Not only mushroom pickers, but also ordinary citizens are perfectly familiar with such a mushroom as honey agaric. But only a small part of people know that these mushrooms grow not only in summer, but also in winter. In addition, the uniqueness of this mushroom lies in the beneficial qualities it possesses. Our fans of “quiet hunting” met flammulin about twenty years ago. Before that, at least, it was considered strange to go for mushrooms in the winter. In our time, they are gaining increasing popularity. In western and eastern countries, winter mushrooms are called enokitake, and in our supermarkets you can buy them as enoki.
Fossa belongs to saprotrophs (parasites), so he chooses weakened or damaged deciduous trees for growth. Moreover, these trees can be anywhere: in the forest, garden, park, or just outside. Flammulin can parasitize both on deciduous and coniferous trees. Such a neighborhood is beneficial only to mushrooms, trees often shrink and subsequently die.
When the ambient temperature drops below zero, the mushroom caps become more brittle. But as soon as it gets warmer, the fungus returns to its original appearance and forms mature spores capable of reproduction on the plates. Over the entire period of development of the winter shingles, this process can occur several times. The wind spreads spores, they fall on tree branches, crust rifts and other parts of the trunk, germinate in them and give rise to new families of fungi. Most often winter stands settle on maples, ash, aspen, willow, linden and poplar trees.
Less often, they choose birch, mountain ash and various shrubs. The alarm for gardeners is the appearance of flamulin in the garden. Gradually, this mushroom will destroy all garden trees and bushes. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to thoroughly treat all cuts of trunks and branches, fractures, fractures and other damage with a special garden solution or ordinary oil paint. If, however, the fungus appeared on the tree, the affected branches should be removed.
You can meet colonies of winter fungus throughout the year. But in the summer and spring months, fruiting is quite rare and not abundant. The peak yield is observed from November to February. In one cluster can be both young mushrooms, which are characterized by a convex shape of the cap, and mature individuals with flat tops. Most often, the mushroom families are located at a high altitude, sometimes exceeding three meters. But if you are lucky, you can find a stump, on which a bright orange bunch of delicious winter mushrooms grows.
The diameters of the caps of these mushrooms range from 2 to 10 centimeters. The surface of the cap to the touch is smooth, slightly mucous. The color may be yellow with a brown or orange tint, with a dark middle and almost transparent edges. The young mushrooms have a convex cap with tucked edges, as the mushroom ripens it straightens. An interesting feature of flammulin is the dependence of color on the type of wood on which it grows.
Plates can grow to the leg, and can remain free, the color ranges from white to ocher. Characteristic jumpers are noticeable between the plates. With age, the color of the plates darkens, they become more rare and wide. Spore powder, like most mushrooms, is white. Disputes can be of different shapes.
The flesh of the winter fungus is thick, dense, cream-colored, with a soft, pleasant taste and persistent mushroom aroma.
The leg is long, but thin. The structure of the leg is dense, elastic, cylindrical. It is painted in different shades of brown.
Description of winter
Flammulin, or winter garland - It is a small edible mushroom from the Ryadovkov family, which is outwardly similar to mushrooms. Flammulin - cap mushroom. Hat in diameter does not exceed 10 cm, flat or slightly convex, painted in brown or dark orange color. The leg is curved, tubular, reaches a length of 7 cm, is painted in brown. The shade of the leg is always darker than the cap and is tightly attached to it.
The flesh is thin, has a pleasant smell and taste. Painted in yellowish color. Spores are white, imperceptible. The remains of the curtains on the fruit body are absent.
Places of growth
There are mushrooms in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. They are parasites or saprotrophs (they feed on dead or decaying wood), therefore they grow exclusively on trees. Winter mushrooms can be found only on old or diseased plants, so they do not appear in young forests or well-groomed parks.
The season of collecting winter mushrooms
Flammulin bears fruit only in groups, which makes it related to real honey mushrooms. The name itself - winter garland says that in the warm months of the year mushrooms do not ripen. Actively collect them in early spring and late autumn. Winter mushrooms are not afraid of frost, so the collection can be carried out even in winter, if weather conditions allow.
How to distinguish a false mushroom from the present
You can confuse flammulin only with summer mushrooms (edible) and a collie spindle (faint). Some mushroom pickers claim that young colligus spindle-leg mushrooms have an exquisite taste. If you confuse the mushroom with summer mushrooms, then nothing will happen. Only in the process of use you will realize that this is not a winter "brother." However, the use of a collib can affect your health (mild poisoning).
The main differences of winter experience from collie:
- Flammulin prefers willow and poplar, and the collibia grows on oaks and beeches.
- The cap of the poorly-eating mushroom has an irregular shape, it is colored in red-brown color.
- In a collibi, the color of the leg does not differ from the color of the cap.
- A weakly poisonous mushroom forms a fruit body only in summer and autumn; it does not grow in winter.
Nutritional value of the product
The energy value of 100 g of flammulin is 22 kcal. It is important to understand that we are talking about the pure caloric content of the product. After frying or marinating, the energy value will change in a big way.
- Protein - 2.2 g,
- Fat - 0.5 g,
- carbohydrates - 1.2 g
Vitamin composition: B1, B2, C, E, PP.
Useful properties of the product
In folk medicine, the fungus is used as an antioxidant and antibiotic. It is given to patients with liver cancer along with aloe, and is also taken in pair with raspberry jam for colds. Traditional medicine secretes the antioxidant ergothionein in the composition of the fungus, which stimulates the human immune system, preventing the occurrence of seasonal diseases. This antioxidant is also used as part of vaccines to treat and prevent the formation of tumors (studies were conducted in Japan and China).
Also in the composition of the winter experience there are substances that reduce the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood. Thereby prevent the development of atherosclerosis.
Many studies conducted in England, Japan and China, say that the fungus has healing properties, but officially this product is not used for medicinal purposes.
The harmful properties of the fungus
Winter mushrooms do not have harmful properties, but they require proper heat treatment. Fresh fruit bodies can not be eaten, as they contain a small amount of toxins that can cause problems with the digestive tract. These toxins decompose when heated, so there is nothing to fear.
There are no direct contraindications, but you should not use the product for acute or chronic gastrointestinal diseases, because the mushrooms are digested for a very long time, as a result of which the stomach receives an additional load. During pregnancy and HB also should not eat the product, so as not to have problems with the baby.
An allergic reaction can occur on any product, the same goes for winter agarics. You should also pay attention to the fact that the product may affect the absorbability of drugs, so prior consultation with a doctor is necessary.
How to cook at home
Winter mushrooms are good in many dishes. They can both be served immediately as a part of various salads, soups or an independent dish, and can be preserved. Consider some interesting and simple recipes.
Winter mushrooms in Korean.
- Korean carrot - 100 g,
- boiled honey fungus - 200 g,
- crab sticks or crab meat - 200 g,
- sea kale - 50-100 g,
- salt to taste.
Crispy fried mushrooms.
- boiled mushrooms - 500 g,
- onions - 300 g,
- breadcrumbs - 1 tbsp. l.,
- salt and pepper to taste.
Heat the frying pan at maximum heat, then lay out the mushrooms and onions. The fire does not diminish. It is necessary to fry honey agarics about 10 minutes, stirring continuously. At the end of cooking, add salt, pepper and breadcrumbs. Mix thoroughly. The dish is ready. Breadcrumbs make the mushrooms a little dry and less slippery, and also improve the taste of the dish.
- honey agarics - 500 g,
- potatoes - 200 g,
- carrot - 100 g,
- Onion - 1 pc.,
- salt and seasoning to taste.
We boil the mushrooms in advance, and then rinse under running water. Fresh water is used for cooking. Immediately add the mushrooms, chopped potatoes, whole carrots and onions. Bring to a boil, then cook over low heat for about 20-25 minutes.
How to process and preserve these mushrooms
Mushrooms respond well to processing and preservation.
All the collected mushrooms are pre-soaked in cold water to clean up all the dirt. A few hours are enough, however, if initially the fruit bodies were all in the mud, then it could be extended to one day.
After soaking lay out in a saucepan, pour the required amount of water and boil for about 15 minutes. Next, add 2-3 tbsp. l peppercorns, salt, pepper and vinegar to taste. It all depends on the number of mushrooms and your preferences. Cook with spices for another 20 minutes.
You do not need to sterilize the jars beforehand, because you will keep the finished product in the refrigerator. Use shoulds with aluminum screw caps.
Pack the finished product in containers so that there is no excess liquid. Additionally, you do not need to pour boiling water, otherwise the mushrooms will turn out tasteless. Twist the caps immediately after filling the cans to create a vacuum inside.
Wait for complete cooling, then place in the refrigerator. In this form, mushrooms are stored for up to 2 years.
Salting mushrooms without vinegar.
Collected mushrooms thoroughly washed, remove the black legs. Next, boil for about 10 minutes without adding seasonings and salt. Simultaneously boil 2 liters of water in a saucepan, then add 10-15 g of citric acid to it.
Banks must first be sterilized. Lidding or plastic caps will not be used, so only glass vessels should be prepared.
Ready mushrooms laid out in banks in layers. Each layer is sprinkled with salt. After filling the tank, fill the brine with citric acid. Repeat the procedure with each jar, then leave to cool. Before placing in a cellar or refrigerator, jars should be covered with parchment paper, then secured with an elastic or thread.
At this salting is over. It is possible to eat mushrooms in a month. The average shelf life is 2-3 years. Never neglect pre-heat treatment framulin
Winter mushrooms can be found in any deciduous forest or city park, which allows you to enjoy not only tasty, but also a useful product during the cold season.
What is Frammulin and how to cook it: reviews
There are a lot of types of flammulin now. Lafa ended when there was one Flammulina velutipus, and even its white form. The trouble is that the types of flammulin reliably differ only by micro-indications. True, according to the biotope (preferred wood), species can somehow be diluted. This, I, in fact, use. But here I will not indicate specific types, since all these are my assumptions, and it would probably not be correct to assign proper names to different forms.
So what exactly is growing in my forest.
1. The earlier (from September) and light flammulin grows on aspen, logs and stumps. Growth is abundant under favorable conditions. After strong frosts practically does not renew.
2. Later (since November, during the winter long thaws) and brighter colored flammulin, it grows exclusively in willow. We have a little of her. This mushroom solely for beauty and photography.
3. Sometimes flammulin is found on the birch. For some reason, all that I came across on a birch tree was with dark spots on the cap.
4. Very rarely I met flammulin growing on buried wood, light, in small bunches.
Of all the listed forms of flammulin, in my forest only aspen is of commercial importance.
As I have already said, aspen flammulin begins to grow seriously from the second half of September, and at the end of the month I usually begin to collect it. High-quality, fragrant and truly delicious flammulin happens only until severe frosts. After a small night frost, it survives well, only becomes mucous, especially in wet weather. Wet and slimy bonnet can even be zonal, almost like summer spotting.
And in the dry - the cap also remains dry.
There are small blackish specks, but this is normal. The color is not necessarily whitish, but there are no very bright colors. The legs, by the way, aspen flammulin are not necessarily dark, but always velvety. And young fungi visible longitudinal grooves on the leg.
But such a flammulin, seemingly quite lively, but darkening from the center, in fact, has already died. And there is a very simple way to identify it - live is a mushroom, or just a well-preserved corpse. If you cut the leg right under the cap, then the cut should be white. If it is gray (looks like a gray ring), then the fungus is already inanimate.
2. Weakly fermented flammulin.
Somehow I tried to ferment winter mushrooms. The easiest way: per liter of water 70 g of salt and 20 g of sugar (this is about 2 tablespoons of salt with a slide and 1 tablespoon of sugar without a slide). Filled with this pickle mushrooms, put under the yoke (at room t-pe). In the literature, it was said that any mushrooms can be boiled like this, but it is necessary to wait a long time: russula - 3 weeks, a lot - a month. Flammulin was eaten on the fifth day :) Because after a day the spicy aroma of pickled mushrooms began to crawl around the room, so delicious that I could not sleep at all.
Mushrooms were very tasty!
And you can simply chop dried flammulin in a blender and add to any dish or gravy. Brew tea, eat like dried chips. The product has the most valuable taste and therapeutic effect.
In the totalitarian sect, the Flammulians have the standard of the TRP: to dry at least 20 liters of flammulin and freeze 50 liters, and to eat 50 liters fresh for a year. Otherwise, from the sect out.
Edibility of the winter honeycomb
Winter mushrooms can be consumed fresh, boiled, pickled and pickled. By taste, this mushroom belongs to the 4th category.
In young specimens, it is necessary to cut off the dark parts of the legs, while in old mushrooms only caps are used as food. When boiled, winter mushrooms become slippery. They tolerate freezing well, without losing their taste characteristics.
Consequently, you can safely collect frozen or thawed mushrooms in the forest. These mushrooms are most popular in Japanese traditional cuisine. In the winter pulp itself there is an insignificant amount of unstable toxins, in connection with which they must first be boiled for 20 minutes.
Cultivation of winter mushrooms
These mushrooms are cultivated on an industrial scale in Korea and Japan. Winter mushrooms are grown on specially moistened wood or on a chop of wheat straw. The harvest of winter mushrooms grown artificially can be collected all year round, but for this it is necessary to withstand the temperature regime. The volume of production of winter agaric on a global scale is about 100 thousand tons per year.
Other mushrooms of this genus
There are quite a lot of mushrooms in the Flammulin family:
• Chapel shade - unlike other species of agaric, it is a rather rare and inedible type. These mushrooms are growing from August to September, in the forests of some European countries, besides these mushrooms were found in Moscow, Leningrad and Tomsk regions,
• Dark shrub grows in mixed forests rich in decaying wood. This is an edible mushroom, which apparently has a great resemblance to the autumn plant,
• Powder of Candolus fruits from spring to early autumn. These mushrooms are found on the roots and stumps of deciduous trees. Fruits in large groups. In modern literature, the candiolae’s mushrooms are referred to as edible mushrooms that need to be pre-cooked, but previously they were considered inedible and even poisonous.
• Опенок серопластинчатый – типичный древесный гриб, растущий в хвойных лесах в основном на елях и соснах. Эти грибы можно собирать с весны по осень, нередко они встречаются в мягкие зимы,
• Опенок луговой – универсальный съедобный гриб, который подходит для любого вида приготовления. Meadow mushrooms collected from summer to late October. They bear abundant rings on the edges, in forests, meadows and gardens,
• Summer garlic - an edible mushroom growing on decaying wood. They grow on deciduous trees, most often on birch trees, and rarely on coniferous trees. Fruiting time from June to October
• Mudstone brick-red can be found from summer to autumn on the stumps and fallen trees of deciduous trees. The edibility of these mushrooms is contradictory information.
• Sulfur yellow garlic is a fungus that is widespread from May to late autumn, growing in large groups on decaying wood, mainly coniferous. These are inedible or weak-witted mushrooms,
• Seroplastin shingles - a good edible mushroom, taste-like summer shade. These mushrooms bear fruit from August to October, meeting on stumps, near old trees and on decaying roots,
• Autumn shade can be collected from August to October. These mushrooms grow on dead wood and on living trees, preferring deciduous species, as a rule, birch. They bear fruit for up to 15 days, 1-2 waves per year, during this period autumn honey agarics can be found in huge quantities. These are edible, delicious mushrooms, but needing some heat treatment, they can be fried, pickled, boiled, salted and made powder for soup,
• Thighfoot shallow - one of the most popular mushrooms, which is harvested on an industrial scale. Mushrooms grow from August to October, but sometimes come across in July. They can be found on rotting wood residues and on the soil. Unlike their counterparts, these specimens, as a rule, do not settle on living trees. On the ground, they grow in large circles, but do not grow together.
Botanical description of winter mushrooms
Winter mushrooms belong to the family Ryadovkov. Another name for the fruit is flammulin velvety-foot.
The cap of winter gauge reaches ten centimeters in diameter and has a smooth surface. While raising the humidity of the air, a small layer of mucus appears on it. The color of the fruit is yellow-orange with a gradual darkening towards the center. The edge is transparent and striped, semi-circular shape. In young fruits, it is wrapped inside, and in more mature ones it is cracked as it grows. The color gamut of honeycomb can vary from the type of wood on which it parasitizes.
The plates located at the bottom, on one side, are attached to the stem. Rarely located, have a small jumper. The pulp of the fungus is juicy, fleshy. In general, it has a yellow tint; if damaged, the color does not change. It has a pleasant mushroom aroma and delicate flavor. Leg regular cylindrical shape, dark brown. Its surface is velvety, slightly lighter at the base.
Taste and nutritional value of winter mushrooms
The nutritional value of the fungus is low - about 40 calories, 3 grams of proteins and 9 grams of carbohydrates are contained per 100 grams of product. The rest is occupied by dietary fiber and water.
The beneficial properties of winter mushroom are due to the high content of biologically active substances in it, such as:
- B vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6),
- vitamin C,
- vitamin d,
- essential acids: troptophan, phenylalain, histidine, valine, arginine,
- fatty acid.
That is why, with regular use, these forest products are able to normalize the work of the whole organism, provide the body with an additional source of energy, increase the susceptibility of vision to light and colors, and speed up the metabolic processes in the body.
Winter honeycomb tastes similar to mushrooms and Chinese shiitake mushrooms. During cooking, it retains its structure and pleasant soft aroma. Used in the composition of the so-called "Korean" salads, as with prolonged pickling and storage does not lose softness, almost does not absorb water.Winter honeycomb tastes similar to champignons and Chinese shiitake mushrooms
On the shelves of stores, this mushroom is found under other, false names. It may be referred to as autumn or selective shade.
In cooking, it is also used to cook caviar from mushrooms, toppings for baking. Favorably combined with fresh vegetables, fish and meat products. Suitable for canning, softness, mushroom powder and various extracts. Salting is best carried out cold - during the process, the mushrooms do not boil and do not heat up, but simply are gradually fed with various seasonings.
Where and when to collect winter mushrooms
For growth, honeydew tree chooses a variety of places - it can be found where there are many weakened trees or rotten wood. At the same time, the quality of the pine needles and the surrounding plantations do not concern him much - whether it is a conifer, deciduous or mixed forest, a home garden or a public park. Moth parasitizes trees, causing their disease and premature death.
On the stumps or trunks of the tree, they form a whole group of closely twisted fruits, which become fragile during the first frost and crumble when touched. After a temporary warming occurs, the mushrooms come to life, and spores form on their surface. In this way plant growth occurs throughout the winter. Among the deciduous plants, honeydew prefers maple, elm, aspen, willow and poplar, as well as linden. On birch, elder and various shrubs, it appears much less frequently.
This mushroom can be found in the warm season, but at this time the fruiting of the mushroom is not so abundant, and the appearance is ugly. When cold, mushrooms come to life, begin to grow from November to February.On winter stumps or tree trunks winter forms a whole group of closely twisted fruits, which become fragile during the first frost and crumble when touched.
How to distinguish the winter shade from the false
- Outwardly, the shade looks like a deadly poisonous mushroom - a poisonous moth. However, in a poisonous specimen, the lower part of the cap, as well as the plates, are presented differently. On the leg of the mushroom double necessarily have a skirt. The moth plate is very frequent and bright yellow.
- The other double is the honeydew summer. This type of mushroom is harvested in a warm period of time and is completely edible. But if there is a goal to collect winter swell, then you need to know a few differences. First of all, in the summer fetus the edge of the cap has a dark stripe color. Secondly, summer mushrooms do not parasitize on coniferous trees, but only on deciduous trees.
- Galerina fringed also looks like honey agaric, but its main difference lies in the fact that it has a ring on the leg.
Processing winter honey agarics after harvesting and features of their preparation
Since winter garland belongs to the fourth category of mushrooms, it must be thermally processed before direct preparation and adding to other dishes. For this, the mushrooms are cleared of forest debris with a soft cloth, and then all deformed and damaged specimens are separated from the whole. Then they are poured with cold water, boiled for about five minutes and dried with a paper towel.
- If further mushrooms need to freeze, then absolutely dry fruits fall asleep in a plastic bag, tie it without oxygen access inside and send to the freezer.
- Mushrooms are best suited for salting or marinating. To do this, add in a container with mushrooms a few glasses of water, spices to taste and citric acid. After some time, the flesh will be fed with marinade and the fruits will become fragrant and soft.
- For salting by the dry method, completely dried mushrooms are put in place by seasonings and the most non-iodized salt, and it is in this form that they remain for several days. Under the influence of salt, mushrooms release juice and absorb the aroma and taste of seasonings.
How to cook mushrooms (video)
Similarities and differences: winter species of honey agaric has no false poisonous twins. Nevertheless, their appearance can be confused with a summer garland and a spindle-footed collie. However, they are almost impossible to meet next to the winter garland. The fact is that the time of their fruiting is completely at variance with the season of activity of flammulin. But be that as it may, it is necessary to know some of the differences between them.
As can be seen in the photo, it is possible to distinguish the winter mushrooms from the false ones by the presence of a ring on the leg: in edible species it is clearly visible, whereas in the false it is completely absent.
Collibius fusiform - fruit body of questionable food quality. The cap of the fungus has a pronounced red-brown color. The leg is often twisted, noticeably tapers down, has a red-red tint. Comparing the photo and description of winter fungi with false species, you can easily determine where and what kind of fruit body.
Spread: winter eagonum grows in the northern temperate zone, being a parasite fungus. Prefers stumps, dead trees, live and damaged trunks. Most often, flammulin can be found on deciduous trees: willow, poplar, aspen, ligature, maple, etc. On conifers it grows much less often, sometimes it chooses dead wood.
Winter season: where and when mushrooms grow
Many novice mushroom pickers are interested in when winter mushrooms grow? Judging by the name, we can conclude that the winter season starts with the onset of cold weather. As already noted, this type of fruit bodies grows most often in deciduous forests, but sometimes they can be found in urban gardens and parks, near roads and industrial plants.
Flammulin grows in large families, like most other species of honey agaric, forming honey-golden "bouquets". By virtue of its bright color, winter mushrooms are often grown as a decorative ornament for home gardens. However, it should be remembered that these fungi destroy the wood, leading to its drying out and death.
Depending on where the winter mushrooms grow, one can say what taste and smell they possess. So, growing on deciduous trees, the pulp of the fungus will have a more delicate taste and aroma. And settling on a pine or spruce, the fruit body acquires a characteristic odor and bitter resinous flavor.
When winter mushrooms appear and how to find them in the forest
The period when winter stands occur, depends on the climatic features of individual territories. Traditionally, the first harvest appears in late September - early October. The peak of abundant fruiting occurs in November-February, sometimes a large number of mushrooms can be observed in May. Thus, under certain weather conditions, it is possible to collect a winter garment almost all year round.
One of the characteristic features of flammulin is that it perfectly tolerates frost. During the frost period, the fungus freezes, but does not die. At the first thaw, its growth resumes, and the structure of the fruiting body itself returns its flexibility and original appearance. I must say that you can find this mushroom even under a layer of snow. It can be easily collected and ice cream, and thawed, because even with strong frosts, it does not lose taste.
Knowing when winter mushrooms grow, and under what conditions this process takes place, many mushroom pickers do not miss the opportunity to visit the forest during the cold season. They may find that during the frost the caps begin to crumble when pressed, but do not be afraid of it. In a warm room, they will thaw out and return their former elasticity.
And how can you find winter mushrooms in the forest? Fans of "quiet hunting", who have many years of experience in this business, say that such an occupation is not easy. In addition to fallen trees and stumps, you need to look into the hollows. Sometimes there you can find a whole "army" of honey-golden "soldiers". In addition, collecting mushrooms, you should not only look at your feet, but also look up. Winter mushrooms can often grow at a height that can reach up to 3 m. In this case, you should take a long stick with a hook, thanks to which it will be easy to remove mushrooms from a tree.
How fast winter mushrooms grow and when can they be collected?
It is also interesting to many novice mushroom pickers, how fast are the winter mushrooms growing? As you know, all mushrooms, without exception, grow very quickly. If the weather has been established outside the window, favorable for the growth of the fruit body, then after 2-3 days you can go to the forest. Under what circumstances, then, is the growth of the winter fungus? In this case, everything will depend on weather conditions. In the absence of strong and prolonged frosts, the fruit body can grow in a few days. According to researches, flammulin per day can increase by 1-2 cm. And vice versa, if it is cold, then the growth of such mushrooms practically stops, but only until the first thaw. It was with her arrival that the mushroom continued to grow, delighting with its variegated eyes in the "bare" forest. Therefore, in order to know when it is possible to go collecting winter mushrooms, it is necessary to navigate according to the weather, because the growth of fruit bodies depends on it.
The surface of the cap at the winter garland is slightly covered with mucus, which does not disappear even when boiled. In addition, it is customary to remove the leg of the fruit body completely, since it is too rigid. There is also evidence that the pulp of the fungus may contain a small amount of toxins, so it must always be subjected to heat treatment. To do this, after cleaning the winter mushroom is boiled in salted water for at least 20 minutes, and then proceed to the preparation of dishes.