SEEDS From above, the ground should be carefully sprayed and covered with a plastic wrap box or cassette to create a greenhouse effect, then transported to a pre-prepared sunny and warm place.
Tomatoes germinate pretty quickly. The first shoots appear within 6 days after sowing, and a couple of days later the process becomes widespread.
After the emergence of the first shoots should begin to prepare the shoots for a life without film. You must first remove it for a couple of hours during the day, gradually increasing the intervals.
Care of seedlings involves the constant moistening of air and soil.
Important!Until the seedlings are strong enough, it can not be watered. Moistening occurs only due to the superficial spraying of the soil, otherwise you can deepen the seed or damage the weak roots.
It is also important to ensure that the air temperature is not too high, otherwise the seedlings will begin to grow actively upward and in the future it will be harder to survive the transplant.
When the seedlings form two true leaves, a pick is made. - replanting each bush into a separate, more bulk container. This should be done with the utmost care, grabbing as large an earthen ball as possible so as not to damage the roots (a teaspoon is well suited as an instrument for this purpose). Approximately 2-3 weeks before the intended disembarkation, the seedlings begin to harden. At first, the cups are brought to fresh air during the daytime and left there for a quarter of an hour, gradually increasing the time spent in unusually cold conditions, until finally, several days before planting, the seedlings will not be able to safely endure the night under the open sky.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
It is possible to transplant "Marusya" in the open ground only when the temperature indicators (both day and night) reach the parameters necessary for the normal development of tomatoes. At the same time, the soil should warm up to at least +16 ° C to a depth of 20-25 cm. In addition, it should be remembered that unexpected night frosts, even short-term ones, can completely destroy already fully grown shrubs, so you should ask about the weather forecast for the coming days and weeks before making a final decision.
The readiness of the bush for transplantation is evidenced by the appearance of the first flower brush on it, and it is very desirable to finish the process before the buds begin to open.
If at the time of formation of the brush on the street is still too cold, the spike should be gently pinch off. This will help delay the process of replanting without harm to the bush.
For transplantation, it is better to choose a not very sunny day, and it is better that the overcast weather also persists in the next few days, while the young tomatoes will undergo the process of acclimatization.
Important!People say: put in the mud - you will be a prince! Experience shows that seedlings planted under the pouring May rain, perfectly take root, despite the fact that the landing work in such conditions is very difficult and unpleasant. A low, but lush “Marusya” is recommended to be planted, keeping to a distance of 60 cm between the bushes and 70-80 cm - between the rows. There is a very effective modern scheme of the so-called wide beds, when between rows leave at least one and a half meters, but the bushes are planted more crowded. It is believed that this way you can achieve a significant improvement in yields, moreover, next year you can place a garden bed at the row spacing, thus, the soil will receive additional rest.
Soil loosening and weeding
In order that the soil around the plant does not dry out, after each watering it must be loosened. If watering is carried out in a droplet way, there is no need for such a procedure, which does not remove the issue of weed control, which not only impoverishes the soil, pulling the nutrients contained in it, but often are carriers of various infections. Weeding problem can be solved by mulching the soil around the plant, mulch, in addition, will prevent the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the earth and thus slow down its drying.
“Marusya”, like most indeterminate tomatoes, does not branch very strongly, and yet most gardeners agree that the timely removal of lateral processes (stepsons) greatly increases the yield of the variety. But he has one peculiarity: only those branches that are located below the first flower brush should be processed in this way, all other shoots are left so that they can develop and branch.
Learn more about topping tomatoes in open field.
The undersized "Marusya" does not need serious support. But when the bush begins to bear fruit, especially if the correct care has ensured the achievement of maximum yield, under the two-kilogram weight of the ripening fruits, the plant may begin to collapse. To avoid this, it is worthwhile to provide him with at least the most primitive support. If there are not many tomatoes, it is easiest to stick a small peg next to each bush (to the height of the tomato or a little lower) and carefully tie the trunk to it at about 2/3 above the ground. When mass planting, it is better to provide a horizontal garter (massive supports are driven in along the edges of the beds, and a wire is stretched between them, to which the stems or fruiting branches are tied up).
Top dressing is a very important element of care for tomatoes.
Important!Any tomatoes greatly impoverish the soil, which is why it must be constantly enriched in order for the plant to grow normally. The first feeding of seedlings should be carried out within two weeks after its landing in open ground. It is not recommended to do this before, so as not to burn the immature roots.
As fertilizer at this stage, organic matter is well suited - mullein or bird droppings.
After 10 days, the next dressing is carried out, this time mineral fertilizers are used - nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers. For example, you can prepare a mixture of:
- ammonium nitrate (25 g),
- superphosphate (60 g),
- potassium salt (15 g),
- boric acid (1 g).
The proportions are based on 10 liters of water.
VIDEO: METHOD OF INCREASING THE TERMINATION ON TOMATOES Further fertilizing is made every two weeks, however, nitrogen fertilizers should now be excluded, because they lead to excessive formation of green mass, which takes all the powers of the bush, which leads to a significant decrease in yield.
We recommend that you feed the tomatoes with yeast.
Pests, diseases and prevention
Resistance "Marousi" to the most dangerous fungal infections is indisputable, but for prevention it is still worth treating the bushes with "Fitosporin", which, in addition to its fungicidal action, also protects the plant from various bacterial diseases.
Among the most dangerous for the variety of pests should be called slugs, whitefly and spider mites. Lime, tobacco dust, soap solution, and wood ash (chemicals, such as chlorophos, are used only in extreme cases) are effective for fighting slugs, Confidor can cope with whiteflies, and Karbofos helps with whiteflies.
Harvesting and storage
While there are warm days in the yard, there are no questions with the timing of the harvest of tomatoes: tomatoes are removed when they acquire a bright red color. As a rule, we wait until the tomato becomes bright red, and then remove it from the sprig.
But after the arrival of cold weather, this rule ceases to act. All tomatoes, regardless of their ripeness, must be removed from the bushes before the first frost, otherwise the crop will be lost. At the same time, green tomatoes can be brought to maturity at home (this is especially true for fruits of a "milky" color, that is, those that have already begun to brighten), in addition, they are excellent for preparing a variety of preparations for the winter. “Marusya”, due to the dense skin, is stored quite well, but for fully ripe fruits, it is still a very short time, a maximum of 10 days, and then only if it is properly stored. But green tomatoes can last much longer - from three weeks to two months.
Did you know?French scientists for a long time conducted experiments, the purpose of which was to determine the optimal conditions for the storage of tomatoes. As a result, the following was established. Volatile substances that provide the unique aroma of a tomato are very quickly destroyed in a cold room (at a temperature of several degrees above zero), but at +20 ° C they are not only preserved, but they are also being actively developed. This is why tomatoes should not be stored in the refrigerator. In order to keep the harvest as long as possible, you need to adhere to the following rules:
- never wet the tomatoes before storing,
- to use wooden or plastic boxes for storage,
- put the tomatoes "ass" up, if possible, in a single layer, and between the fruits lay dry sawdust or peat,
- before laying, remove the pedicel from the fruit,
- keep boxes warm.
Another secret. If you want to ripen dairy or brown tomatoes, they need to be placed next to the red fruits, which have an amazing property to accelerate the redness of their "neighbors".
Advantages of the determinant
The advantages of the variety Marusya include:
- Tomatoes give excellent fruits both in open ground and under film coatings.
- You can wait for the harvest after 105 - 110 days after germination.
- Abundant fruiting continues from the twenties of July to the end of the season.
- The variety of tomato Marusya is resistant to many diseases of the tomato. The plant is not susceptible to verticillus infection, Fusarium.
- Note the resistance of tomatoes to adverse climatic conditions. They are well tolerated by drought, sharp fluctuations in temperature.
- Decorative bush allows you to use a vegetable plant as an element of site design.
Many farmers engaged in the cultivation of tomatoes on an industrial scale, choose Marus because the fruits of vegetables have an excellent presentation. Appreciate the versatility of using red tomatoes.
Cultivation requirements and care
According to reviews, the yield of tomato Marusia, depends on how tomatoes are grown. Among the mandatory requirements:
- selection and disinfection of seed material
- sowing fifty-five days before transplanting into open ground,
- content of seedlings in rooms with air temperature of 25 degrees, sufficient lighting,
- picking up the seedlings after the appearance of two true leaves in separate pots,
- fertilizing with specialized fertilizers,
- planting seedlings in the greenhouse or on the beds in the garden.
If you plant seedlings in open ground, then it should be done in the evening or in cloudy weather. Gentle bushes are afraid of the scorching sun.
So that the tomatoes develop successfully, do not hurt, they are sprayed with Fitosporin. Prevention will be the processing of vegetable plants with a mixture of whey and a few drops of iodine. Solutions of wood ash, tobacco dust, and lime will save from slugs.
Properly organized watering is important for Marusya variety tomatoes. Moisten the soil should be regularly, watching the drying of the topsoil. Excessive moisture is also dangerous for tomatoes. Fruits can crack if the irrigation regime is disturbed - after water shortage its abundance. And the flowers fall off if the plant is powerfully growing and gives a lot of extra processes. In such cases, the side shoots break out.
We grow tomatoes as usual with dressings, loosening the soil, timely collection of ripened fruits.
Tomato bushes are fed for the first time with mullein or bird droppings. Organic matter is diluted in a bucket of water with respect to proportions. The next time in ten days mineral fertilizers are applied to the ground: ten liters and twenty-five grams of ammonium nitrate, sixty - superphosphate, fifteen - potassium salt. It is necessary to dilute one gram of boric acid in solution. Two weeks later, one liter of nutrient mixtures is again added to each well. An excess of nitrogenous fertilizers can lead to the fall of the ovaries. This is necessary to think about when organizing feedings.
Tomatoes ripen faster and become sweet if the shade of the leaves does not fall on them. Immature tomatoes are harvested and brought to ripeness level in a dark room, where the temperature reaches 26 degrees Celsius.
Огородники о томате
Для дачников томат Маруся – это один из наиболее удачных детерминантных видов. It is easy to care for him, he does not need a garter, pasynkovanie. And he always gives yields stable. Many, having got acquainted with the characteristics and description of the variety of tomatoes Marusya, choose only him for canning. But fresh tomatoes are pleasant to the taste, give the salads aroma, originality.