The inhabitant of the tropics of Asia and Africa perfectly acclimatized in Europe and joined their ranks with new hybrid species and varieties. And if in its homeland the flower grows as a perennial, in a strip with a temperate climate it is exclusively a houseplant or a greenhouse plant. However, it can be grown on the plot, as letnik. Coleus grows quickly and tolerates a haircut that allows you to form a plant without causing damage.
Coleus varieties, and there are more than 150, differ not only in the color and size of the leaves, but also in their bordering. The edges of the leaf plates can be serrated, curly, deeply dissected, or fringed.
View of Coleus Blum and Vershffelt
They first came to Europe in the 19th century and became the founders of new hybrid varieties.
The sight of Coleus Blum, which is often called “room nettling,” has oval-elongated leaves, pointed at the end. The leaves are painted in different colors, from pink to dark burgundy, with a green wavy edging.
The Coleus Blum Butterfly variety has wavy leaves, The Chief has folded, Volkano has dark red, and Colden Bedder has yellow.
The appearance of Coleus Verschaffelt has larger, velvety leaves and bright coloration.
Ampelnaya view of coleus
Used in indoor and garden floriculture. It is grown in hanging baskets and pots. The plants in the balcony boxes and flowerpots look spectacular.
A large number of new varieties and hybrids combined into a separate species - a hybrid. Plant height varies between 30 and 80 cm. And the color palette of leaves excites the imagination. The brightness of colors, a variety of patterns on the leaves, their velvety surface attracts the attention of fans of ornamental plants.
All hybrid varieties are divided into series - so it is more convenient to navigate in the world of coleus.
In the Wizard series, coleus can be found, both with monophonic leaves and variegated: with contrasting edging, strokes and streaks.
Variety Wizard Velvet Red has bright red leaves with pink veins. In the Wizard Golden variety, the leafy plates are yellow-green in color; in the Wizard Scarlett they are red and the edges are creamy-yellow.
Differs more decorative leaves. There are varieties with twisted or coarse-toothed edges. In the Giant Fantasy variety, they are deep-cut, of a crimson color, framed with a cream border.
Another very beautiful coleus Black DragonBlack Dragon
Reproduction by cuttings
Having decided to decorate your window sill with an ornamental leafy plant, Coleus, you need to know how to propagate it. It is quite simple to do if the grower already has such a plant. And the shoots that remain after pruning may well be used as cuttings for planting. The height of the cutting should be about 10 cm, leaves are removed from its bottom and dredged into the damp ground.
To create a greenhouse effect, cover with a plastic cap or a transparent plastic cup. Rooting will be successful if you keep the plant pot in the shade, and the temperature will be equal to 20C.
In two weeks, it will be possible to transplant the rooted Coleus to a permanent place. Growing Coleus is characterized by simplicity and a high degree of rooting of each planted cutting.
Often, coleus shoots are simply placed in a glass of water, where a few drops of the root-stimulating drug are added and placed on the windowsill. The appearance of the roots in this case can be observed visually and when there are enough of them, the cuttings are planted in fertile soil.
Growing from seed
Growing from seed also gives excellent results, it is highly likely that every grain will germinate. So, for sowing need shallow boxes, fertile and light soil, and, of course, Coleus seeds. On the shelves of specialized stores today you can find excellent varietal mixes of Dutch or English production.
Seeds are placed on the surface of the ground, sprinkled with sand (but not buried), moistened with a spray bottle, covered with a transparent material and sent to germination on a warm and bright sill.
The optimum temperature for seed germination is 20-25C.
Crops should be ventilated daily and remove water droplets from the surface of the covering material. The appearance of the first shoots begins somewhere in 10-14 days. It is important not to miss this time and clean glass or polyethylene in time.
For further cultivation, boxes with seedlings are better placed on the western or eastern windowsill. Here, tender shoots will not fall under direct sunlight.
A month later, perhaps a little less, there will be about 2-4 true leaves on sprouts - this means that it is time to dive the seedlings. The first pick is carried out in separate small cassettes, where they will build up the root system. At the age of 6 weeks, they are transplanted into glasses with a volume of 300-400 ml, this is if the flower is planned to be planted in open ground.
For home cultivation, a second transplant is made into an already in a flower pot. Together with the transplant, pinching the top of the coleus is carried out, this will lead to more tillering.
An interesting detail: the cotyledon leaves of Coleus are green, and subsequent ones gradually acquire a color corresponding to their variety.
In the open ground the plant is planted after the final onset of heat. The place should be sunny and protected from the winds, and the soil should be fertile and with good drainage properties.
Planting is made by transfer to the wells located close to each other. After planting, Coleus must be watered.
Growing conditions for indoor coleusTo houseplant pleased you with its amazing leaves, you should know how to care for coleus at home. In principle, this business is not complicated, and does not require much time. But there are some subtleties and nuances that should be considered.
Watering and humidityColeus is poured over with warm and soft water. On hot summer days you need to ensure that the soil does not dry out, it must be constantly wet. In winter, watering can be reduced. The plant likes a warm shower and spraying. The flower likes moist air and tolerates dry very poorly. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out 1-2 spraying per day.
Features care for coleus in a period of rest
During the rest period (autumn-winter period), the plant will require less attention. The frequency of watering should be reduced, as the light day has become less. It is best to put flower pots in a wet pebble pan. Top dressing is carried out once a month. Some growers generally stop feeding Coleus in the winter.
Since the root system of a flower is not strong, it does not require frequent transplantation. The plant tolerates transplantation easily, which should be done in the spring after pruning. Replant the plant in a larger pot if the old one is already small. Grafting and soil renewal is carried out once a year. Coleus should be removed from the pot carefully so as not to damage the root system.When transplanting, lightly shake the ground from the roots and move it to a larger pot with new soil. Soil choose universal with an average pH, it should include: turfy ground, peat and humus. After transplanting, water and feed the plant.
How to prune coleus
Coleus pruning is done in spring and summer. The reason for pruning may be pulling branches and irregular plant shape. Pruning is performed to stop growth when it reaches the desired size. Pruning is also carried out after picking for better tillering or for grafting. Pruning should be carried out carefully, with sterile instruments, so as not to damage the plant and not to infect it with diseases. After pruning, the Coleus needs to be watered and fed well.
Reproduction Coleus at home
Reproduction of coleus is carried out in two ways: seeds and cuttings. For better growth and rooting, the soil for Coleus should be nutritious and moist.
On the prepared soil seeds are sown, which need to sprinkle the top with sand. After 14-20 days, the first shoots appear. In this case, dive seedlings to continue the growth of Coleus. A pick is provided by transplanting seedlings into cups with new soil. When transplanting to deepen the seedling in the ground need to the first leaves. After that, you need to spend another 2-3 picks. Do not forget to water young plants every two days.
Reproduction of coleus cuttings is carried out in February. Choose a stalk without flowers and buds with two pairs of leaves. Gently cut it off and put in the water. After 1-2 months, with the advent of the first roots, the stalk can be planted in a small pot with soil. Planted stalk in the ground on the lower leaves. Caring for planted plants, as well as for ordinary adult coleus.
Possible difficulties in growing Coleus
Cultivation of coleus does not cause any particular difficulties, as it is not a particularly capricious plant. But still flower growers are faced with such problems:
- peduncle ejection - with an insufficient amount of nitrogen in the soil,
- dangling leaves - in case of lack of moisture or high air temperature,
- dropping leaves - at low temperature or poor watering,
- leaves turn yellow and shrivel - with coleus disease or the presence of pests (aphid, mites, whitefly),
- plant pull - in case of insufficient lighting or untimely pruning.
So, if the leaves of the plant are regular in shape and brightly colored, it has a beautiful and healthy appearance - Coleus care is right.
General plant information
Decorative leaf foliage shrub family. In the wild, it is found in Asia and the tropics of Africa. As a houseplant, coleus is grown everywhere. The name “Croton poor” is common in the nation. So it was called because of the similarity in brightness with the popular flower.
The stalks of the plant are four-sided, the leaves are wide-oval with jagged edges, arranged oppositely. Leaves with petioles, velvety, variegated in color, with patterns and rims. Common colors are light green, red, white, brown, purple.
More than 150 species of the coleus plant are known. Many of them are grown at home - herbaceous perennials and evergreen subshrubs. All of them are unpretentious, grow quickly, have high decorative qualities. Flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences, inconspicuous. Peduncles removed, so as not to weaken the plant flowering.
Interesting! Coleus - indoor flower, which can be grown not only at home but also on the street! It is planted in flower beds. Combining varieties with different colors, create beautiful, rich color compositions.
Prized by growers for a variety of species and varieties. All of them are successfully grown in apartments.
- Coleus Blum. The most common variety. Shrub up to 80 cm. Shoots woody at the base. The colors are different, depending on the variety. Popular varieties are “Black Dragon”, “Wizard Jade”, “Wizard Golden”. The colors are yellow-green, fiery-red, purple, almost white. Characterized by the presence of rims in a contrasting color.
- Coleus Renelta. Origin - Sri Lanka. Height up to half a meter, oppositely located leaves sit on long petioles. The shape of the leaves is broadly heart-shaped, the edges are uneven, wavy. Prozhilki painted purple, yellow, red, brown shades.
- Coleus hybrid. Semishrub up to a meter in height with elongated oval-shaped leaves. For the species is characterized by a square cross-section of the stem. The color of the leaves - green or burgundy, depending on the lighting.
All varieties of Coleus unpretentious, characterized by active growth, for a long time remain decorative.
Interesting! The latest novelty of breeders - 10 varieties under the common name "Underwater World". Withdrawn to Canada. All of them in appearance resemble marine inhabitants. Their appearance is associated with coral reefs, scallops, crabs. The leaves are of fancy shape, in contrasting colors, framed by an asymmetrical fringe.
Care for coleus does not take much time. The flower responds to the creation of favorable conditions by rapid growth and saturation of the leaf color.
- Lighting. Photophilous plant Put on a well-lit place, but from the rays of the midday sun pritenyayut. Excessive sunlight leads to blanching of the color. Tolerates light partial shade. Preference is given to the western or eastern windows.
- Temperature. Grows well at room temperature, tolerates heat. Lowering the temperature during the period of active vegetation leads to a suspension of growth, inhibition of the plant. Control that the thermometer does not fall below 15 ° C. In the winter they keep in the room, the period of rest is absent.
- The soil. Use any light, nutritious soil. Suitable soil for indoor plants and ordinary garden soil. For loosening, add some fine sand or perlite. To maintain moisture, the soil is mixed with the soaked granules of the hydrogel.
- Watering. Water regularly, maintain a stable level of humidity. Oriented to the state of the top layer of soil. Its drying is a signal for the next watering. The frequency depends on the temperature and humidity level of the air.
- Humidity. High humidity creates favorable conditions for growth. The air in the room is artificially humidified; Coleus is sprayed from time to time with soft water at room temperature.
- Top dressing. Fertilizers are rarely applied - once a month is enough. Use complex mineral compositions for indoor plants. Accelerates growth during irrigation with fermented nettle extract.
- Transfer. Transplanted in the spring as needed when the pot becomes tight. When transplanting prune root system and stems. Coleus is buried in the soil to form additional roots. One third of the pot is filled with expanded clay.
Tip! Growing Coleus has one feature - it must be cut off. As soon as the young plant intensively grows, pinching of the tops begins. This stimulates enhanced branching and forms a beautiful crown of the plant. All peduncles immediately cut, not allowing the flowers to bloom. The leaves of Coleus are more beautiful than flowers, and flowering depletes the plant.
After the formation of a motley pattern on the leaves of seedlings, they are planted in separate containers, and then, for intensive tillering, they pinch the top at a height of 10 cm.
Signs of trouble
Leaves lose color, shoots are drawn - lack of light, especially in winter. Additional lighting is required.
Leaves fade - an excess of bright light. The plant needs shading.
Leaves fall - overdrying or remoistening of the soil. It is necessary to optimize the mode of watering.
Relative of variegated "nettle" - coleus forskolia at home, in India and Indonesia, has long been used as a means of normalizing metabolism. Prepared from the roots of this plant Forskolinwhich is used as weightloss remedy and balancing body weight - including bodybuilding.
Medical use of coleus in Tibet is part of coughing fees.
Thermophilic viable "nettle" with colorful foliage effectively decorates the bright window sills and open areas. Colorful leaves besides produce phytoncideswhich destroy pathogenic bacteria and actively heal the air of rooms decorated with coleus.