Sow thistle - a type of perennial or annual herbaceous plants. It belongs to the Astrovye family (Compositae). The height of the plant stems is 50–170 cm (depending on the growing conditions and the species). Sow thistle forms a dense network of roots - horizontal roots lie in the surface layer of the soil, and the vertical rhizome penetrates deep into.
The plant has a slightly pubescent simple stem (bare or pubescent with glandular hairs, straight or branched). The upper part of the stem remains bare. The leaves are painted in bright green color - they can be pinnately cut, alternate, pinto-lobed, whole. The lower stem leaves gradually narrowed, turning into a winged petiole. The edges of the leaves in most species of thistle thistles are prickly.
Small reed flowers of the plant are collected in baskets. In many species of blackmail, they close in the evening and in cloudy weather. At the base of the basket are surrounded by a cup-shaped or bell-shaped cylindrical wrap. Flowering season - from June to October. Thistle seeds have a falling tuft - it is formed from soft, thin, slightly jagged hairs joined at the base to form a ring. Each plant produces about 6500 seeds, carried by the wind and germinating without a rest period. Germination of their saved over 20 years.
Sow thistle is weed grass, which is very difficult to get rid of. In addition to high fecundity, sow thistle spreads with the help of roots - just digging up the area where it grew, you can get a young growth (roots with accessory buds break and give new shoots). Sow thistle can grow on any type of soil and under adverse conditions for other plants. The plant is common in Africa and Eurasia. It can be found in gardens and orchards, in littered areas and in uncultivated fields.
Types of sow thistle
There are about 80 species of sow thaw (among them there are subshrubs). Main types:
• Sow thistle - survivable field weed. The grass litters any types of crops, is found in vegetable gardens and gardens. The height of the plant is 170 cm, the root is immersed in the soil by 4 meters, the horizontal roots are about a meter long. It grows in the European part of Russia, in Central Asia and the Crimea, in the Caucasus and the Far East, in Western and Eastern Siberia.
• Garden sow thistle - one-year-old pernicious weed, having a branched stem about a meter long. It grows in the Far East, in the European part of Russia, in Siberia. Weeds litter the fields, gardens, gardens.
• Sow thistle pink is a perennial herbaceous weed plant 1 m high. The plant of this species has a long stem rhizome and lateral roots. The plant is common in the European part of Russia. It grows in vacant lots, fields, pastures, near roads.
• Thistle yellow - a perennial weed with a bare long stem. This species is widespread.
For medicinal purposes, use the aboveground part of the plant. Grass is harvested during flowering. Dry it in well ventilated areas. Drugs prepared from sowwood have anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, choleretic, lactogenic properties.
The extract of a soton is used at diseases of the central nervous system. Sosot is used in the treatment of helminthic invasions, headaches, neurosis, metabolic disorders, vascular diseases. Osote drugs are prescribed as a tonic, as well as for resorption of seals after injuries and bruises.
The juice of the blackberry helps to remove warts. Broths and infusions of osote treat jaundice, fever, inflammatory diseases of the liver. The plant serves as an antidote for opium poisoning. Steamed herb is used for sore throat and chronic gastroenteritis. The roots of sow thistle are also used in traditional medicine - nephritis, osteo-articular tuberculosis, and fever are treated with drugs based on them.
Sow thistle can be used as pasture for livestock. In times of famine, grass was soaked in salt water, and then used to prepare various dishes — soup, salads. The food can also be eaten with boiled roasted chick roots (they resemble topinambour to taste). Sow thistle - an excellent honey plant (from 1 hectare bees collect about 110 kg of nectar). Cedar honey is often used for winter feeding of bees.
Osote drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy, during lactation, as well as with the individual sensitivity of the body.
Sow thistle - a plant with useful properties. Despite the fact that the breech is a weed, people still appreciate it and use it to treat various ailments.
Why is the sow thistle useful? Chemical composition and application
Sowing Thistle - a plant that belongs to the family Aster (Asteraceae), also has a second name - asteraceae or Compositae. Of course, when this word is pronounced, everyone who has even a mediocre relationship to vegetable gardens and self-cultivation of anything on the ground immediately sees this malicious weed, so to speak, in all its glory. They do not like it, first of all, because the harder it is to chop its roots, the greater the number of these plants will grow on this plot of land. So, the root system is very developed, strong and clinging tenaciously to the ground. The ground part has the appearance of a single-stalked plant up to 80 centimeters high with rigid leaves and a thick, fleshy stem that is difficult to cut. Its leaves are spiky at the edges, whole, lanceolate. Flowers do not have particular decorative properties, they have the form of small, no more than 4 centimeters in diameter circles, most often yellowish in color. All flowers are collected in one corymbose inflorescence.
Its seeds, and there are more than 6,000 of each of these plants, germinate constantly, they have no dormancy period. Thus, plants multiply as a vegetative way, that is, through the roots, and with the help of seeds. The genus Asterovs is generally very large, it recites more than 70 of these plants. But the most common are two types of thistle - a garden, considered an annual plant, as well as a field, respectively, biennial. The plant is extremely unpretentious, universal and not demanding to environmental conditions, therefore it grows throughout the territory of Eurasia and even in Africa.
Harvesting and storing
Thistle grass is harvested mainly during its flowering period. There is no specific time, you just need to choose the appropriate plants. When it comes to leaves, they are also valuable in pharmacology, but only young, not hardened ones are suitable for collecting, because they are harvested from May to mid-June. Drying of raw materials should be on the street or in a well-ventilated area, but it should be a shaded area without direct sunlight. Since a sow thistle is a sample of an excellent honey plant, on the territory of its collection one must behave extremely cautiously, for fear of bees.
Application in everyday life
It would seem that weed is only, but, nevertheless, one can make a good taste from it and, moreover, a very useful, fortified salad. To do this, the leaves of a young plant must first be soaked in cold water or a weak salt solution for at least 40 minutes, then finely cut with a kitchen knife. Salted cucumber is crushed here, finely rub horseradish and fill with sour cream. Served on the table often already smeared on bread, because it is desirable that the sour cream was thick, homemade.
Osot: descriptionOsot (lat. Sónchus) - A group of herbaceous annuals and perennials that belong to the Aster family. The genus Osota includes over 70 species of plants.
Their common generic features are:
- 0.5-1.8 m - height,
- the vertical root, which lies to a depth of 4 m, and the horizontal roots, located in the upper layers of the soil up to 50 cm, form a dense root system,
- erect stem, slightly spiney, with lignified base. The stems are branched, bare or with a glandular edge of spiny hair,
- leaves with spiny green edges differ in shape - pinnate, lobed, dissected, etc.,
- in June, small-flowered yolk flowers bloom (grow in baskets with a wrap at the base). Flowering ends in October,
- seeds (6500 in one plant) with a tuft of fine hair, easily transferred by wind, do not have a rest period.
Sosot was widely spread in Eurasia (and also was brought to North America and Australia).
Most often in the middle lane are found:
- field sow thistle (S. Arvensis), yellow, milkweed - the description of the appearance largely coincides with the general code. Of the features - a perennial plant up to 1.8 m. The inner side of the leaves is dull, the outer - dark and shiny, the leaves are prickly, rough, with jagged edges. Pivotal and lateral roots with a large number of buds are developed. The flowers have a golden yellow color, bloom with many-flowered baskets in June-October. In the sosom field the healing properties are most pronounced,
- thistle garden (S. oleraceus), or rabbit salad, milk jug, tragus and others, grows to 1 m (annual plant). Stem - with burgundy shades, bare and hollow, more branched. Leaves are saturated green color, long, juicy and soft. The shape of the upper and lower leaves is different: the first - with the antennae, the second - lyre. It blooms from July to September with yellow flowers in a panicle (spines on the pedicels). Young stems and leaves are edible.
Thistleship is of no commercial interest either for animal husbandry as fodder or for official medicine as a medicinal plant. Special scientific research sosom not conducted.
Nevertheless, scientists have identified a number of useful elements in sedge:
- ascorbic acid, alkaloids, carotene (most of them are found in the aerial parts of the plant),
- fatty oils, saponin, tartaric, oxalic, lactic, malic and other acids, tannins (stem, leaves),
- choline, inulin (most of all in roots),
- light narcotic compounds (in leaves, stem, flowers),
- rubber (in juice), etc.
Thanks to these substances, thief is of interest to traditional medicine.
What is good for sow thistles: medicinal properties for the human body
Man has long adapted to find the slightest useful properties of the surrounding plants and apply them. Sowing is no exception, especially since this plant contains truly healing substances (recipes for drugs from sow thistle are presented in ancient Chinese treatises).
Use of leaves and stems
Grass thistles (primarily, the stems and leaves) exhibits its medicinal properties due to the presence of vitamins, alkaloids, choline and other beneficial substances.
These properties include:
- diuretic and laxative,
- pain reliever
- removal of hangover and heartburn,
- normalization of the liver and intestinal microflora,
- cholesterol lowering
- stimulation of the heart and blood vessels,
- beneficial effects on the intestines
- pressure reduction
- wound healing
- excretion of free radicals,
- blood formation stimulation, etc.
A vitamin tonic tea from stems and leaves is very useful (1 tbsp. spoon in a glass of boiling water, brew for 20 minutes. Drink on an empty stomach in the mornings and evenings).
The young leaves of field sap, crushed into a mush, are used as a styptic and healing agent - superimposed on the wound (with a slight burning sensation). The drug acts for two hours, after which you need to replace it with a new one.
What is useful underground part thistleDue to the high content of inulin, choline and alkaloids, rhizomes of osate help in the treatment of inflammatory processes in the kidneys, tuberculosis of bones, and diarrhea. High hemostatic and immunostimulatory properties of the roots of osate are used for cancer diseases.
Broths are made from all parts of the plant. Especially prized for decoction yellow field sow thistle - the treatment is more effective and therapeutic properties are more pronounced. Broths of leaves and stems help with inflammation, stop bleeding in the lungs, relieve pain in the liver.
For the decoction you need 1 tbsp. boil a spoonful of boil in 200 ml of water and cook for 3 minutes. Drink in three doses throughout the day. A decoction is used to heal ulcerative wounds (compresses are applied).
To reduce the hemorrhoidal manifestations, decoction is added to sessile baths (4-5 tablespoons of dried seson per liter of water, boil for 5 minutes. Take baths for 15 minutes three times a week).
A decoction of the roots serves as a remedy for jade (1 tablespoon of finely chopped root pour 500 ml of boiling water and cook for 5 minutes). Drink three times a day in a tablespoon. Take the medicine should be from 14 to 60 days (dates depend on the reaction of the body and the stage of the disease).
It helps with headaches, with nervous disorders, with liver diseases, has a general strengthening effect.
For an infusion requires a tablespoon of dried thistle in a glass of water. Pour boiling water over raw materials, close tightly and insist hour. Drink one tablespoon 4 times a day (45 to 90 days). Gargle infusion sosota help with periodontal disease.
Alcohol based liquor
An effective remedy for diabetes, cancer, bone tuberculosis, and hepatitis is tincture of alcohol on alcohol. For tincture requires fine-cut thistle root and alcohol (40 to 80 degrees). It is necessary to fill the roots with alcohol (1x1), put in a dark place for 21 days (sometimes you need to shake). Keep refrigerated.
Tincture should be taken on a special system: on the first day - three times two drops, the next day - three drops, then reduce to two drops, etc.
In sensorimotor disorders (restless legs syndrome), an effective and long-acting remedy is recommended for vodka tincture of thistle flowers. Pour vodka into a glass container with flowers and leave for 21 days in a dark place. Filter is not necessary. Tincture should wipe your feet at night (seizures usually occur at night).
The use of honey from sow
Sesame honey is very much appreciated due to its taste and healing properties. When collecting honey transparent with a yellowish or greenish tint, light floral aroma. Crystallization occurs in six months - it turns into a soft paste of white or caramel color. Taste is saturated, with gentle aftertaste. Energy value - 304 kcal. The collection period is long - from July to October. From 1 ha bees collect an average of 120-140 kg of nectar per season.
Especially this honey is useful for colds, when recovering from diseases and surgeries. Increases stamina and mental alertness. Because of its strong antiseptic effect, it is used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, boils, and wounds. Recommended for children and the elderly to strengthen the immune system. Tea with sostovym honey stimulates lactation lactating. Its regular use is recommended for nervous exhaustion and permanent stressful situations.
Honey sotovy retains many useful properties of sow, has a light therapeutic effect, therefore, is actively used in traditional medicine.
Use of sow thistle in cooking
The forgotten sphere of use of this plant is the culinary. You can make a lot of tasty, unusual, and most importantly - healthy dishes out of sow thistle or with its participation. In the spring, when the early vegetables are still far away, its young leaves and shoots will help overcome vitamin hunger. Osote use:
- raw (in salads). Leaf bilge need preliminary preparation - soaking in a solution of salt (1 tsp. Per glass) for 30 minutes. - this will reduce bitterness.
There are a lot of recipes for salads: mix the sow thistle with green onions, dill and parsley, season with sunflower oil and salt.
Another option: prepared and chopped leaves of sludge mixed with sardines from a jar, two medium-sized boiled potatoes, onion and seasoned with mayonnaise and sour cream. You can cook a salad with fresh or pickled cucumbers, boiled eggs, etc.,
- in baking as a filling: make envelopes from puff yeast dough, mix sliced sow thistle, parsley, dill, grated suluguni, put into envelopes, pinch edges and bake.
Garden sowing in dried form allows you to use its beneficial properties in the winter: greens are washed, dried, ground into powder, sieved through a sieve (100 g of dill powder is added to 500 g of powder to improve the taste). Sow thistle is also commonly salted for future use:
- for salting thistle (per liter jar) will be required: dill (2-3 umbrellas with seeds), black currant (7 leaves), garlic (4 cloves), salt (3 tsp.), horseradish (2 leaves). Хрен уложить на дно, сверху — помытые и высушенные листья осота (со специями, солью), примять. Сверху опять положить хрен. Емкость плотно закрыть и хранить в холодильнике. Такой продукт едят в качестве гарнира или добавляют при готовке в блюда из мяса,
- salting for green soups. Thistle leaves (can be with nettle) finely chopped, sprinkled with salt (half-liter jar of thistle - 1 tbsp. With top) and tightly stuffed in a jar, corked and left for two days in a warm place. After top sleep with salt and store in a cool place.
Osote: contraindications for use
Osote, despite its medicinal properties, has some contraindications.
The use of this plant is contraindicated in case of individual intolerance to children under the age of three years. It is necessary to refrain from the use of osota for pregnant women (sostovy honey is not contraindicated). Breastfeeding breast milk, you can drink tea from the broomstick (but no later than 40 minutes before feeding the baby).
Sow thistle is a type of annual or perennial herbaceous plants belonging to the Astrovye family (or Compositae).
This plant, whose height varies from 50 to 170 cm (depending on the species), forms a fairly dense network of roots that lie in the surface layers of the soil.
The stem of the broom can be straight or branched (most often the breech has a simple slightly spiny stem, which can be bare or pubescent with glandular hairs). The upper part of the stem is leafless.
The bright green leaves of the plant are alternate, pinnately dissected, pinodal-lobed or whole, while the lower stem leaves can gradually taper to the winged petiole. The edge of the thistle leaves is often prickly.
Small flowers of the blackeness are reed, they are collected in baskets, which in some species can be closed in the evening, as well as in cloudy weather. The flowers are collected in a common inflorescence. Baskets are surrounded at the very base of a cylindrical, bell-shaped or cup-shaped wrapper.
The seeds of the plant have an easily falling tuft that is formed from thin, soft (almost smooth) and slightly jagged hairs that are soldered at the base into a ringlet.
What soils grows thunder?
The area of distribution of osote is quite wide - this is Belarus, and Ukraine, and the European part of Russia, and the Far East, and the Caucasus, and Siberia (Western and Eastern), and Central Asia.
Thistles thrive in gardens, kitchen gardens, as well as in the fields (especially empty), preferring rich and abundantly moist soils, although it can grow on dry as well as slightly saline soils.
Osot - weed
Sowing is propagated both by seed and vegetatively. Each flower of the plant contains up to 6500 seeds, germinating without a rest period and carried by the wind over long distances.
In the first year of life, the osot, its root deepens into the ground by two meters, while in the third year the root goes four meters into the soil, and when the root is injured, the so-called “awakening” of dormant buds occurs, which start new sprouts, which leads to new plant.
It is possible to fight this plant through weeding, which is held every two weeks, which will help deplete the root system of the blackthorn. In the spring, roots that have not yet had time to take root deeply in the soil are pulled out.
Important! Seeds that had time to lie deep in the ground, retain their germination up to 20 years, and sometimes more.
BUT! Sow thistle is not only a weed, but also a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many serious diseases. Therefore, before completely destroying this plant, think that tomorrow it can help eliminate headaches, stop fever or relieve hemorrhoids.
For medicinal purposes, the grass sow thistle (mainly leaves and shoots) and roots are used. Thus, the aboveground part is collected during the flowering of the plant (from June to September), while the roots are recommended to be collected in the fall. Raw materials are dried in ventilated areas or under sheds, and direct sunlight on the raw materials should be excluded. Stored dried sow thistle in paper bags.
Field Bunker (yellow)
This type of sow-tree is a perennial plant, reaching a height of 150-170 cm. The main taproot of yellow sapwood goes four meters into the soil, while the length of horizontal lateral roots can be one meter.
Sow thistle has a bare hollow stem, on which are pointed, toothed leaves of gray-green color. The stem of the plant, pubescent with glandular hairs directly on the peduncles, branches at the top.
Golden-yellow flowers of the plant are collected in paniculate inflorescences.
The sow thistle inflorescence is a complex corymboid panicle from baskets that look like dandelion baskets (they have yellow-tongued flowers of yellow color, which many consider to be petals). The wrapping around baskets is yellow pitcher.
This type of sowing is widespread in wastelands, river banks, in ravines, gardens, and also in vegetable gardens.
Sow thistle, which is a good honey plant, has healing properties, thanks to which it is used in the treatment of vascular diseases, headaches, and neuroses.
In folk medicine, field sow thistle is used as a tonic, tonic and vitamin remedy in the treatment of:
- inflammatory processes localized in the stomach, intestines, lungs,
- chronic gastroenteritis,
- sore throats
- osteo-articular tuberculosis,
In addition, the grass and leaves of the plant are used in the diet.
Garden sow thistle
Garden sowing is an annual plant whose height is 30 - 100 cm.
The stem of this species is the thistle mostly branchy down to the base. The pointed-toothed and pinnately separated leaves of the garden sow thistle have sharp ears, while the upper leaves of the plant are sessile and the lower ones have a winged petiole. It must be said that the leaves of a garden baler are softer than those of a yellow broomstick.
Diffuse and inflorescence differs in these two types: for example, in the garden sowing tongue, the inflorescences are somewhat wider and often have reverse leaves with baskets that are 3.5 cm in diameter.
The fruits of the plant are brown seeds with a white tuft.
The distribution area of this species is identical to the locusts of the field sow thistle.
Garden sowing, as well as field, is used in traditional medicine for removing worms, treating painful inflammations, chest pains, colds, hepatic colic, pulmonary hemorrhages, gout, ascites, abscesses.
For the preparation of the infusion, which can be used in the above diseases, one tablespoon of the grass sote is poured with a glass of boiling water. Then the tool is infused for about an hour, filtered through a double layer of gauze and taken one tablespoon three times a day.
Fresh leaves of a garden broomstick are applied to cuts, furuncles, bedsores, and also bleeding wounds, which not only accelerates the process of wound healing, but also eliminates the risk of developing inflammation.
In addition, the garden sow thistle has a hypoglycemic effect, due to which it is recommended for people with diabetes.
This perennial, reaching a height of no more than 120 cm, has a strong root system consisting of a long stem rhizome, as well as lateral roots.
The stem of the plant is erect and branched.
Oblong spiny leaves, growing alternately, are stiff.
Fruits of pink rosewood are oblong seeds with a leaflet consisting of feathery hairs.
This type of thistle is growing on the European part of Russia, preferring fields, pastures, vacant lots and roadside sites. This thief is also demanding for the soil, which must be fertile and supplied with mineral nitrogen.
Drugs on the basis of rosewood sesame have bactericidal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and diaphoretic properties.
Like sow thistle yellow, this species is an excellent honey plant, giving up to 140 kg of healthy honey with only 1 hectare.
Pink sow thistle is used in folk medicine in the same way as the two species of this plant above. So, infusions and decoctions of rose thistle improve metabolic processes, providing a beneficial effect for neurosis, as well as headaches of various origins.
Interesting fact! Sow thistle (both field and garden) is used not only in medicine, but also in cooking. For example, salads, sauces, soups, and gravies are made from young leaves as well as plant stems. As a seasoning, dried sow thistle is added to meat and fish dishes. The fact is that the sow thistle has a bitter taste, giving the dishes a peculiar sharpness (although the presence of thorny thorns located on the leaves makes it difficult to process the plant).
To remove the bitterness present in the plant, sow leaves are soaked for half an hour in a 10% saline solution, after which the leaves are crushed and added to salads. The bitterness will disappear almost completely and if the thistle stem is slightly rubbed in the hands (for this reason, the above-ground part of the plant, which is used for cooking first courses, is not soaked). If you want to prepare such an original “seasoning” for the future, the stems and leaves are first soaked and then dried and ground into powder.
For the sake of justice, I would like to note that today the technology of cooking dishes from sow thistle has been little studied, as is the nutritional value of this plant, although our ancestors often used it in cooking.
- Wound healing.
- Pain reliever
Cure with Osota
The above-ground part of osate is used as a tonic, anti febrile, cooling, anti-inflammatory and thirst quenching agent for treating sore throat, inflammation of internal organs, chest pain, hemorrhoids and jaundice.
In addition, poultices made from fresh grass help to accelerate the treatment of bruises, as well as painful post-traumatic seals. Pounded fresh leaves of thistle help to stop the blood, for which it is enough to attach them to bleeding wounds.
The young leaves of sow thistle are used to make salads and soups.
Preparations based on sludge roots are used as an effective hemostatic and fortifying agent. Also, the roots of sow thistle in folk medicine used in jade.
Interesting fact! Boiled rosary roots resemble Jerusalem artichoke to taste, so the underground part of the plant can be used in the preparation of salads.
Special attention should be paid to the thick liquid protruding on the break of the leaves of the blackjacket. This "milky" juice is used to remove warts. In addition, sow juice is an excellent diuretic as well as an antidote used in opium poisoning.
The juice of the plant, mixed with egg yolk, is used in the treatment of breast cancer.
Field Thistle - Honey Plant
Sosotyvogo honey, belonging to the category of top-notch, is produced from nectar, which is collected from field sapwood (both yellow and pink).
Sow thistle is considered to be a good honey plant, readily visited by bees, which in one season collect up to 120 kg of nectar from just 1 ha of undergrowth (by the way, it is often sesot honey that is often used to feed bees in winter).
Useful properties of honey
Cedar honey is recommended for people undergoing recovery from past illnesses and operations. In addition, this honey can be consumed by children and people in old age in order to strengthen the immune system (this honey helps to cope with the depletion of the body).
Properties of sesotago honey:
- increase the body's defenses
- improving blood circulation
- increasing body tone,
- stimulate the process of wound healing.
Cedar honey has a pronounced antiseptic effect, due to which it is used in the treatment of gastritis, gastric ulcers, wounds and boils.
Salad is prepared from fresh leaves, as well as thistle stems, which are soaked in salt water for 40 minutes, which will help remove bitterness. But it should be remembered that the full bitterness is not eliminated, so the dishes cooked with the addition of chaff, have a peculiar sharp taste.
- hard-boiled egg - 2 pcs.,
- fresh cucumber - 2 pcs.,
- crushed fresh leaves and thistle shoots - 1 cup,
- vegetable oil - 2 tbsp.
- mustard - 1 tbsp.,
- salt to taste.
Eggs are cut into slices and cucumbers into slices, after which both components are mixed with the crushed aerial part of the plant. Dressing salad dressing, for the preparation of which it is necessary to mix the vegetable oil with mustard. Salted salad served to the table.
Grass is propagated by seeds and vegetatively. Each flower has up to 6500 seeds that are spread by wind and germinate without a dormant period. Even a small piece of the stem is able to give the root, which makes the plant the most dangerous weed. Weeding can help combat the thief, but it should be done every two weeks to deplete the root system. In the spring, before the roots go deep into the soil, the weed is pulled out.
In the autumn, if the ground is heavily clogged with seeds, apply bezotvalny processing, while the seeds remain on top of the soil. Thus, the sprouted weeds will be destroyed by frost or the first tillage. Seeds that are at a sufficient depth remain viable for up to 20 years or more.
Field sow thistle is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Aster or Compositae plants. The plant reaches a height of up to 170 cm, has an erect, often branchy, weakly pellied stem, which can be both naked and have a fringe of glandular hairs. The upper part of the stem has no leaves.
Leaf thistles have a bright green color, alternately arranged, can be either whole or pinodal-lobed, the lower leaves gradually tapering into a “winged” petiole. The edges of the leaf plate of the field sow thistle are spiny. The roots form a dense network that lies in the surface layer of the soil, and also have many accessory buds, which are easily broken when the soil is processed and a new plant begins to develop from them.
The usual depth at the root growth is up to 50 cm. The sow thistle of the field blooms with small yellow reed flowers, gathered in the inflorescences of the basket, which close in the evening and in cloudy weather. Baskets at the base are surrounded by a cup-shaped or bell-shaped wrap. Sow thistle blooms all summer until September. After flowering, a huge mass of seeds is formed (there are up to 6500 viable seeds per plant).
Seeds have a fluffy tuft of soft hairs, which are collected at the base in a ringlet. Thistle seeds are carried by wind over long distances, and the plant is unpretentious, it takes root anywhere. They germinate almost immediately - they have no rest period, so it is very difficult to fight with this plant.
In addition, the seeds are very "tenacious", when they hit even deeper, for example, when plowing the ground, they retain their germination for up to 20 years. The sow thistle is known more as a malicious, difficult-to-remove weed, but it also has useful properties that have been used by people since very ancient times.
The therapeutic properties of the sow thistle field
Sow thistle is a magnificent honey plant with healing properties. Its useful properties are used in the treatment of various neuroses, vascular diseases, treatment of hemorrhoids, fever, headaches, sore throats, bone and joint tuberculosis, nephritis, chronic gastroenteritis, and other diseases.
The healing properties of herbs and leaves of sludge are also used in the diet, as a fortifying and vitamin remedy. Osot has a poorly studied chemical composition, but today it is known that it contains various vitamins, including a lot of vitamin C, bitterness, fatty oils, carotene, alkaloids, choline, tartaric acid, tannins and inulin (many in the roots of the plant) .
Preparation of medicinal raw materials
Practically all parts of the plant have medicinal properties, but leaves, shoots and roots of sow thistle are harvested for medicinal raw materials.
Leaves and young shoots are harvested during the flowering period of the black-thistle, which lasts from June to September inclusive. Dried in the shade under a canopy, spread out in a thin layer on a clean bedding or on a fine mesh.
The finished raw materials are stored in a dry place, preferably in paper bags, not more than a year. Procurement of roots and rhizomes produced in the autumn, starting in September. Roots are thoroughly washed, cut into small pieces and dried as well as the rest of the raw materials. Store no more than two years.
What is a breech?
Sow thistle - a plant belongs to the family of Compositae (or Aster), and can be both annual and perennial. Sow thistle reaches 50-170 cm in height and braids the surface layer of soil with a dense and branchy network of roots.
The stem of the bream is usually straight, bare, or slightly pubescent with spiny hairs, less often branchy. Dense, juicy bright green leaves grow at the base of the stem, and on top it is always leafless. The shape of the leaves of the sow-tree can be regular, whole, pinto-lobed or pinto-dissected, and their edges are almost always covered with spiny cloves. The lower leaves usually form a common petiole, therefore the sow thistle has the appearance of a bundle growing from one point.
Thistle flowers are small, they consist of a variety of soft, thin, needle petals, as if looking out of a common basket. В одном соцветии может быть 4-8 таких корзинок, и у некоторых видов осота они закрываются по вечерам и в пасмурную погоду. Созревшие семена осота хорошо распространяются по округе за счет пушистого хохолка, с помощью которого они летают на ветру.
Где растет осот?
We will not be mistaken if we say - almost everywhere! Bulbs of sow thistle can be found in fields and gardens across the Eurasian continent, from Western Europe to the Far East. This plant is not too fastidious, and can settle even on dry and brackish soils, but most of all, the black-throated loves the wet black soil, from which you cannot expel it, as they say.
Sow thistle - the most enduring weed
Why does this plant fit to award an Oscar for the best role of a weed? Because it multiplies at once in two ways: vegetative and seed, and even does it continuously. One bush thistle per year produces up to six and a half thousand flying seeds that travel through the air over long distances.
At the same time, every young plant in the first year of its life goes deep into the soil by two meters, and after another couple of years - by four meters. And whenever the root system is damaged by agricultural tools, new shoots are formed on it, which rise to the surface and sprout. It is a kind of natural protection for the weed against weeding.
How to deal with the thistle in the garden? If the bush is still young, 15-20 cm in height, it can be carefully pulled out of the soft soil along with the root. But from the thickets of massive, adult plants can be eliminated only by deep digging, shaking the ground and extracting all the found roots. Moreover, even such measures do not give a guarantee. In areas where thistles were thickets prior to the cultivation, it is necessary to carry out preventive weeding twice a month.
Important: thistle seeds that have fallen deep into the ground during digging, retain their vegetative properties for twenty years and give birth to new weeds!
Is it worth trying to eradicate foreboding in your plot forever, it's up to you, but before throwing out the plants, consider whether to prepare them for future use in order to use them for medical purposes? With the help of a blackberry, you can lower the temperature, relieve a headache, alleviate the condition of the patient with hemorrhoids and get rid of many other health problems.
The best time for collecting and harvesting the above-ground part of the thistle is summer and early autumn, that is, the flowering period, and it is recommended to dig up the roots in October, before the onset of the first frost. Raw materials need to be properly washed from the remnants of the earth and spread out on clean paper somewhere under a canopy or on the windowsill of the window that overlooks the non-solar side of the house. Sow thistle should gradually dry without direct sunlight, and then it can be folded in paper or linen bags and put into the closet.
Yellow sow thistle (field)
This perennial giant reaches the height of human growth and inhabits abandoned fields and wet valleys of river banks. The main vertical root of the field sludge deepens four meters into the soil, and the horizontal side roots extend radially one meter around.
The stalk of the tallest species, the cedar is hollow inside, straight and branching on the top, covered with spiny hairs. The color of the leaves is not as cheerful green as that of a garden weed. They are dark, with a gray or even bluish tint, rough, long and jagged at the edges.
Field thistle is called yellow because of the flowers, forming a large broom-like inflorescences, consisting of water-jug baskets. In color and shape, the petals of flowers are similar to dandelion - they are also long, needle-like and soft. Bees like this plant, so field sow thistle is considered one of the best honey plants. And it helps people cope with headaches, vascular diseases and neuroses.
Yellow Thistle is used in folk medicine for the treatment of the following diseases:
Inflammatory processes in the digestive tract and respiratory organs,
The “cultural” relative of the field sow thistle, which is the cause of the headache of all summer residents, is not very tall: 30-100 cm. The stem is also hollow, but it branches much more intensively, starting from the base to the very top. The leaves are long, pointed and toothed, rich green in color, much softer and more juicy than those of a field fellow. The flowers of the garden sludge are larger (baskets reach 3.5 cm in diameter), but at the same time they form not so extensive inflorescences. And the seeds look about the same - dark brown, oblong, with fluffy tuft.
Garden sow thistles can help with the following health problems:
Non-healing wounds and cuts,
For treatment, you can use not only dry, but also fresh garden sludge: pickle the leaves, finely chop, put one tablespoon of raw material in a glass and steam it with boiling water, pouring it to the top. After an hour, strain the infusion through a double layer of sterile gauze and take a tablespoon three times a day 20 minutes before meals.
This species is a direct relative of the field sow thistle, and it is also sometimes called body harness. It has a smaller growth (up to 120 cm), a different color of inflorescences (pink or purple) and a more modest size of panicles. But the rhizome of the pink thistle is as powerful as that of the yellow, the leaves have approximately the same structure, shape and grayish tint, and it also refers to perennials.
Pink thistle is widespread throughout the European territory of Russia, but it prefers to settle on fertile nitrogenous soils, especially along rivers and lakes. This is a wonderful melliferous plant - bees can produce up to 140 kg of honey in one season from one hectare of cesspool field. Apply pink thistle in the same way as the two types described above - against fever, headaches, bleeding, inflammation, neurosis, and to normalize blood sugar levels.
Important: sow thistle, especially young leaves of the pink and garden species, can be used not only for medical purposes, but also for culinary purposes.
In Russia, there were many recipes for cooking chaff: soups, stews, salads, sauces and gravy, and now, unfortunately, they are almost forgotten and gone out of use. Fresh young thistle salad is able to enrich the body with vitamins, and seasoning from dried leaves gives a spicy taste to meat and fish dishes.
Before adding the sludge leaves to the salad, it is better to soak them in a weak salt solution for half an hour to eliminate the characteristic bitterness. And the stems and leaves going to the soup, simply grind in the hands - so they get a softer taste. To prepare the seasoning, the pre-soaked leaves of the bilge is dried, then ground to powder and poured into a wooden, covered dish.