The simplest type of storage for potatoes and vegetables. Burts are easy to manufacture and very cheap. The site for their arrangement must be selected on an elevated place where the groundwater lies not higher than 1 - 1.5 m from the surface. The site should have a slope for the flow of melt and rainwater, and the collar itself should be located in the direction from north to south.
Burts can be of various designs: terrestrial, semi-submerged and buried. The type of collar is chosen depending on the depth of groundwater and the availability of building materials. The foundation pit for semi-submerged shoulders should be 20–30 cm deep, for subterranean 50–100 cm. Depth burts are called if half of the products stored in it are in the pit, and the rest. rises above ground level. Potatoes, white cabbage and other vegetables are better preserved in semi-buried burt, as they are subject to less temperature fluctuations.
Vegetables are stored in burtahs in bulk, having the appearance of a stack stretched along the length. Also piles can have a round shape and then they are called ends. For potato and table beet, the beetles are made up to 2 m wide, for carrots, parsley and turnips up to 1 m, for white cabbage and turnips 1.5 - 1.8 m. The length of the shoulders is made 10 - 15 m, for carrots up to 5 m.
Arrange piles as follows
The entire length of the collar is dug out one or two grooves, depending on the type of product to be stored. For potatoes and root vegetables one, for white cabbage two. These grooves should extend beyond the edges of the collar by 1 m on each side. These grooves are intended for ventilation, and every 3-4 m vertical pipes of fresh air ventilation are inserted into them.
When storing white cabbage, the shoulders are made with longitudinal and transverse grooves for fresh air. For this, a longitudinal channel dug to the full length of the collar and protruding beyond its edges for 1 m is connected with transverse ones dug every 3–4 m. The channels should be blocked with spruce branches, brushwood, and trimming of boards. For storage of cabbage in ground clamps come as follows. For cabbage, it is necessary to build a flooring of boards or slab height of 20 - 25 cm, covering it with spruce paws, over which are placed cabbages.
After stacking the product it is necessary to cover it with a layer of straw and earth. If there is a potato in the collar, then the tongue of the collar should not be poured until the temperature drops to small negative temperatures (-1.2 ° C) and the optimum storage temperature is established in the mass of the potatoes. Through this outlet, products are cooled and excess moisture evaporates.
In addition to straw insulation, you can use sawdust, dry peat chips, dry sphagnum moss, tree leaves, spruce paws, etc. Straw, sawdust and other thermal insulation mounds should be at least 60 - 70 cm thick at the base of the collar, and 30 - 40 cm. The first powder from the ground is made 10-15 cm thick, and the second, when negative temperatures are established, is adjusted to 25-30 cm.
When permanent negative temperatures are established, the ventilation grooves should be closed overnight, and with further lowering the temperature they are covered with straw, sawdust, peat chips, etc. The exhaust ventilation pipes are closed when the temperature drops below -4'C, and in the mass of the product the temperature stays at + 2 ° C. To measure the temperature inside the collar, it includes measuring tubes into which the thermometer is lowered.
The choice of location and accommodation
For shoulders and trenches, select areas protected from cold winds, with a groundwater level not closer than 2 m from the bottom of the pit. Burts and trenches are usually placed in pairs. At a distance of 0.5 m from the shelters pull out the drainage grooves. Between the shoulders and the trenches leave the passage width of 4. 5 and driveways 7. 8 m (depending on the specific conditions). Sites must be connected to roads.
In piles and trenches lay only complete and healthy products. Before laying, it is advisable to cool it in temporary heaps-sides under the shelter of straw and a small layer of earth sprinkled on the bottom. Put the potatoes and vegetables in the corner of the repose. The alignment of the stingrays is checked with slats or tightly stretched twine. Root crops and cabbage are usually loaded 10. 10 cm below the top level of the trench.
The size of the losses and the success of storage largely depend on the correct shelter. Piles and trenches are covered with various heat- and waterproofing materials, mainly straw and earth alternating in two to four layers. The laid products cover the same day with a small layer of earth. It is poured above the level of the trench in the form of a tubercle with the seizure of the edges at 1. 1.5 m, so that water does not flow. The thickness of the shelter depends on the air temperature in winter, the thickness and density of the snow cover, wind strength, location of shoulders and trenches, straw moisture and soil composition, width of the collar and pit capacity, type of pledged products and freezing depth ground in winter.
When replacing one insulation material others take into account its coefficient of thermal conductivity. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of lightly moistened straw is 0.02, land 0.08. Therefore, the layer of earth in return for straw should be four times thicker. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of earth, straw, sawdust when wetted increases dramatically.
Shelter thickness at the crest of the shoulders is less than at the base, since the heat released by the products rises to the crest. Therefore, with insufficient shelter, the production at the base of the collar is frozen. When cracks in the crest and a thin layer of shelter are not made in time during strong winds in a little snowy winter, it is possible to freeze vegetables and potatoes in the upper part of the embankment. In Belarus, potatoes and vegetables loaded in trenches and pits are first put in softwood trees to scare away mice and prevent rotting of the upper layer. In the central zone, potatoes and vegetables in claddings, and sometimes in trenches, as a rule, are covered with straw, then ground, sprinkling it from below so that the wind does not inflate the straw.
Root crops in clamps are covered first with a thin layer of earth, then with straw and earth. As a result, decay of vegetables is reduced. The collar of the collar remains only under the shelter of straw until the very frost (early November in the Non-Chernozem Zone, later in the south). In the presence of forced-air ventilation in bad weather the crest is filled up with earth or additionally covered with straw. Before the final shelter, the wet straw is replaced by dry, as the wet quickly freezes through.
Burts and trenches are finally covered when the temperature in them drops to 3. 4 o С (in the Non-Chernozem zone, usually in late October - early November). Before the frost around the shoulders and trenches, straw is laid out so that the earth does not freeze until the final shelter. At the completion of the shelter layer of earth is increased to the norm. If at first little straw is laid, then a second layer of straw is placed on the first shelter, and the ground is placed on it.
This four-layer shelter is recommended in cases when using straw last year.
Directly to potatoes and vegetables, the old straw is not laid out, as it can serve source of infection. Old straw, as well as woody leaves, dry potato tops, chaff, peat, slag or other thermal insulation material are used for the second layer.
Burt and trench equip various ventilation systems: supply and ridge, pipe, supply and exhaust or active.
The simplest is inlet-ridge. Cold air enters through the lower horizontal channel with a cross section of 0.2 x 0.25 m, blocked from above with wooden gratings or poles. The channel is taken out of the shelter, but so that rainwater does not flow through it. In case of cabbage cabbage instead of a canal, triangular (tent) pipes with a section of 0.4 x 0.4 m are laid.
Cold air enters supply channelIt passes through a mass of vegetables and, heating up, rises to the ridge. In this case, the ventilation occurs through the ridge, which is left covered with straw until frost. Such ventilation is arranged during the storage of potatoes and beets in clamps with a width of 2. 2.5 m.
Most often for ventilation in a collar above the inlet channel or the lower tube is installed vertical exhaust pipes (every 3–4 m and at the same distance from the ends). The lower parts of their height 1,2. 1.5 m - lattice. Gaps between the slats when storing potatoes 2. 3 cm, rutabagus and cabbage up to 10 cm. The upper part of each pipe passing through the shelter is made of tesa and without cracks. At the upper end of the withdrawn pipe, a gable cap is secured to protect it from precipitation. When preparing sites for boring storage, the ventilation duct system can be planned and arranged in advance.
In Cherkassy NPO "Korma" apply natural heat insulation land shoulders, reducing product losses and storage costs. Before putting the root and tuber crops in storage, they prepare an even solid platform, which is framed around the perimeter of the collar with a low shaft from the soil. Then make the airway groove, at certain intervals drilled holes. Their depth exceeds the soil freezing layer by one and a half times. Between the vertical exhaust pipes of a conventional ventilation system, grid pipes are installed inclined to the groove, not extending beyond the covering layer.
Pipes are used to heat the inside of the collar and warming its surface. When the temperature decreases, the normal ventilation system is closed. The deep heat coming from the pits extends through the ventilation system, enters the mass of products through inclined trellised coarse. Warm air from the pits, heating the surface of the collar, penetrates to its crest, which is not covered by the film, and does not allow the temperature to drop below O ° C even with a sharp cooling. Warm air not only heats the root and tuber crops, but also fills them with soil moisture, protecting them from excessive evaporation of water from the tissues of the product. In the spring, when the temperature rises, open ventilation and exhaust ventilation.
During the care of the shoulders and trenches watch for temperature and state of shelter. Burtovian thermometers are set at an angle of 30 o during loading: one on the north front side 0.1 m from the base, the second in the middle part of the collar along the ridge, deepening 0.3 m. One thermometer is installed in the trench in the middle part, deepening 0.3 m products
With collar storage control product quality and the state of tubers and vegetables. During the period of thaws, check bursts are made, samples are taken, they are carefully examined and a commodity analysis (quality assessment) is carried out in accordance with the standard.
The temperature in each collar in the fall is checked daily, in the winter two or three times a week. Thermometer cases must be without gaps. After measuring, the holes in the cases are tightly capped with cotton, fabric or wood stoppers. After the final cover in the collar usually increases the temperature. Therefore, in the fall, exhaust and intake pipes are kept open, with the onset of frost down to -3 ° C, the intake pipes are closed. With a further decrease in the external temperature, as well as cooling products in the collar or trench to 1. 2 ° C, the exhaust pipes are closed with crumpled straw stoppers.
When the temperature of the product rises to 4 - 5 o С and more, the pipes open from time to time. If the temperature in the clamps or trenches rises above 7 - 8 o С, snow is removed from them, in the earthen shelter, several holes are punched on the sides and the ridge to the straw. At night they are covered with chaff, sawdust or even snow, and open during the day.
If these measures do not help and the temperature does not decrease. and on the sides there are visible stained spots and “hovering”, then a shoulder or trench in these places is opened and inspected, rotted products are selected and, after cooling, are covered again. If necessary, products are transported to storage or sold. When unloading shoulders and trenches during cold weather, portable heat supplies from tarpaulin, bedding or cotton blankets are used. By reducing the temperature of the potatoes to 1 o С, root crops to -1 and cabbage to -2 ° С, the collar or trench is additionally warmed with snow, chaff or sawdust.
Permanent flange playground
For the storage of cabbage, a permanent flanged platform with a capacity of 250 tons with active ventilation is recommended. A typical project provides for the installation of eight shoulders and a ventilation chamber connected to the shoulders by underground channels. The frame of the collar is made of wooden rafters, supported on racks, buried in the ground through 1.5 m. Walls and coverings - from slabs. Heater Burt - peat soil or sawdust. Cabbage lay through the hatch. Shelf life - from October to April.
Temperature conditions Support automatic active ventilation system through the control unit to which the resistance thermometers are connected. At a temperature of -1 o С the fans are turned off, and at a temperature of 1 o С they are switched on again.
Large piles with active ventilation
In the temperate and warm zones of our country, large piles with a capacity of 600 tons with a two-channel active ventilation system are common. When constructing such a collar, a wall is made of wooden poles, boards and two rows of bale of pressed straw, between which they lay a film. Then they mount the fans and install ventilation ducts from the boards' boards. On the sides of the collar plow the furrow. Bale of straw is tilted into it obliquely, then two more layers of bale are laid with an inclination inward, sandwiched between them.
Potatoes are poured into a pile with a height of 3 m, a width of 8 ... 10, and a length of 40. 45 m using conveyor-loaders. It is covered with a layer of bales of 3 pressed straw. On them across the collar overlap (1 m) lay panels of film 4 with a width of 6 and a length of 14m. In places of overlap between the films lay 0.2 m of non-pressed straw with a layer of 5 m (for exhausting air during fan operation). A second layer of straw bales 6 is placed on the film, the gaps between them are buried with straw. Every 9 m along the pile, 1/3 thermometers are installed at 1/3 of the embankment depth.
For active ventilation of large-sized clamps, they are used as centrifugal fans or axial fans.
Two longitudinal ventilation duct Connect through the ventilation chamber circulation channel. The ventilation chambers are equipped with valves that open when the collar is ventilated with atmospheric air and fully or partially closed when using internal or mixed air. The fans can be adjusted automatically, which allows you to maintain an optimum temperature in the embankment.
With the use of large-sized shoulders, the yield of seed potatoes increases by 6.5. 18.7% (depending on the variety). Draft plots with a capacity of (t): potatoes 800 and cabbage 250 (typical project 79-2a) have been developed.
This is the most affordable and cheap way to extend the shelf life of products in the Non-Chernozem Zone. Placed in a “fur coat” of snow, they are stored at a relative humidity of 100% and a temperature of about 0.5 ° C. Thus, it is possible to keep the products fresh until June - July. From the adapted storages, where it is not possible to maintain an optimal storage mode in early spring, vegetables are transferred to a snow shoulder.
For snowing at the end of winter, choose a site with a slope for removal of melt water, clean it and freeze, then load the snow and compact it with a layer of 30. 40 cm. leave gaps up to 2 m wide for bookmarking products. After every 10 m along the length of the excavation, bridges of snow 1 m thick are arranged. It is more profitable to make more than one snow pit and two or three, separating them with bridges of snow 1 m thick.
Potatoes, beets, and radish are loaded into prepared pits (during a thaw at an outdoor temperature not lower than 0 ° C), at a lower temperature freeze products. Before loading, the pits are lined with matting, kraft paper or straw mats. Then the picked potatoes or vegetables are brought up or brought to the tray and carefully poured into the collar. At the same time, the onboard thermometer case is placed vertically in them, then overlapped with the released ends of the material remaining free at the bottom lining, covered with paper, matting, etc., then covered with snow to 1 m and sawdust, peat, campfire, etc. d.
Carrots, parsley, celery, turnips, onions snow packed in tight boxes with a capacity of 10 ... 15 kg. They are installed in the pit, pouring rows and gaps between boxes of snow. For the snowing of cabbage, they select cabbages of old varieties without rotten leaves or requiring minimal stripping. Снегование проводят при температуре воздуха не ниже —2°С. В основание бурта насыпают снег слоем 0,5. 1 м. Размеры бурта (м): высота 1,5. 2 м, ширина 2…4 м. Длина произвольная, но через каждые 8 м делают перемычки из сне-га толщиной 0,5 м. Кочаны укладывают на дно подготовленного бурта и через каждый ряд пересыпают снегом слоем 10см. Above the shoulder cover snow cover up to 1 m, then the insulating material (sawdust, straw, etc.).
Potatoes extracted from the snow are kept in a warm room for several days in order to eliminate the sweet taste that occurs at temperatures close to 0 ° C.
Ventilation device in piles
Temperature and humidity levels in these simple storage facilities for potatoes are regulated by ventilation and changes in the level of covering materials.
The supply ventilation duct is made of a triangular section from planks, laying it horizontally in the middle and along the entire length of the dug trench. The ends bring out the collar, covering them with a metal grid from the penetration of rodents.
For drawing in the lower channel, vertical boxes of square section 15x15 cm are installed every 2 meters, supplying the outlet openings with a protective grid and caps from precipitation entering the interior of the storage facility. Exhaust pipes are insulated with clay mixed with straw.
To preserve potatoes in clamps, in addition to ventilation, you need to take care of good heat protection.
The shoulders are loaded with sorted and cooled tubers, erecting a small cone-shaped mound. Then proceed to the storage insulation using dry rye or wheat straw.
Straw bunches start to be laid at the bottom of the pile so that each subsequent upper row of straw overlaps the lower overlap. On the ridge, straw is bent on both edges so that the rainwater does not linger and penetrate inside the shelter and freely flow down the sides of the slopes.
At the base of the collar, a layer of straw should be about 30 cm, decreasing to 15 cm as you move toward the ridge. Then the straw shelter is warmed with a layer of earth to 20 cm.
With the onset of cooling, the shoulders are finally covered with earth, bringing the total thickness of the insulation to 70 cm at the base and up to half a meter across the top of the vault.
In order to comply with the rules of storing potatoes, it is extremely important to monitor the temperature inside the collar. To do this, a thermometer is installed in the control pipe located at the base of the structure.
With a sharp decrease in temperature (up to + 1 ° C) they take additional measures for warming, throwing a layer of snow on top, and in a little snowy winter - peat and sawdust, which are again sprinkled with earth.
In the event of an increase in the internal temperature, especially during heavy snowfalls, precipitates scrape the corners from the slopes and pierce additional ventilation holes in the ridge of the building.
Thus, there is a regulation of the temperature regime during the vegetable beating. The main thing is not to forget to periodically check the readings of the thermometer, and then your potato reserves will go to winter in piles with minimal losses.
You can read about other ways of storing potatoes at your summer cottage here.
What is a collar
Among the simplest shelters that will help you preserve roots until next year are ditches, huts, pits and similar places, which can be arranged in any yard. The main requirement is to create them on high ground.to groundwater as deep as possible.
In this case, in addition to potatoes, almost all vegetables will remain safe and sound. As for the concrete collar in particular, in its simplest form it is a common mound of root crops located on the surface of the soil and hidden under a layer of straw, needles, tops, or other similar materials.
If we talk about a more complex structure, it provides for the installation of additional elements that provide adequate ventilation and an appropriate temperature regime.
The design and installation of shelter
The construction of any structure begins with the selection of the most suitable place for this place, and then you can proceed to all other works. We will talk about all the nuances and subtleties of the construction of the collar, from the preparatory work to the storage of vegetables and the requirements for this process.
Choosing a place
The harvest will be stored for a long time only if it will not be affected by external factors, and in the first place - high humidity. Therefore, before building a shelter for your vegetables, find on your site dry, windproof placewhere the groundwater level lies 0.5-1 m (or more) from the bottom of the future deepening.
It is good if it is located a little on an elevation, because in this way all the water that appears will be able to immediately flow down without stagnating. If this is not possible, then along the perimeter of the shelter it is imperative to organize a ditch (breaks out in a circle, retreating 0.5 m), into which rain and melt water will go, bypassing the store.
For example, the width of the collar for potatoes directly depends on how cold the winter will be: the colder the wider. For the southern regions, indicators of 1–1.5 m are sufficient, for the middle lane the two-meter width of the shelter will be optimal, but in the conditions of Siberia it will be increased to three meters. In any case, it is important to consider the advice of local experienced organizations.
In any shelter, a good ventilation system is installed so that vegetables do not become rotten. In the case of the construction of clamps, the most popular options are supply and exhaust, supply and exhaust, pipe or active system.
The first is the simplest and provides for the flow of cold air flow through the channel located at the bottom with a cross section of 0.2 x 0.25 m, covered with wooden bars or grill.
It should have outlets outside the storage, but in such a way as to contain thawed and rainwater. If cabbage is placed in storage, then triangular pipes (0.4 x 0.4 m) are placed on the bottom of the pit to organize ventilation. As an alternative, you can use triangular boxes, knocked out of shields.
For large and rectangular shelters, a vertical hood in the form of additional wooden boxes is added to the ends of the prepared box. On the crest of the mound can be placed slats, shot down at right angles to each other.
When organizing the exhaust ventilation cool air passes inside the collar, then, moving through the crop folded in it, heats up a little and approaches the ridge. Simply put, the comb is used in the air exchange, which remains covered only with straw to serious “minuses”. Usually, a similar system is used when arranging a shelter (with an approximate width of 2-2.5 m) for storing potatoes and beets.
Pipe ventilation option provides for the installation of vertical pipes above the inlet duct or pipe located at the bottom of the collar. They are located at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other and from the ends. The height of the lattice parts of such additions (located at the bottom) varies between 1.2-1.5 m with gaps between the slats of 2-3 cm (in the case of potato laying) or 10 cm when storing cabbage and rutabaga.
At the top, all such pipes (vertically arranged) should not have gaps (it is made of tesa), and a gable hood is installed on top of the outlet structures, which will help protect the crop from rain and snow.
Quite famous today is natural ventilation with ground cover insulation. With her presence, all storage costs are significantly reduced. Before storing the harvested crop, prepare a flat and rammed area of land, enclosed by a low soil bank.
Following this, an air distribution groove is created, and holes are drilled, with a depth of 1.5 times the thickness of the freezing layer. Between pipes of standard ventilation (arranged vertically) in an inclined position are installed lattice type pipes that do not extend outside (beyond the boundaries of the store).
They contribute to the transportation of heat to the folded vegetables and weatherization of the entire space inside the collar. When the outside air temperature decreases, the normal ventilation must be closed, and the heat at the depth (supplied from the holes) will diverge and flow to the crop using grid pipes installed with a slope.
Heating the surface of the shelter, the warm air flows into the ridge (not sealed with film material) and keep the temperature at a level not lower than 0 ° C, even if it is already below zero in the street.
Warm air flows bring moisture from the substrate to the vegetables, thereby protecting them from unnecessary water loss. With the arrival of spring or warming in the street, the intake and exhaust ventilation systems need to be opened.
To preserve the harvest, it is worthwhile to think in advance about controlling the optimal temperature parameters inside the clutch. For this at a 30-degree angle they place thermometers in it: one in the middle of the shelter (along the ridge with a hollow of 0.3 m), and the second - from the northern part of 0.1 m from the base of the shelter.
The quantity of the crop spoiled by spring in a collar directly depends on the type of covering material and its proper flooring. Such storage facilities can be covered with artificial heat-insulating materials, and can be hidden under alternating layers of straw and earth laid out in 2-4 tiers.
Having packed products, they are necessary immediately cover not with a thick layer of soil, the top line of which should rise above the masonry level, capturing its sides by 1-1.5 m (this way you can protect the masonry from flowing water).
The optimal layer thickness will depend on the traditional temperature in the winter season, the average rainfall, the location of the collar, the composition of the soil and other criteria: the type of stored crop, the amount of space for it and the depth of freezing of the substrate in the most severe frosts.
If you decide to replace one covering material with another, then be sure to consider the coefficient of thermal conductivity. For example, for a little wet straw flooring this value is 0.02, and for the soil - 0.08. This means that, using earth instead of straw, its layer should be 4 times thicker.
However, straw and earth shelter is a traditional option, which helps to better preserve the harvest, protecting it from damage. The upper part of the storage area is covered with straw before the start of severe frosts, and if a supply and exhaust ventilation system is also provided for in the collar, it is better to cover the ridge with earth or to cover it with additional straw.
But before completely “sealing” the collar (this should be done before the onset of severe frosts, when the temperature inside the storage facility drops to + 3 ... + 4 ° C), the wet straw layer should be replaced with a dry one to avoid freezing of the crop.
Before strong frosts, you should also have time to spread straw around the shelter and increase the last layer of covering material. In the case when at the initial stage the straw layer was laid too thin, then some more material was added to it and only then all was covered with earth.
This solution will also be optimal when using last year’s straw, but it’s worth remembering that its do not immediately lay on the vegetables, because it can persist bacteria that serve as a source of disease. That is, woody leaves, old straw and dry tops from potatoes, slag, peat and other similar material are used only for subsequent layers of shelter.
Storage of the harvested crop begins with its placement there. In addition, it would be better if you pre-cool your crop in temporary clamps covered with earth and straw. Vegetables and potatoes are placed taking into account the angle of repose of the collar, and the flatness of the slopes can be checked using a building level or rail.
Cabbage and root vegetables should be placed 10-15 cm below the top of the pit, this is if you created a shoulder, starting with a small depression in the ground. As soon as the entire crop takes its place, we can assume that the process of its storage has already begun, which means that it is worth knowing about some of the features: systematic airing, temperature control and other important nuances.
Finishing the cover of the collar, you will certainly notice an increase in temperature indicators. Because of this, in the autumn time it is not necessary to close the intake and exhaust pipes, until there is a steady cold with a temperature of -3 ° C. A further decrease in temperature and cooling of stored vegetables to +1. +2 ° C indicates the need for dense clogging of the exhaust pipe straw plugs.
As soon as the harvest temperature reaches + 4 ... + 5 ° С, they open again. Exceeding the values of + 7 ... + 8 ° С indicates the need for snow removal, for which several holes are made in the side parts of the ground cover and ridge. At night, they can be clogged with sawdust or even snow, again opening in the daytime.
If, in spite of all your actions, the temperature in the shelter does not want to fall, and moisture and evaporation are already visible outside, then will have to open the vault in these places, so that you can inspect the vegetables and after a little cooling of the crop again cover. Having taken shelter, you can also retrieve the contents of the vault in order to implement or move to another location.
When self-construction of the collar, you probably know what it is and what the shelter is built specifically in your case. If there is a good ventilation system organized in it, the ventilation can be carried out only a few times during the winter, but if the air supply to the crop is insufficient, it will have to be periodically ventilated in full or in part.
If in the latter case there are fewer requirements for this process, then full airing should be carried out only in dry and cool weather, and when permanent frosts appear to -3 ... -4 ° C, even supply ventilation pipes should be closed with straw.
As soon as it is warm enough outside and the temperature inside the pile rises even more, the ground cover can also be removed, first from the ridge, and later from the whole cover. The removed soil is perfect for backfilling trenches for draining water.
As you can see, harvesting the harvested crop is an easy task, but in order for vegetables and root crops to be well preserved, it is much more important to monitor the temperature and humidity inside the shelter.
We arrange the pit (BURT)
Place the shoulder in a place protected from cold winds with a groundwater level no closer than 2 m from the bottom of the pit. To prevent the autumn and spring surface waters from stagnating at the storage site, dig drainage grooves at a distance of 50 cm from the shelter.
Dig a trench in the direction from north to south of arbitrary length, up to 2 m wide, 25 cm deep.
At the bottom, lay the pipes for ventilation, hammered together in the form of a tray of 3 boards 16-20 cm wide. Pull the ends of the pipes 1 m beyond the end sides of the collar. Drill holes with a diameter of 2-3 cm in the boards.
If there is no time to create such ventilation, dig a groove with a depth and a width of 20 cm, take the ends of it beyond the edges of the collar, block it from above with poles. Cover the ventilation holes in the rain so that the moisture does not fall to the bottom of the pit.
Store only healthy vegetables for storage.
Before laying a few days before frost, fold the roots into small piles on the street, cover with straw and let lie for 1-2 days. Place without extra bedding on the bottom of the pit. The height of the bookmark is 1 -1.5 m.
Immediately after this, cover the crop with several layers of earth and straw (alternate 2-4 times). In this case, the thickness of the shelter at the ridge (top) of the collar should be less than at the base, since the heat released by the products rises.
As covering material, you can use sawdust, spruce, fallen leaves, dry potato tops, peat, slag. But the first covering layer should consist of soil, fresh straw, sawdust or lapnik. Other organic materials can be a source of infection.
Reviews and comments: 2
I heard about the storage of carrots in claps. I tried. But only in the autumn the mice got there and spoiled a significant part of my harvest. How to protect the shoulders from the invasion of rodents? How to build a collar?
Typically, this method of storing carrots is used by large agricultural producers for storing industrial crop volumes. Other, more reliable and safe methods are more acceptable for preserving the harvest of carrots from garden plots, personal farmsteads. However, as an experiment, you can put carrots in piles, especially if it is important to keep them until spring and early summer. But mouse-like rodents (mice, voles, sometimes hamsters) can actually destroy a significant amount of the crop. The most optimal means of protection against rodents in this case will be the use of a fine mesh of galvanized
wire (plastic is not good - her mouse can gnaw through). To do this, close the collar with the net from the top, and dig it in from 25-30 cm below the base of the collar from the sides. To protect against rodents in the snow-free and not frosty period, grooves may be suitable. For this, along the perimeter of the collar, at a distance of 2–3 m, a groove is made with a depth and width on the spade bayonet. After 2-3 m at the bottom of the groove, 1.5-3-liter plastic bottles with the upper part cut off are inserted. In them at 7-8 cm water is poured. Мыши и полевки, подбираясь к бурту, падают в канавку и потом оказываются в бутылке, где, как правило, быстро погибают.