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Forest mushrooms, Photo
If the situation is more and less clear with the mushrooms growing under our feet, there is a lot of confusion with tinder growing on trees. For example, chagoy (a fairly well-known mushroom with its healing properties) is very often called a tinder real and even birch. Consider the most famous species (there are more than 30).
How to prevent mushroom poisoning? Causes of mushroom poisoning: For many who wish, there is a big temptation to “quietly hunt” in the forest and in the meadow, wanting to be alone for a few hours with nature and bring home a basket of mushrooms. What awaits a person - the pleasure of fried mushrooms or mortal danger? The forests are rich in russula, boletus, honey agaric, chanterelles and other mushrooms. But between the edible there are also poisonous, which multiply more intensively and are somewhat similar to the edible. Once in the body, they can cause severe food poisoning, which manifests itself in different ways, depending on which fungus caused the disease, the number of taken fungi, as well as the age and health of the victim.
Types of edible forest mushrooms with names, descriptions, photosAnyone who does not understand mushrooms, limited to their purchase in the supermarket. After all, champignons and oyster mushrooms, grown under the artificial sun, inspire more confidence than unknown natural gifts. But true mushroom pickers will not be able to be satisfied with the taste of fruits not smelling of needles and not washed in the morning dew. Yes, and deny yourself a forest walk on a clear day off is very difficult. So let's take a closer look at the external signs of the popular edible mushrooms in our region.
Main characteristics of edible mushrooms
All the biological and ecological diversity of planetary scale fungi is simply impossible to reach. This is one of the largest specific groups of living organisms, which has become an integral part of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Modern scientists know many species of the mushroom kingdom, but today there is no exact number in any scientific source. In different literature, the number of species of mushrooms varies from 100 thousand to 1.5 million. It is characteristic that each species is divided into classes, orders, and also has thousands of generic names and synonyms. Therefore, getting lost here is just as easy as in the forest.
- amino acids
- mycosis and glycogen (specific mushroom sugar),
- by sodium
- vitamins (A, C, PP, D, the whole group B),
- enzymes (represented by amylase, lactase, oxidase, zymase, protease, cytase, which are of particular importance because they improve the absorption of food).
- Boletus mushrooms, mushrooms and mushrooms.
- Boletus mushrooms, aspen mushrooms, duboviki, oilers, waves, whitegrass and champignons.
- Mokhovikov, valui, russula, chanterelles, morels and autumn honey agarics.
- Ryadovki, raincoats and other little-known, rarely collected instances.
In the botanical literature this forest trophy is referred to as a boletus or cep (Boletus edulis). In everyday life it is called Pravdivtsev, Dubrovnik, Shchirik and Belas. The variety belongs to the genus Boletov and is considered the best of all known edible mushrooms. In Ukraine, it is not uncommon and occurs in the period from early summer to mid-autumn in deciduous and coniferous forests. Often, boletus mushrooms can be found under birches, oaks, hornbeams, hazel trees, fir trees and pines.
- a hat with a diameter of 3 to 20 cm, a hemispherical, convex shape of a brown color with a smoky or reddish tinge (the color of the cap depends largely on the place of growth of the fungus: under the pines it is purple-brown, under the oak trees - chestnut or olive-green, and under the birches - light brown)
- leg length from 4 to 15 cm with a volume of 2-6 cm club-shaped, cream-colored with a grayish or brown tint,
- a grid of white color on the upper part of the leg,
- the pulp is dense, juicy-fleshy, white, which does not change when cut,
- spores spindle-shaped yellowish-olive color, about 15-18 microns in size,
- a tubular layer of light and greenish tones (depending on the age of the fungus), which is easily separated from the cap,
- the smell at the cut is pleasant.
These trophies are considered conditionally edible. They are eaten only by residents of the northern regions of the globe, and Europeans do not recognize them for food. Botanists call these mushrooms Lactárius torminósus, and mushroom pickers - callus mushrooms, broths and rubella. They represent the family Syeraezhkov family of Mlechnik, are pink and white.
- a cap with a diameter of 4 to 12 cm, with a deep groove in the center and convex, pubescent edges, a pale pink or grayish tint that darkens when touched,
- leg height of about 3-6 cm with a diameter of 1 to 2 cm, a cylindrical shape, a powerful and elastic structure with a specific pubescence on a pale pink surface,
- cream or white spores
- the plates are frequent and narrow, which are always interspersed with intermediate membranes,
- the flesh is dense and hard, white in color, does not change when cut, and is characterized by abundant, spicy taste, juicing.
- a cap with a diameter of 4 to 8 cm with a white densely pubescent skin (in older specimens its surface is smoother and yellow),
- leg height from 2 to 4 cm with a volume of up to 2 cm, a cylindrical shape with a low hairiness, dense structure and uniform color,
- the flesh is slightly fragrant, white in color, with a dense but fragile structure,
- spores of white or cream color,
- the plates are narrow and frequent,
- milky white juice, which does not change when interacting with oxygen and is characterized by acacia.
The species also represents the Syraezhkov family of the Mlechnikov. In scientific sources, the mushroom is designated Lactárius résimus, and in everyday life it is called the real fruit. Externally, this mushroom is characterized by:
- a cap with a diameter of 5 to 20 cm funnel-shaped with heavily tucked inside edges, with a wet mucous skin of a milky or yellowish color,
- leg up to 7 cm in volume up to 5 cm, cylindrical, yellowish, with a smooth surface and a hollow inside,
- the flesh is solid white with a specific fruit smell,
- spores of yellow,
- the plates are frequent and wide, white-yellow,
- the milky juice is caustic to the taste, white in color, which in places of slices changes to dirty yellow.
This bright mushroom with a peculiar form is found on postage stamps of Romania, Moldova, Belarus. This chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) represents the genus Cantarelova. Many will recognize her by:
- cap - with a diameter of 2.5 to 5 cm, which is characterized by asymmetrical protuberances at the edges and a leuke-like recess in the center, a yellow tint and smoothness of the surface,
- leg - short (up to 4 cm tall), smooth and solid, identical in color with a cap,
- disputes - their sizes do not exceed 9.5 microns,
- plates - narrow, folded, bright yellow colors,
- pulp - different density and elasticity, white or slightly yellowish, with a pleasant aroma and taste.
In scientific literature, oyster mushrooms in parallel are called oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatu) and belong to carnivorous species. The fact is that their spores are capable of paralyzing and digesting nematodes living in the soil. In this way, the body compensates for its nitrogen needs. In addition, the species is considered wood-destructive, as it grows in groups on the stumps and trunks of weakened living plants, as well as on deadwood. Oyster mushrooms can most often be found on oaks, birches, mountain ash, willows, and aspen trees. As a rule, these are thick bunches of 30 or more pieces that grow together at the base and form multi-tiered growths. It is easy to recognize oyster mushrooms by the following characteristics:
- hat in diameter reaches about 5-30 cm, very fleshy, rounded ear-shaped with wavy edges (young specimens have a convexity, and in adulthood becomes flat), a smooth glossy surface and an unstable peculiar tonality that borders with ashen, violet-brown and faded dirty yellow shades,
- mycelial plaque is present only on the skin of mushrooms that grow in a moist environment,
- leg up to 5 cm long and 0.8-3 cm thick, sometimes almost imperceptible, dense, cylindrical structure,
- the plates are thin, up to 15 mm wide, have jumpers near the legs, their color varies from white to yellow-gray,
- spores are smooth, colorless, elongated, up to 13 microns in size,
- the pulp with age becomes more elastic and loses juiciness, fibrous, does not smell, has an anise flavor.
Honey agarics is the national name of a certain group of mushrooms that grow on living or dead wood. They belong to different families and genera, and also differ in preferences for living conditions. Autumn food mushrooms are most often used for food purposes. (Armillaria mellea), which are a family of Fizalacria. According to various estimates of scientists, they qualify as conditionally edible or generally inedible. For example, among the Western gourmets, casts are not in demand and are considered a low-value product. And in Eastern Europe - this is one of the favorite trophies of mushroom pickers.
- a cap in diameter develops up to 10 cm, characterized by a bulge at a young age and a plane in a mature one, it has a smooth surface and a greenish-olive coloring,
- the stem is solid, yellow-brown, from 8 to 10 cm long with a volume of 2 cm, with small flaky scales,
- the plates are thin, white-cream-colored, darken with age to pinkish-brown shades,
- spores are white, up to 6 microns in size, have the shape of a wide ellipse,
- the flesh is white, juicy, with a pleasant aroma and taste, dense and fleshy on caps, and fibrous and coarse on the stem.
Most mushroom pickers prefer green boletus (Xerócomus subtomentósus), which are the most common of their kind. Some nerds enlist them in boletus. These fruits are peculiar to:
- a cap with a maximum diameter of 16 cm, a cushion-shaped bulge, a velvety surface and a smoky olive color,
- leg of a cylindrical shape, up to 10 cm high and up to 2 cm thick, with a fibrous dark brown mesh,
- brown spores, up to 12 microns in size,
- the flesh is snow white, in contact with oxygen, may acquire a slight blue.
Among the edible varieties of bolet, white, marsh, yellow, Bollini, larch species are popular. In our latitudes, the last variation is very popular. It is characterized by:
- cap up to 15 cm in diameter, convex, with a bare, sticky surface of lemon yellow or saturated yellow-orange color,
- leg up to 12 cm tall and 3 cm wide, club-shaped, with grainy-mesh fragments at the top, as well as a ring, its color exactly corresponds to the cap tonality,
- spores are smooth, pale yellow, ellipsoid, up to 10 microns in size,
- the flesh is yellow with a lemon tint, under the skin is brownish, soft, juicy with hard fibers, in old mushrooms the sections turn pinkish a little.
In the people this mushroom is also called Chernogolovik and Berezovik. In the botanical literature it is referred to as Léccinum scábrum and represents the genus Obabok. They recognize him by:
- a hat with a specific color, which varies from white to gray-black,
- knob-shaped stem with oblong dark and light scales,
- pulp of white color, which does not change upon contact with oxygen.
Represents the Syroezhkov family and charges about fifty species. Most of them are considered edible. Some varieties have a bitter aftertaste, which is lost with careful pre-soaking and cooking forest gifts. Of the whole mushroom kingdom russula stand out:
- with a spherical or prostrate head (in some specimens it may be in the form of a funnel), with rolled up ribbed edges, dry skin of different color,
- leg of a cylindrical shape, with a hollow or dense structure, white or colored,
- plates frequent, brittle, yellowish,
- spores of white and dark yellow tones,
- pulp is spongy and very fragile, white in young fungi and dark, and also reddish in old ones.
Fruiting of these representatives of the genus Obabok begins in early summer and lasts until mid-September. They occur most often in wet areas under shady trees. Rarely such a trophy can be found in coniferous forests. Aspen mushrooms are popular in Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, in Western Europe and North America. The signs of this forest fruit are:
- cap of hemispherical shape, with a circumference of up to 25 cm, with a bare or fleecy white-pink surface (sometimes there are specimens with brown, bluish and greenish tones of the rind),
- knob-shaped, high, white with brown-gray scales that appear over time
- brown spores
- the tubular layer is white-yellow or gray-brown,
- the flesh is juicy and fleshy, white or yellow, sometimes blue-green, when in contact with oxygen very soon becomes a bluish tint, after which it turns black (in the leg turns mauve).
These edible members of the Syrжoraches genus conquered all mushroom pickers with their specific taste. In everyday life, they are called reads or redheads, and in the scientific literature - Lactarius deliciosus. For harvest should be sent from August to October. Often, these trophies are in wet forest areas. In Ukraine, this is Polesie and Prikarpatye. Signs of mushrooms are:
- a hat with a diameter of 3 to 12 cm, a leuciform shape, sticky to the touch, gray-orange in color, with clear concentric stripes,
- the plates are rich orange, start to turn green when touched,
- warty spores, up to 7 microns in size,
- ножка очень плотная, по цвету с точностью соответствует шляпке, в длину достигает до 7 см, а в объеме — до 2,5 см, с возрастом становится полой,
- мякоть желтая в шляпке и белая в ножке, при взаимодействии с кислородом места срезов зеленеют,
- Milky juice is purple-orange (after a few hours it becomes dirty-green), it has a pleasant smell and taste.
In France, mushrooms are called absolutely all mushrooms. Therefore, linguists tend to think that the Slavic name of a whole genus of organisms from the Agarikov family is of French origin. Champignons have:
- the cap is massive and dense, hemispherical in shape, which with age becomes flat, white or dark brown in color, up to 20 cm in diameter,
- the plates are initially white, which turn gray with age,
- leg up to 5 cm high, dense, club-shaped, always having a single or double-layered ring,
- the flesh, which is of various shades of white, when exposed to oxygen becomes yellow-red, juicy, with a pronounced mushroom odor.
Outwardly, these fruits are very unattractive, but in their taste, they are considered a valuable delicacy. In everyday life, truffles are called “earthen heart”, since they can be located underground at half a meter depth. And these are “black diamonds of cooking”. Botanists include truffles to a separate genus of marsupial fungi with an underground fleshy and juicy fruit body. In cooking, the most valued Italian, Perigord and winter views. They mainly grow in oak and beech forests of southern France and northern Italy. In Europe, for "quiet hunting" use specially trained dogs and pigs. Experienced mushroom pickers are advised to pay attention to the flies - in places where they swarm, under the foliage there will certainly be an earthen heart.
Recognize the most valuable fruit can be on such grounds:
- potato-like fruit body, with a diameter of 2.5 to 8 cm, with a faint pleasant smell and large pyramidal protrusions with a diameter of up to 10 mm, olive-black,
- the flesh is white or yellow-brown with clear light streaks, it tastes like fried sunflower seeds or nuts,
- spores of an ellipsoidal shape, develop only in the humus substrate.
This is a type of edible mushrooms from the genus Lentinula. They are very widespread in East Asia. Got their name due to growing on chestnuts. Translated from the Japanese word "shiitake" means "chestnut mushroom." In cooking, it is used in Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Thai cuisines as a delicious spice. In Oriental medicine, there are also many recipes for treating these fruits. In everyday life, the fungus is also called oak, winter, black. It is characteristic that in the global market shiitake is considered the second important mushroom that is cultivated in industry. Grow a delicacy is quite realistic in the climatic conditions of Ukraine. For this, it is important to acquire an artificial mushroom substrate.
When collecting shiitake need to focus on the following characteristics of the fungus:
- cap of hemispherical shape, with a diameter up to 29 cm, with a dry velvety peel of coffee or brown-brown color,
- the plates are white, thin and thick, in young specimens are protected by a membrane coating, become dark brown when pressed,
- leg is fibrous, cylindrical in shape, up to 20 cm high and up to 1.5 cm thick, with a smooth light brown surface,
- white ellipsoidal spores,
- the pulp is dense, fleshy, juicy, creamy or snow-white in color, with a pleasant aroma and a pronounced specific taste.
The mushroom belongs to the Boletov family. In everyday life it is called a bruise, underbird, dirty-brown. The period of fruiting begins in July and lasts until late autumn. August is considered the most fruitful. In search of should go to the forests, where there are oaks, hornbeams, beeches, birches. Duboviki also prefer calcareous soil and well-lit areas. These forest fruits are known in the Caucasus, in Europe and in the Far East. Signs of the fungus are:
- hat with a diameter of 5 to 20 cm, semicircular, with an olive-brown velvety skin that darkens when touched,
- the pulp is thick, odorless, with a mild taste, yellow (purple at the base of the stem),
- yellow plates, about 2.5-3 cm long, green or olive color,
- stem-shaped, up to 15 cm high with a volume of up to 6 cm, yellow-orange shade,
- spores are olive-brown, smooth, fusiform.
Edible varieties of these fruits must necessarily be thoroughly boiled. They differ from poisonous specimens in bright color and not too tart smell. Most often govorushki used for filling in pies, as well as consumed in a freshly prepared form. Experienced mushroom pickers advise to go "on a quiet hunt" from the beginning of July to the second half of October. To improve the taste of govovushek for food, only the heads of young fruits are used. You can learn them by:
- a cap with a bell-shaped circle up to 22 cm, with bent edges and a tubercle in the middle, with a smooth surface of matte or red color,
- leg height up to 15 cm, with a dense structure, a cylindrical shape and a color scale corresponding to the cap (at the base there are darker shades),
- medium brown plates,
- the flesh is fleshy, dry, with a slightly pronounced almond aroma, white in color, which does not change in sections.
Many novice mushroom pickers are always impressed with the appearance of heads. These trophies stand out very favorably against their fellows due to their impressive size and shape. They have:
- fruit body of large size, in diameter can develop up to 20 cm, non-standard club-shaped, which hardly fits into the generally accepted ideas about mushrooms,
- the foot can also reach 20 cm in height, it can be more or less than a cap, in color it is in harmony with the top,
- flesh loose, white color.
Semi white mushroom
It is a member of the Borovik family. In everyday life, it is referred to as the galer or yellow boletus. Very common in Polesie, Carpathian and in Western Europe. It is considered a thermophilic version of the Boletovs. It can be found in oak, hornbeam, beech plantings with high humidity and clay substrate. Externally, the fungus is characterized by:
- a cap with a diameter of 5 to 20 cm, a convex shape, which becomes flat with age, with a smooth matte surface of clay color,
- the flesh is heavy, with a dense structure, white or light yellow color, which does not change when cut, with a pleasant, slightly sweet taste and a specific odor resembling iodoform,
- leg with a rough surface, up to 16 cm high, up to 6 cm in volume, club-shaped, without mesh,
- a tubular layer up to 3 cm in size, yellow at an early age and olive-lemon in a mature one,
- spores of yellow-olive color, up to 6 microns in size, fusiform and smooth.
Basic rules for collecting mushrooms
Mushroom hunting has its own risks. In order not to be exposed to them, you need to clearly understand that it is extremely important to be able to pick mushrooms and understand their varieties. For safe harvesting of forest trophies you need to follow these rules:
- On searches to go to environmentally friendly zones, far away from noisy highways and production assets.
- Never put items in the trash that you are not sure about. In this case, it is better to seek help from experienced mushroom pickers.
- Do not remove samples from raw fruits.
- During the "quiet hunt" to minimize the contact of the hands to the mouth and face.
- Do not take mushrooms that have a white tuber-like formation at the base.
- Compare the trophies found with their toxic counterpart.
- Visually assess the entire fruit: leg, plate, cap, flesh.
- Do not delay the preparation of the harvest. It is better to immediately carry out the planned processing, because with each passing hour the mushrooms lose their value.
- Never eat water in which mushrooms are boiled. It can be a lot of toxic substances.
- Remove damaged wormhole specimens, as well as those that have any damage.
- In the basket of mushroom picker should only fall young fruits.
- All trophies need to be cut, not pulled.
- The best time for a “quiet hunt” is considered to be early morning.
- If you go for mushrooms with children, do not lose sight of them and explain to the kids in advance about the potential danger of forest gifts.
First aid for poisoning
About mushroom poisoning indicate:
- abdominal cramps
- diarrhea (up to 15 times a day),
- weak heartbeat,
- cold extremities.