Broilers can not be purebred - it crosses obtained by breeding. In subsequent generations from such a bird will not be able to get offspring, which has the original characteristics. Therefore, each new batch of young stock is bred by hybridization, and this is a complex and time-consuming process. Consider the best representatives of this direction.
Chickens broilers breed Cornish
Known English variety, which was originally planned as a fighting. Breeders put a lot of work to bring this fighter, aggressive, with the appropriate physique and character.
But, as a result of selection work, at one of the stages, the absence of typical characteristics for the fighters was found, and they left the Kornish and made it into the standard, like a meat broiler. Often called these quotes are also gherkins.
The merits of breeding Cornish belong to a scientist by the name of Gilbert. He used for the purposes of the Malay and English fighters.
Paradoxically, with each generation, the chickens turned out to be less similar in appearance to the fighters, but for that they acquired a characteristic characteristic of their type - the ability to gain weight quickly.
Broiler breeds gain muscle mass very quickly. A two-month-old chicken carcass reaches 2 kilograms or more. At the same time for a quick weight gain, relatively little feed is required - 2-3 units per kilogram of weight. Broiler chickens are genetically positioned for rapid mass gain, and they eat more than their relatives, so a lot of attention should be paid to a diverse high-calorie diet.
As for egg production, this function is poorly developed in broiler breeds. But the big hen is a wonderful hen. It plays an important role in breeding new livestock. If you still decide to independently engage in the cultivation of broilers, you must create the necessary conditions for their reproduction and raising offspring.
Rating of the largest breeds of broilers
For the breeding of highly productive crosses, breeders select the most healthy and resistant birds. Every year new species appear, and the previous ones quickly become obsolete, because the latest breeds of broilers win in all respects. Over the past few years, three largest types of crosses can be distinguished: KOBB-500, ROSS-308 and ROSS-708.
A distinctive feature of this cross - the skin is bright yellow. Chicken meat is demanded on the market exactly yellowish, but not pale, so the breed KOBB-500 is in demand. Chickens ripen in a rather short period: after 6 weeks chickens are suitable for slaughter. By this time, the bird reaches weight from 2 to 2.5 kilograms.
This breed is characterized by good resistance to diseases and almost one hundred percent survival. Chickens KOBB-500 have large legs and a wide breast, which is undoubtedly an advantage for meat production.
Broilers ROSS-308 grow incredibly fast. On average, the chick gains 50-60 grams per day. The most intense period of growth occurs in the first weeks of life. The meat is pale, but the breast is much wider and meatier than that of COBBs.
Another feature of this breed can be considered relatively good egg production. Therefore, ROSS-308 is excellent for households where chickens are raised not only for meat.
The last of the breeds, ROSS-708, occupies a leading position among other broilers due to the incredible precocity. Within a month, the chicken grows to enormous size and weighs 2.5 kilograms. The skin color of these individuals are similar to COBBs, but sometimes the body simply does not have time to acquire yellowness.
As you can see, growing broilers is very profitable, with a minimum amount of time and feed you can get a lot of dietary chicken meat. With proper care and maintenance, broiler chickens will develop rapidly, rapidly gaining muscle mass.
How were the hybrids obtained
Broiler breeds of chickens have been subjected to breeding for decades and are still being transformed. At the same time, interline crosses make it possible to obtain individuals of the greatest mass among meat and meat-egg. Such a bird reaches the carcass weight of a carcass by the age of six months and is distinguished by its increased viability and resistance to common diseases of chickens.
The practice of selection began at the beginning of the twentieth century, and by the middle of it had already reached its peak. So, the first progenitors of broilers were White Primutrok and Cornish. Then, crossing with New Hampshire, Jersey Hens and Langshans. Today, hybrids are actively bred both in households and in industrial production.
The main goal of the breeders was and remains to obtain a hybrid that is gaining muscle mass in the shortest possible period of time. At the same time the least resources should be spent.
Advantages and disadvantages
Meat broiler breeds are characterized by a massive horizontal position and short legs. Most breeds of the species are unpretentious in keeping and feeding, resistant to adverse environmental conditions and cold. Among the main advantages of broilers over other chickens:
- big weight (many individuals reach a mass of seven to eight kilograms),
- fast growth, development and weight gain (slaughter can be done within a month and a half or two months after the start of fattening),
- calm and peaceful temper.
A significant drawback of chickens is low egg production. However, if chickens at the age of two months are sent to slaughter, this criterion will be insignificant.
Can broilers rush
Like other poultry meat species, broilers carry eggs. However, it is not possible to grow them to obtain this particular product, since on average they bring about one hundred hundred hundred twenty eggs per year. It is better to use for this purpose egg breeds of chickens. However, it is important to note that some breeds of chickens can save up to one hundred eighty-two hundred pieces annually. At the same time, the egg productivity of broilers is stable, unlike the performance of hens. Most egg production show egg-meat breeds. They should be chosen when the importance of this criterion.
Despite the fact that for early chickens, egg production is an unimportant criterion, stable laying is recommended, if you plan to not only grow directly for meat, but also for breeding.
In industrial and domestic content it is useful to acquire popular crosses and breeds. The best of them have increased precocity and the potential for weight gain.
This name are broiler chickens, characterized by the highest precocity and grown on an industrial scale, on farms and households. In general, the breed Kob-500 is not demanding to care, but obtaining the maximum possible income requires compliance with all the basic conditions of feeding and housing.
The main characteristics of the bird:
- Chicken carcasses have a mouthwatering look., golden skin and good fleshy. In addition, they have good taste characteristics.
- For forty days the chicken gains a mass of two kilograms. The maximum weight of an adult chicken is about four kilograms.
- Growing a Cobb 500 is relatively cheap.
- Chickens are large and white. It has a large mass and excellent dietary properties.
The negative characteristic of the hybrid is a weak immunity, poor resistance to diseases and the need for antibiotics. The productivity of individuals directly depends on the quantity and quality of feed.
This cross is unique because of its excellent productive characteristics concerning meat and eggs, as well as extraordinary precocity. So, for one day with sufficient feeding, broiler chicken gains about fifty-five grams of muscle mass. At the same time, it is formed already at the initial stages of development of the young and shows a stable increase.
The main characteristics of the cross:
- Due to the increased precocity by two months of age, the chicks reach a mass two and a half to three kilograms or more.
- Broilers have short legs and massive body.. The breast is dense and large, has excellent taste and dietary qualities.
- Ross 308 differs extraordinary for meat breeds egg production. So, they can produce more than one hundred and eighty eggs a year.
- Birds are unpretentious to feeding and care.
Chicken carcasses have a pleasant and appetizing appearance, yellow skin. Meat is suitable for cooking any dishes.
Breed Hubbard F-15 meat-egg direction is beneficial to maintain both in large enterprises and in the household and farm. The survival rate of young stock is about ninety-eight percent, while the bird is characterized by unpretentious keeping and feeding.
- Broilers are distinguished by extraordinary precocity. and by the age of two months they reach a mass of up to three kilograms and above. Adult birds grow at the same time up to eight to ten kilograms with good fattening.
- Hubbard's egg production is also unusual. In the year, females are capable of bringing up to two hundred large eggs, while the productivity indicator is stable for a long time.
- Lack of dwarfism gene makes Hubbard chickens large and massive. The breast of their carcasses is white, soft and dense. It has good dietary and taste qualities.
The bird is unpretentious in content, but it is demanding for temperature conditions. In addition, to unlock the potential of productivity, it is important to provide high-quality feed crosses.
For all broiler breeds, not only the volume and quality of feed is important, but also the mode of feeding and walking. Food should be enriched with proteins, and obesity associated with high carbohydrate foods is also unacceptable.
Overview of broiler chickens with descriptions and characteristics
The main feature of broiler crosses is their unsuitability for long-term maintenance in the chicken coop. These birds are designed for the rapid cultivation and production of meat.Broilers are a bird that grows to produce meat.
Upon reaching two or three months of age, their growth decreases sharply, so at this time they are sent for slaughter. Longer maintenance leads to a decrease in the taste of meat.
Broiler meat surpasses all other breeds of hens in taste and nutrition. A lot of these chickens gain quite quickly, and this quality is incorporated in the birds at the genetic level.
Chicken broiler breeds phlegmatic, they do not need much space for walking. The bird needs calm, rest, a measured way of life and regular food. This mode of cultivation will provide quick weight gain.
The growth rate of broiler breeds depends on the conditions of detention.
Rapid weight gain occurs when the following conditions exist:
- Quality and quantity of feed. Broilers are recommended to be fed with specialized feed, which has an optimal composition and is saturated with all the necessary nutrients and additives.
- The optimal temperature and humidity in the hen house. Do not allow sudden changes in air temperature in the room. Humidity should be at least 50% and not more than 70%.
- Maintaining cleanliness in the hen house, including disinfection.
- Timely vaccination against infectious diseases.
Contrary to popular belief, a broiler is not a specific breed, but only a type of bird. The name broil in translation means “roasting on a spit”, which emphasizes the meat purpose of the young of this type of breed.
Broiler chickens are produced by crossing meat bird species. Most often, the basis of the new lines is laid by the Cornish, Langshan, Cohinin, Plymouthrok, Brama rocks, which are distinguished by their large build. New hybrid crosses, combining the best qualities of meat breeds, are bred by breeders periodically. Currently, the following breeds have become popular for breeding at private farmsteads.
The breed has a powerful oval-shaped body, with a protruding chest that is wider than that of other broiler breeds. Chickens are covered with a white feather, any blotches of a different color are considered not acceptable and serve as a reason for culling.
The color of the carcass of this breed is light, the skin is thin and elastic, which gives the meat a very attractive and appetizing look. A distinctive feature of the breed - widely spaced, powerful paws of a yellow shade.
The maximum value of the weight of the carcass ROSS 308 - 5.5 kilograms. But it is not recommended to grow chickens to this size: chickens are slaughtered on reaching the age of 2.5-3 months. The breed can be kept in the house or cages. But experts believe that the sedentary content in the cells adversely affects the quality of meat.
Daily chickens of this breed weigh only 40-45 grams, but rather quickly grow and fledge. Chickens need to create a comfortable housing environment and ensure proper feeding. It is not recommended to feed the youngsters with wet mash, in which bacteria multiply rapidly. Chicks can get diarrhea from such feed.
The first week of chickens ROSS-308 fed with small cereals or millet, boiled egg. From the third day on the menu you can add chopped green onions. From the 15th day, the chicks start an intensive collection of muscle mass, so they are transferred to a special feed, which contains the optimal set of nutrients.
The broiler ROSS - 708 is a breed with the fastest weight gain, even without feeding with special feed. Externally, the birds are similar to the breed KOBB-500. Roosters of this variety are able to grow to 7 kilograms.
Breed is a hybrid, surpassed in productive characteristics of COBB-500 and ROSS-308. By 33 weeks the weight of the chickens is 2.6-2.9 kilograms. It is important for the breed to ensure a proper diet. The menu of the bird after hatching consists of steamed oatmeal, eggs, dairy products, then crushed wheat, boiled vegetables, fish waste are introduced into the ration. From the fifth week on, nutrition should be as abundant and as rich in microelements and vitamins, as from this age begins an active growth of muscle mass.
Compared with other broilers, the meat of this breed has pale skin, since it does not have time to acquire a characteristic yellowish tint in a short time of growth. At the same time the meat is lean, juicy. The bulk of the carcass is concentrated in the breast and legs. For rapid growth and high-quality meat, it is recommended to add crushed chalk to the diet.
Important. Raw water is contraindicated to chickens of this breed, therefore broths of chamomile or wild rose are added to the troughs.
Cornish chickens and white Acyle chickens, which were crossed with the Plymouth breed, were used to breed this cross. The breed is especially popular with Russian farmers due to its low feed intake and resistance to infectious diseases.
A distinctive feature of the cross - a yellowish hue of the carcass, which is most in demand from the buyer of meat products. Ripening of breed chickens occurs within 6 weeks. By this time, the weight of the carcass reaches 2-2.5 kilograms. It is not recommended to keep more than 80 days of chickens of this breed, since the growth at this time practically stops and the chickens begin to grow fat.
The breed is not demanding to the conditions of detention, the survival rate of young stock is kept at the level of 95-100%. The breed KOBB-500 has a wide chest and legs with large legs, which is especially attractive for meat production. The only condition for successful cultivation is a sufficient protein content in the poultry feed, since without this element the growth of the bird will be slow.
Breed of broiler hens "ROSS - 308"
This breed of broilers is considered to be almost unique. On average, in 24 hours with good feeding and keeping of poultry, weight increases by 55 grams.
The muscle mass of this species is formed in the initial period of bird growth. The period of time in which it is recommended to slaughter birds is from six weeks to nine. The weight of one chicken at this age is about two and a half kilograms.
Adult bird of this breed has high enough egg production. Eggs are characterized by very high rates. On average, one bird gives about 185 eggs. The plumage of this bird is white.
Positive traitswhich possesses ROSS - 308:
- The main feature of this breed is the rapid growth of the bird, which allows early slaughter.
- The bird has a good muscle mass, which begins to develop from the initial stage of growth.
- Broilers of this breed have fair skin.
- Differ in high performance.
- A distinctive feature is the low growth of the bird.
Disadvantages in this breed of broilers are not detected.
Breed description "KOBB - 500"
A distinctive feature of this species is the yellow color of the bird, even in the case when it is fed with unpigmented food.
Broiler feathers are white, as in the previous bird species.
They have a fairly intense growth.
The age that is the best time to slaughter is about forty days.
During this period, the bird reaches a weight of about two and a half kilograms.
Очень положительными характеристиками обладают цыплята породы КОББ – 500. Они очень быстро набирают мышечную массу и быстро растут.
Positive characteristics данной породы бройлеров:
- Бройлеры обладают высоким приростом живого веса.
- Differ in low cost of meat.
- Broilers have very very large and strong legs.
- Have excellent feed conversion.
- Birds have a snow-white and big breast.
- The breed of broilers KOBB - 500 has excellent survival rates.
- In the flock, birds are homogeneous and do not differ from each other.
There are no flaws in this breed.
The breed productivity is influenced by several reasons, the main of which is the correct feeding of broilers.
In order for the muscle mass of the birds to grow rapidly, it is necessary to fatten the birds especially in the first month.
Description of the breed "Broiler - M"
This breed was created on the basis of small chickens (from the female) and synthetic birds (from the male), which was created as a result of the crossing of mini hens and red Yerevanians.
The bird differs not only meat, but also egg productivity. Egg production one bird is 162 eggs per year.
The mass of one is within 65 grams. The first eggs of broilers are at the age of five months.
On average, the weight of a rooster varies around three kilograms, and the weight of the female varies from 2.4 to 2.8 kilograms.
Positive sides breed "Broiler - M":
- Birds have a small build, which allows to increase the density of landing on a square meter.
- Broilers are not picky about conditions.
- Broilers are distinguished by high productivity of both meat and eggs.
- Birds, due to their high productivity, are distinguished by their versatility.
- Birds are distinguished by their calm behavior.
Deficiencies in the breed "Broiler - M" is not revealed.
Description of broilers "Broiler - 61"
This breed belongs to the four-line meat crosses. "Broiler - 61" was created by crossing two Cornish breeds of birds (from the father) and two breeds of Plymouth birds (from the mother).
The bird is characterized by a high set of body weight, even with a small waste of food. The weight of one bird in one and a half months of life is about 1.8 kilograms.
Egg production females average.
Positive sides breeds "Broiler - 61" are:
- High survival rate of broilers.
- Differs kind of fast growth.
- The bird is characterized by good meat qualities.
- Broilers have a high survival rate.
The disadvantage of the breed "Broiler - 61" is that chickens at the age of five weeks should be limited in food. As with a high growth rate, the bones of chickens slowly grow stronger, which can later lead to some problems.
What is the characteristic of the broiler breed "Gibro - 6"?
Like the broiler “Broiler-61” breed, the “Gibro-6” type is a four-line one. To create it, two types of Cornish birds (paternal line) and two species of white Plymouthrock birds (maternal line) were needed.
The weight of one broiler at the age of one and a half months is one and a half kilograms. On average, a day they add thirty grams, and sometimes it happens that about eighty grams. Birds characterized by good growth.
Egg production at this breed is slightly lower than that of “Broiler - 61”. It is about 160 pieces for 400 days.
The bird is characterized by good feathering. It has yellow skin and subcutaneous fat. Comb in the form of a sheet.
Positive sides this broiler breed:
- Birds are characterized by very calm and moderate temperament.
- Broilers have a rather intensive growth.
- Broilers "Gibro - 6" differ in survival rate.
- Differ in good qualities of meat and eggs.
There is one drawback with broilers. Chickens, when they reach the age of one and a half months, should limit their food, give them not so high-calorie food and reduce the dose of food per day.
What characterizes the broilers "Change"?
This breed of broilers is one of the most popular. This species was bred as a result of the crossing of two broiler breeds "Broiler - 6" and "Gibro - 6".
On average, the weight gain of one broiler is about forty grams. Cross "Change" has a high growth rate.
The egg production of the breed "Change" is average and is about 140 eggs. The weight of one egg varies within 60 grams.
TO merits Breed include the following qualities:
- Birds are very fast growing.
- Cross "Change" is characterized by high viability.
- Broilers are distinguished by high meat and egg qualities.
However, there is a small nuance that needs attention. When breeding chickens, it is necessary to monitor the temperature of their content. In the first days of life it is necessary that the air temperature in the room was two or three degrees higher than outside.