Osote (Sonchus) - genus of Asteraceae family plants. Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes turning wood at the base. The genus includes about 70 species. Garden sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) and Sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis) are weeds. Sometimes the thistle is called some types of bodyplay.Young plant thistle. © carol
Roots long, well developed (with accessory buds). The root system of the field sow is different in its surface location. The main taproot does not descend into the ground deeper than 50 cm. Long horizontal roots extend from it, reaching one meter or more in length, lying no deeper than 6-12 cm. The whole root system of the stem is very brittle, even minor fragments of roots (up to 3 cm long) able to root and form shoots. Reproduction of sow thistle in crops is almost exclusively due to the formation of root shoots. The stem is erect, at the top of the glandular hairy or naked. The leaves are lanceolate-pinnate with triangular lobes, provided with rounded ears at the base. Upper leaves whole. Inflorescences are rather large baskets, when open, up to 3 cm in diameter. Bloom thistles from July to September. Achenes are oval, oblate, 2.5-3 mm long, 0.75-1 mm wide and 0.4 mm thick. They are dark brown, stupidly rounded at the top, narrowed to the base, with 5 rather strongly protruding longitudinal ribs. Leaf of white simple soft hair easily separated from the seed.
Almost all of Europe and North Africa, as an invasive plant in America, Australia and Japan. On the territory of Russia: the whole European part, the Caucasus, the southern part of Western and Eastern Siberia, the north of Central Asia, the Far East.
Weeding can help combat the thunderbolt. In the spring, the nutrients accumulated in the roots support the growth of the vegetative system of these perennial weeds. In the first 2 weeks, the roots, providing vegetation, are significantly depleted, and only then the emerged vegetative system begins to give nutrients to the roots. If at this moment to destroy the aboveground part of the plant, it will regenerate the vegetative system again at the expense of the roots, further weakening them. Thus, repeating the weeding of perennial every 2 weeks, you can simply completely drain it.
Against thistle helps digging with a sample of rhizomes, in extreme cases - frequent mowing. In early spring, the thistlehead is uprooted, while it can still be pulled out of the damp earth.
In the fall, if the soil is clogged with weed seeds, apply a soilless treatment in which the seeds remain on top (at a favorable depth). The weeds sprouted in the autumn or next spring will be destroyed by frost or at the first tillage. But if the littered soil is plowed up or dug up with a shovel, the seeds will “spread” over the entire arable layer, partially germinate, and, if the depth is unsuitable for germination, they will linger, remaining germinating for up to 20 years or more. Therefore, to break the lumps formed during the digging, it is impossible.Field sow thistle, or Yellow thistle, or Euphorbia Thistle (Sonchus arvensis). © 4028mdk09
A simple and easy way to deal with unattractive weeds in the garden, between courtyards and in front of the house - the so-called Moorish lawn - sowing seeds of flowering and growing perennial wild plants (by the way, they can also be planted by moving strong specimens from a forest or meadow meadow). It is advisable to keep the ground under the lawn under steam (not sown) in order to identify the worst weeds, and then apply compost or complex mineral fertilizer (60-100 g per 1 m2, better in full moon or diminishing moon). The seeds mixed with sand are scattered along and across the site.
A thick liquid (jelly) is released from the stem of the broom, for which the people have received the name “spurge”. All flowers in the baskets have light yellow reed petals. Young leaves and stems are edible. With great pleasure is eaten by pets. It has strong growth energy.
It grows in all regions on fallow lands, in vegetable gardens, along roads, along the banks of reservoirs, in thickets of bushes, weed plant.
In Chinese medicine, the use of roots as a styptic is recommended; herbs are recommended as a tonic and tonic vitamin-a means. Juice of the leaves, mixed with egg yolk, was used in folk medicine for the treatment of breast cancer.
For the treatment of jaundice as a laxative and choleretic use herbs and roots of sow thistle. Water infusion of a broomstick garden drink at inflammatory processes of a stomach, intestines, a liver, lungs, at jaundice, hemorrhoids. Fresh and boiled grass - in the form of poultices with inflammatory painful seals, with chronic gastroenteritis, sore throat.
Root thistle is used for jade.
The vegetative mass of plants is useful in osteo-articular tuberculosis, fevers, as anthelmintic, in urolithiasis, as diuretic, tonic, as well as in ascites, epigastric pain, in hemorrhoids, hemoptysis, as detoxification in scorpion bites, use leaves.
And how do you fight this evil weed? We are waiting for your recommendations!
This perennial plant belongs to the Aster family, capable of reaching a height of 120 cm. It is distinguished by a powerful root system consisting of a main taproot with numerous processes located on it. The erect stem is naked in the upper part, at the bottom there are branches covered with rigid leaves. They have an oblong shape, jagged edges and bright green color. The lower stem leaves, gradually narrowing, form a winged petiole.
Flowering time - from June to October. Throughout the summer period, the pink thistle is covered with baskets of small reed flowers of pink or red-violet color. In the evening, as well as in cloudy weather, they close. In place of the flower, a fruit is subsequently formed, which is a lateral flattened and curved achene. One plant can produce up to 6500 shiny gray seeds. They have a striated surface and a falling tuft, thanks to which they are easily transported over long distances. Their germination can persist for 20 years. Thanks to this, the field thistle has excellent survival. Its botanical description is in many respects similar to other varieties of sows - garden, yellow. All of them are considered malicious weeds, from which it is very difficult to get rid of.
For the preparation of therapeutic agents use all parts of the plant. Preparations based on leaves and flowers of osate improve blood formation, activate mental and physical activity, strengthen the immune system. With their help, you can get rid of angina, various inflammatory processes, hemorrhoids and jaundice. Sosot helps to improve metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels, normalizes the menstrual cycle and restores the central nervous system. Means prepared from the roots of this plant help with bone and joint tuberculosis and fever. Harvest the grass during flowering, drying it in a dark ventilated room.
Where grows the breech
Sow thistle pink (field thistle) is found almost everywhere: in the garden, in the field, near the roads, in the garden. This completely unpretentious plant is capable of settling on any soils, including dry and saline. But prefers moist black soil. Osote is spread throughout the Eurasian continent: in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and the Far East.
All sow thistles multiply both in seed and vegetative ways. This is the most difficult to overcome weeds (photos and name can be found in this article). Numerous thistle seeds have the ability to move through the air over considerable distances. The root system penetrates the soil so deeply that the plant is not afraid of any drought. In addition, the roots of bream have an amazing property - when they are damaged, they release a lot of new shoots, rising in the form of shoots to the surface. Thus, digging a plot does not eliminate this weed, but leads only to its greater distribution. Rootwood is very fragile, so weeding only helps the weed to multiply.
How to fight?
There are several ways to get rid of pink rosewood in the garden or at the dacha. The choice of the most suitable of them depends on the specific case. The main thing is to act quickly. As soon as the pink thistle is seen on the plot, the control measures should be used immediately. When the first shoots appeared, the root did not go deep into the ground and you can easily pull it out of the ground. If the weed has already grown, use the following methods:
- Use of herbicides. Chemicals are far from a harmless option, and they should be used carefully, eliminating contact with other plants. It is necessary to spray only the ground part of the weed and, in accordance with the instructions, observe the indicated dosages. The treated leaves wither quickly, and the herbicide along the stem penetrates the root system of the plant, destroying it too. Today, various herbicides are available ("Lontrel-300", "Lornet", "Agron"), from which almost all the weeds die (photos and the name of the preparations should be familiar to every gardener).
- There is a more gentle remedy against thunder - it is kerosene. They are also sprayed on the ground part of the weed. At the same time, kerosene has the property of rapidly evaporating, therefore, other garden plants adjacent to the sow thistle do not suffer.
- Weeding. The method is quite time-consuming, since the procedure is carried out repeatedly since early spring and throughout the summer. Weeding, carried out every two weeks, allows you to completely deplete the weed. Sow thistle is removed along with the rhizome, and then carefully weed, destroying all residues.
- Digging. Produced by the same principle as weeding: the soil is dug up in such a way that not a single thistle root remains in the ground.
- Cropping At emergence of shoots with formation on a weed from 1 to 4 leaves the plant is removed by means of a flat cutter. Perform the procedure in such a way as not to damage the root system, otherwise it will lead to rapid growth of new plants. If, nevertheless, a similar situation arose, the young shoots are also pruned in the outlet phase. Gradually, the rhizome will be exhausted and will no longer be able to ensure the emergence of new plants.
- Mulching. This is one of the easiest ways to control weeds. Even if the pink thistle breaks through the layer of mulch, it is broken and placed in compost. It is important not to delay the removal of the weed to prevent seeding.
- Use of green manure plants. Lupine, nettle, pea, alfalfa, rye, etc. are suitable for this role. After sowing these plants closer to the autumn and waiting for them to germinate, the beds are covered with cardboard, leaving it in this form until spring. Not a single weed in this greenhouse can not survive.
What is a breech?
Sow thistle - a plant belongs to the family of Compositae (or Aster), and can be both annual and perennial. Sow thistle reaches 50-170 cm in height and braids the surface layer of soil with a dense and branchy network of roots.
The stem of the bream is usually straight, bare, or slightly pubescent with spiny hairs, less often branchy. Dense, juicy bright green leaves grow at the base of the stem, and on top it is always leafless. The shape of the leaves of the sow-tree can be regular, whole, pinto-lobed or pinto-dissected, and their edges are almost always covered with spiny cloves. The lower leaves usually form a common petiole, therefore the sow thistle has the appearance of a bundle growing from one point.
Thistle flowers are small, they consist of a variety of soft, thin, needle petals, as if looking out of a common basket. In one inflorescence there can be 4-8 such baskets, and in some types of thistle they close in the evenings and in cloudy weather. Ripened seeds of broomstick are well spread around the district due to the fluffy tuft, with which they fly in the wind.
Sow thistle - the most enduring weed
Why does this plant fit to award an Oscar for the best role of a weed? Because it multiplies at once in two ways: vegetative and seed, and even does it continuously. One bush thistle per year produces up to six and a half thousand flying seeds that travel through the air over long distances.
At the same time, every young plant in the first year of its life goes deep into the soil by two meters, and after another couple of years - by four meters. And whenever the root system is damaged by agricultural tools, new shoots are formed on it, which rise to the surface and sprout. It is a kind of natural protection for the weed against weeding.
How to deal with the thistle in the garden? If the bush is still young, 15-20 cm in height, it can be carefully pulled out of the soft soil along with the root. But from the thickets of massive, adult plants can be eliminated only by deep digging, shaking the ground and extracting all the found roots. Moreover, even such measures do not give a guarantee. In areas where thistles were thickets prior to the cultivation, it is necessary to carry out preventive weeding twice a month.
Important: thistle seeds that have fallen deep into the ground during digging, retain their vegetative properties for twenty years and give birth to new weeds!
Is it worth trying to eradicate foreboding in your plot forever, it's up to you, but before throwing out the plants, consider whether to prepare them for future use in order to use them for medical purposes? With the help of a blackberry, you can lower the temperature, relieve a headache, alleviate the condition of the patient with hemorrhoids and get rid of many other health problems.
The best time for collecting and harvesting the above-ground part of the thistle is summer and early autumn, that is, the flowering period, and it is recommended to dig up the roots in October, before the onset of the first frost. Raw materials need to be properly washed from the remnants of the earth and spread out on clean paper somewhere under a canopy or on the windowsill of the window that overlooks the non-solar side of the house. Sow thistle should gradually dry without direct sunlight, and then it can be folded in paper or linen bags and put into the closet.
Yellow sow thistle (field)
This perennial giant reaches the height of human growth and inhabits abandoned fields and wet valleys of river banks. The main vertical root of the field sludge deepens four meters into the soil, and the horizontal side roots extend radially one meter around.
The stalk of the tallest species, the cedar is hollow inside, straight and branching on the top, covered with spiny hairs. The color of the leaves is not as cheerful green as that of a garden weed. They are dark, with a gray or even bluish tint, rough, long and jagged at the edges.
Field thistle is called yellow because of the flowers, forming a large broom-like inflorescences, consisting of water-jug baskets. In color and shape, the petals of flowers are similar to dandelion - they are also long, needle-like and soft. Bees like this plant, so field sow thistle is considered one of the best honey plants. And it helps people cope with headaches, vascular diseases and neuroses.
Yellow Thistle is used in folk medicine for the treatment of the following diseases:
Inflammatory processes in the digestive tract and respiratory organs,
The “cultural” relative of the field sow thistle, which is the cause of the headache of all summer residents, is not very tall: 30-100 cm. The stem is also hollow, but it branches much more intensively, starting from the base to the very top. The leaves are long, pointed and toothed, rich green in color, much softer and more juicy than those of a field fellow. The flowers of the garden sludge are larger (baskets reach 3.5 cm in diameter), but at the same time they form not so extensive inflorescences. And the seeds look about the same - dark brown, oblong, with fluffy tuft.
Garden sow thistles can help with the following health problems:
Non-healing wounds and cuts,
For treatment, you can use not only dry, but also fresh garden sludge: pickle the leaves, finely chop, put one tablespoon of raw material in a glass and steam it with boiling water, pouring it to the top. After an hour, strain the infusion through a double layer of sterile gauze and take a tablespoon three times a day 20 minutes before meals.
This species is a direct relative of the field sow thistle, and it is also sometimes called body harness. It has a smaller growth (up to 120 cm), a different color of inflorescences (pink or purple) and a more modest size of panicles. But the rhizome of the pink thistle is as powerful as that of the yellow, the leaves have approximately the same structure, shape and grayish tint, and it also refers to perennials.
Pink thistle is widespread throughout the European territory of Russia, but it prefers to settle on fertile nitrogenous soils, especially along the banks of rivers and lakes. Это прекрасный медонос – с одного гектара осотового поля пчелы могут произвести до 140 кг мёда за один сезон. Применяют розовый осот точно так же, как и два вышеописанных вида – против лихорадки, головных болей, кровотечений, воспалений, неврозов и для нормализации уровня сахара в крови.
Important: sow thistle, especially young leaves of the pink and garden species, can be used not only for medical purposes, but also for culinary purposes.
In Russia, there were many recipes for cooking chaff: soups, stews, salads, sauces and gravy, and now, unfortunately, they are almost forgotten and gone out of use. Fresh young thistle salad is able to enrich the body with vitamins, and seasoning from dried leaves gives a spicy taste to meat and fish dishes.
Before adding the sludge leaves to the salad, it is better to soak them in a weak salt solution for half an hour to eliminate the characteristic bitterness. And the stems and leaves going to the soup, simply grind in the hands - so they get a softer taste. To prepare the seasoning, the pre-soaked leaves of the bilge is dried, then ground to powder and poured into a wooden, covered dish.
The interest to osot, as well as to other poisonous plants with useful properties, has recently intensified, but its chemical composition still remains not fully understood.
It is certain that the sediment contains:
Antioxidant and Immunostimulant,
Regulates metabolism and redox reactions,
Promotes protein synthesis
Strengthens bones, hair and nails
Slows down the aging of the body.
Necessary for the proper operation of the endocrine and immune systems,
Strengthens the walls of blood vessels and contributes to blood formation,
Fights free radicals and warns oncology,
Increases stamina and mental activity,
Normalizes the nervous system.
Accelerate the regeneration and renewal of body cells
Give energy and stimulate metabolic processes,
Promote the removal of harmful substances and purify the blood,
They help to speed wound healing and tissue repair.
Saponins and bitterness:
Strengthen the body's defenses
Facilitate digestion and stimulate appetite
Relieve tension and fatigue.
Promotes weight loss and speeds up metabolic processes,
Neutralizes epigastric discomfort, eliminates pain and colic,
It has a delicate diuretic and laxative effect,
Relieves hangover and heartburn.
Lowers LDL (bad cholesterol),
Helps the liver and gall bladder,
Promotes full absorption of fat from food,
Extends youth and accelerates cell renewal,
Stimulates the work of all muscles, including the heart,
It supports the nervous system and helps resist stress.
Regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism,
Promotes the absorption of vitamins and minerals from food,
Strengthens the immune system and normalizes the microflora of internal organs,
Provides harmonious work of the digestive tract,
Effectively relieve pain of any etiology,
Reduce high blood pressure and body temperature
Prevent the occurrence and development of tumors, including malignant,
Strengthen vascular walls and reduce bleeding,
Suppress inflammatory processes and promote rapid healing.
Harvesting and storing
Thistle grass is harvested mainly during its flowering period. There is no specific time, you just need to choose the appropriate plants. When it comes to leaves, they are also valuable in pharmacology, but only young, not hardened ones are suitable for collecting, because they are harvested from May to mid-June. Drying of raw materials should be on the street or in a well-ventilated area, but it should be a shaded area without direct sunlight. Since a sow thistle is a sample of an excellent honey plant, on the territory of its collection one must behave extremely cautiously, for fear of bees.
Application in everyday life
It would seem that weed is only, but, nevertheless, one can make a good taste from it and, moreover, a very useful, fortified salad. To do this, the leaves of a young plant must first be soaked in cold water or a weak salt solution for at least 40 minutes, then finely cut with a kitchen knife. Salted cucumber is crushed here, finely rub horseradish and fill with sour cream. Served on the table often already smeared on bread, because it is desirable that the sour cream was thick, homemade.
Field sow thistle is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Aster or Compositae plants. The plant reaches a height of up to 170 cm, has an erect, often branchy, weakly pellied stem, which can be both naked and have a fringe of glandular hairs. The upper part of the stem has no leaves.
Leaf thistles have a bright green color, alternately arranged, can be either whole or pinodal-lobed, the lower leaves gradually tapering into a “winged” petiole. The edges of the leaf plate of the field sow thistle are spiny. The roots form a dense network that lies in the surface layer of the soil, and also have many accessory buds, which are easily broken when the soil is processed and a new plant begins to develop from them.
The usual depth at the root growth is up to 50 cm. The sow thistle of the field blooms with small yellow reed flowers, gathered in the inflorescences of the basket, which close in the evening and in cloudy weather. Baskets at the base are surrounded by a cup-shaped or bell-shaped wrap. Sow thistle blooms all summer until September. After flowering, a huge mass of seeds is formed (there are up to 6500 viable seeds per plant).
Seeds have a fluffy tuft of soft hairs, which are collected at the base in a ringlet. Thistle seeds are carried by wind over long distances, and the plant is unpretentious, it takes root anywhere. They germinate almost immediately - they have no rest period, so it is very difficult to fight with this plant.
In addition, the seeds are very "tenacious", when they hit even deeper, for example, when plowing the ground, they retain their germination for up to 20 years. The sow thistle is known more as a malicious, difficult-to-remove weed, but it also has useful properties that have been used by people since very ancient times.
The therapeutic properties of the sow thistle field
Sow thistle is a magnificent honey plant with healing properties. Its useful properties are used in the treatment of various neuroses, vascular diseases, treatment of hemorrhoids, fever, headaches, sore throats, bone and joint tuberculosis, nephritis, chronic gastroenteritis, and other diseases.
The healing properties of herbs and leaves of sludge are also used in the diet, as a fortifying and vitamin remedy. Osot has a poorly studied chemical composition, but today it is known that it contains various vitamins, including a lot of vitamin C, bitterness, fatty oils, carotene, alkaloids, choline, tartaric acid, tannins and inulin (many in the roots of the plant) .
Preparation of medicinal raw materials
Practically all parts of the plant have medicinal properties, but leaves, shoots and roots of sow thistle are harvested for medicinal raw materials.
Leaves and young shoots are harvested during the flowering period of the black-thistle, which lasts from June to September inclusive. Dried in the shade under a canopy, spread out in a thin layer on a clean bedding or on a fine mesh.
The finished raw materials are stored in a dry place, preferably in paper bags, not more than a year. Procurement of roots and rhizomes produced in the autumn, starting in September. Roots are thoroughly washed, cut into small pieces and dried as well as the rest of the raw materials. Store no more than two years.
The use of thistles in traditional medicine
Sow thistle has long been used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. So, juice (similar to milk) is used to treat the liver, and the whole plant - for hemorrhoids and gout. Milky sap juice is a potent diuretic, and warts are removed. Crushed fresh sheet treat bleeding wounds.
Young leaves (they were previously soaked to remove bitterness) are used as a vitamin remedy (they prepare salads and soups), especially in early spring. The above-ground part of the osate in the form of infusions or decoctions is used as a tonic, anti-fever, anti-inflammatory and antihelminthic. The roots are used in jade, as well as a tonic and hemostatic agent. Boiled roots taste like girasol, so they are also used in salads.
- To relieve inflammation and stop pulmonary hemorrhage, use the sow thistle in the form of decoction. Prepare it like this: 1 table. l the crushed leaves and shoots of the plant are poured with a glass of boiling water and boil for another 3-4 minutes. Then remove from heat, let cool and drink during the day in 3-4 doses this volume.
- In the treatment of ulcers and poorly healing wounds, the decoction according to the above recipe is used in the form of lotions and compresses.
- To calm the nervous system, relieve headaches, improve metabolism, make infusion and drink it in a tablespoon 4 times a day. Infusion is prepared as follows: 1 table. l plants pour a glass of boiling water and infuse for at least an hour.
- For hemorrhoids, they make an infusion according to the recipe: take a handful of grass; pigeon (dry) is poured with a liter of boiling water and boiled for 5-10 minutes. Then poured into a bath or into a basin and make warm baths for 15 minutes, three times a week.
- For the treatment of inflammations of internal organs (stomach, liver, intestines), with jaundice and as a remedy for worms, make an infusion with a prescription: 1.5 tbsp. l herbs pour a glass of boiling water and insist for at least an hour in a well-wrapped container or thermos. Then filter and drink tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
Drug-based drugs can not be used for: idiosyncrasy, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Sow thistle - a plant though slightly poisonous, but before its use it is necessary to consult a doctor (especially for those patients who suffer from acute or chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or the spleen).