The variety was born as a result of the selection works of T.V. Morozova. The material for the new species was the seeds of Vladimirskaya cherry.
It is not a very tall tree with light brown bark. The wide-round crown is raised, moderately dense.
Long petiole crowned with medium-sized narrow-oval leaflets. They are smooth and shiny, green color. The base of the leaf blade is decorated with several small dark red glands.
When it comes time, the bouquet twigs are covered with large white horn-like flowers. Their petals are rounded, stamens located below the stigma of the pistil.
In the second half of July, fruits ripen in a rich bright color. They are quite massive (4.8-5.1 g), round in shape. At the base of the berry has a recess. The abdominal suture is small, almost imperceptible. Inside the medium-sized bone, which is easy to separate from the pulp.
Juicy sweet berry, with an acidic hint. Due to such qualities, the variety is ranked as dessert. The fruits are good fresh, do not lose their taste after cooking.
Cherry Morozovka pleases regular crops.
This is a self-infertile culture that is successfully pollinated by Lebedyanskaya, Griot Michurinsky, Zhukovsky. This is a guarantee of fertilization even in bad weather conditions and the absence of flying bees.
Fruits ripen on the tree as early as 3-4 years after planting, which is considered a rather short period of time. Harvest from a three-year plant - 200 g from 1 bush.
The indisputable advantages of a variety include:
- High winter hardiness of wood
- Average strength
- Drought tolerance
- Tastes of berries
- Average fruit ripening time
- Immunity to coccomycosis
- Excellent transportability
- In the northern regions of the Chernozem region, flower buds do not tolerate winter.
- Generous cherries are loved by Morozovka for tasty fruits and resistance to adverse weather conditions.
How to plant a cherry seedling
Culture planted with the onset of spring. Young cherries harvested from autumn are added in drops. The root system of the plant is insensitive to the proximity of groundwater, which allows the cultivation of cherries on different soils.
Since the seedling is not terrible winter, it is successfully grown in the warm and northern regions of the country. Does not need additional warming.
Morozok's cherry will feel great in a draft-protected, lighted place. Suitable soil neutral acidity, sandy, sandy or loamy drained.
Secrets of planting seedlings:
- The distance between the planted plants is from 2.5 to 3.5 m.
- The optimal dimensions of the landing pit - 40-45 cm in depth, 50-60 cm in diameter.
- The soil from the pit is combined with humus (1: 1), potassium chloride (20-25 g), superphosphate (30-40 g), ash (1 kg). In the heavy clay soil is recommended to add 1.5 buckets of sand.
- Having planted a tree, at a distance of 25-30 cm from the trunk form a small earthen bank. His role is to create a watering hole.
- Sapling watered 2-3 buckets of warm water. The earth will subside noticeably after the fluid has been absorbed. The area around the trunk mulch sawdust and humus. A protective layer (2-3 cm) is formed, which will save the soil from strong evaporation of moisture and drying.
Proper planting of Morozovka cherries is the key to its future successful development.
Tree care activities
Fruit crops need care. The main care for planted cherries is timely:
During the growth and development of cherries, weeds should be periodically weeded and the soil should be loosened. With the onset of autumn, the soil is deeply dug up, fertilizers are applied. If mineral supplements were added during planting, then the next few years do not use nutrients.
Cherries are watered after flowering, which allows them to nourish the berries. The soil should not sour, it should be moistened to 40-45 cm deep. The culture grows shoots very quickly. The crown becomes thick, many small branches appear. On such a tree, the fruits become smaller, the life span of the bouquet branches is reduced. The branches are shortened if the shoots have become too long (more than 50 cm).
The crown is formed by cutting the cherry. Work begins with the onset of spring, 3 weeks before the swelling of the kidneys.
Young saplings can be harmed by caterpillars or green aphids. It is important to regularly inspect the trees in order to identify the parasites in time and apply the means of control in a timely manner.
Cherry care will ensure its health and abundance of fruits. Variety Morozovka in the garden is a generous culture that will delight delicious berries. For love and care, the hardy tree will repay abundant crops.
Description variety Morozovka
The cherry variety Morozovka (Morozovskaya) is common in central Russia. The tree grows up to 2.5 m. Crohn spherical, wide, spreading, srednezaguschennaya. The branches are light brown with a gray bloom. Dark green leaves have an oval shape, not pubescent, along the edge of the notch, and on the sharp tip you can see some dark reddish veins.
Cherry blossoms in April with large white flowers, and the crop yields by the end of July. The tree bears fruit already on the 3-4th year after planting and brings up to 15 kg of berries. Cherries ripen large, with dark burgundy flesh and very sweet, almost sour. The variety is considered mid-season, dessert. Bone cherries, like the stem, are easily separated from the ripe flesh, which facilitates processing.
Advantages and disadvantages
Freezing is a very profitable variety that actually has no downsides. Its advantages include:
- shyness - fruits on the 3-4th year,
- precocity - gives a harvest in July,
- stable fruiting,
- excellent taste and appearance of the fruit,
- frost resistance (endures cold up to -27 o C),
- lack of care,
- resistance to coccomycosis,
- drought tolerance.
The shortcomings of the variety can be called early flowering, which is why in the northern regions the buds can be damaged by spring frosts, as well as partial self-fertility of the tree (adult cherry itself will bring no more than 5-7 kg of fruits).
Pollinators for Morozovka
To obtain a tasty, abundant and regular harvest, Morozovka needs additional pollinators growing at a distance of no more than 10 m. They may be Lebedyanskaya, Turgenevka, Vladimirskaya, Zhukovskaya and Griot Michurinsky varieties. These cultures roughly coincide with the flowering time, which allows them to successfully pollinate each other.
Remember that the distance between trees in the garden must be at least 3 m, so that each of them will receive enough nutrients and not shade the neighbors.
Morozovke need pollinators - varieties of cherries with similar flowering times
Place for cherry
Choosing a place for young cherries, it is necessary to give preference to the southern or southwestern part of the garden. The site should be well lit and protected from the wind. An excellent solution would be the sunny side 1.5-2 m from a low fence. The groundwater level at the site should not be higher than 1.5 m, so that the roots can develop freely.
In the wet area, you can plant a tree on an artificial hill 60–70 cm tall, and carefully drain the bottom of the landing pit with large pebbles.
Cherry prefers loamy, sandy and sandy soils with neutral acidity (pH 6–6.5).
Selection of seedlings
Best for planting fit 2-year-old seedlings with 3-4 branches and a developed root system. Be sure to inspect the plant before purchasing.
For planting is best suited 2-year-old seedlings
Make sure that the bark of the tree is smooth, elastic, the branches easily bend and do not break, the roots are healthy, have neither dry nor rotten shoots. Before planting, re-inspect the tree, cut off all dried roots, tear off the leaves.
Terms and process of landing
Planting cherries is best in spring, in late March or early April. This will allow the tree to take root well before winter. If necessary, you can plant a sapling in the fall, in September, at least 6-8 weeks before the onset of frost. But in this case, it is worth paying special attention to the warming and wintering of Morozovka.
It is better to prepare a landing pit for cherries in advance - even in the fall (for autumn planting - for 2 weeks). For this you need:
- Mark a hole with a diameter of 80 cm and remove the top 20 cm of soil.
- Dig a hole 50 cm deep.
- Mix top soil with 10 kg of humus or compost, 20 g of potassium chloride, 50 g of superphosphate and 700–900 g of wood ash.
- Pour the prepared mixture on the bottom of a mound.
- Cover the pit before planting a waterproof film.
Immediately one day before planting, it is necessary to prepare the seedling by placing the roots in water for 4–5 hours. After that, they are smeared with clay and manure composition (for 1 kg of manure, take 2 kg of powdered clay and dilute with water to a thick consistency), which is left for 2–3 hours. This will protect the roots of the plant and give them extra nutrition. Planting the tree itself is as follows:
- Place a support stake for a tree 150–170 cm in height at a distance of 5–7 cm from the center of the pit.
- The ground at the bottom form a mound.
- In the center of the pit, place the seedling so that the root neck of the plant is 5–7 cm higher than the final level of the ground (to avoid decay).
- Spread the roots of the cherry on the slopes of the hill.
- Fill the pit with earth in layers, ramming the soil and avoiding failures.
- Tie a sapling to the support stake with soft twine.
- Pour a tree of 20 liters of water into the groove 5-7 cm deep along the edge of the planting pit.
- Zamulchirovte pristvolny circle to moisture remained in the soil.
Video: how to plant a cherry
Cherry Morozovka easily tolerates drought, but with sufficient watering yields a crop more abundant and tastier. For an adult tree (from 5 years old) 4 waterings are required per season:
- before flowering,
- after flowering,
- 3 weeks before harvest,
- in October.
The first three irrigations by volume can be about 40–50 l. A portion of the water should be divided into two parts, making a tree in the morning and evening. In autumn, moisture-charging irrigation is carried out in October, which should be more than usual (60–65 l).
For young trees, watering is required more often. In the first year, the sapling is watered weekly at 10–15 l, and from the second to the fifth year, 20–25 l of water is introduced under the tree every 2–3 weeks, focusing on weather conditions.
It is best to water the tree in the crown projection, having previously dug 2–3 channels 5–8 cm deep at a distance of 50, 100 and 130 cm from the trunk. This will allow to evenly feed the roots. After adding water to the ground under the tree must be thoroughly loosened and mulched.
An adult cherry tree older than 4 years old is fertilized with organic matter once every 4 years and with mineral fertilizers once every 2 years. In this case, make them as follows:
- 250 g of urea before flowering,
- 30 g Ammofoski after flowering,
- 100 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g of superphosphate in August after harvest.
Organic fertilizers for an adult tree are applied in the fall in October when digging the soil. For an adult tree, 25 kg of humus or 15 kg of cow manure are required. You can also use bird droppings, diluted in a ratio of 1: 3 (insist for 4-5 days).
For young trees up to 4 years old, mineral fertilizers are applied every year, with the dose of urea being 100 g, potassium sulfate - up to 50 g, and the superphosphate is taken at a rate of 70 g per tree. Organic fertilizers for young trees are applied every 2 years in the calculation of 15 kg of humus (or compost), 7–10 kg of manure and not more than 1 kg of chicken manure, which must be diluted with water and infused as well as for an adult tree.
Protection against birds
Very often the harvest of a cherry is ruined by birds. To protect the tree on the branch during the ripening of the fruit, you can tie plastic bags or foil. An effective, but not cheap, means of protection against feathered pests is nets, which are placed over trees. It is also possible to place special repellent devices in the garden, which make low-frequency sounds and do not allow birds to fly close to the tree.
Morozovka easily transfers the winters of central Russia, but in any case the trees need certain preparatory activities. In order for the cherry to win over successfully, you need:
- Clear the soil under the tree from weeds, fruits, foliage and twigs.
- Dig digging circle.
- Mulch the roots of the tree with sawdust or peat in a layer of 15 cm. Do not forget to remove the mulch in the spring so as not to overheat the roots.
In winter, the fallen snow is raked under a tree high (from 40 cm) snowdrift.
Diseases and pests variety Morozovskaya
Like many cherries, Morozovka is prone to certain diseases and is affected by pests. You need to know what the first signs of these misfortunes look like in order to start treating the tree in time. As a preventive measure is recommended:
- regularly clean the stem from weeds, twigs and leaves,
- loosen the ground every 10 days,
- dig up the soil in the fall,
- to whiten a tree trunk before hibernation,
- prevent thickening of the crown.
Morozovka Cherry is a relatively young fruit and berry species, bred in the Michurinsky Scientific Research Institute in 1997. The author of the cherry was T.V. Morozova - a famous breeder, an authoritative expert in the cultivation of stone fruit.
"Morozovka" was created taking into account the long and frosty winters. Breeders faced a difficult task of creating a species in which high frost resistance would be combined with good taste characteristics of fruits, low growth of trees and resistance to diseases. To obtain such a universal type, the varieties of cherries "Lyubskaya" and "Vladimirskaya" were used as the base.
The variety "Lyubskaya" was of interest due to its high yield, self-fertility, as well as large and tasty berries. A variety of "Vladimir" is known for its high resistance to low temperatures. It was decided to cross these two species. Breeding work lasted almost 3 decades. The resulting view was sent for testing. Since then the variety "Morozovka" does not lose its popularity.
The tree has a medium height, resembles a ball in shape. The tree trunk is covered with light brown bark. The crown of a tree is quite wide in scope.
The foliage is formed by strong branchy branches. In general, a tree has a moderate amount of leaves (average foliage). Stems elongated, gray-green tint. A small number of small tubercles are formed on the surface of the shoots. The buds are substantially abstracted from the surface of the shoot and have a rounded ovoid shape. Fruiting occurs both on the bouquet growths, and on the annual branches (in the latter - to a greater extent). Leaves "Morozovka" inherent light green shades. The leaves are deprived of pubescence and have a smooth to the touch dull surface. Standard sheet is larger than average. On the edge of the sheet, one can find bichenate serrations. At the base is fixed several small reddish glands. The leaves are kept on short petioles. On the petioles there are also glands of red color.
With the arrival of spring on the tree bloom white inflorescences. The flowers are relatively large in size and are in the form of roses. Petals are rounded.
The fruits of “Morozovka” are round, rather large and weighty. The average weight of a single berry fluctuates around 4.8–5.0 g. On the abdomen of each cherry there is a barely pronounced seam. At the base of the fetus recorded a small but noticeable concavity.
The skin and pulp of the fruit have a bright red tint, there is a small number of small subcutaneous spots. The flesh is juicy, not very dense. The bone is round, medium size, easily separated from the pulp. Fruits are kept on the branches with the help of long and thin stalks. A separating layer is fixed between the cherry and the stem.
Variety "Morozovka" belongs to a common category self-infertile cherries. A characteristic feature of the plant is the inability to fertilize through self-pollination of flowers. Therefore, in order for the tree to grow and bear fruit normally, it is customary to plant self-bearing varieties next to it.
For Morozovka cherries, the following varieties of cherries are ideal pollinators: Zhukovskaya, Griot, Lebedyanskaya, Michurinskaya. These pollinators are very effective and perfectly replace insects.
This feature of Morozovka is not a disadvantage, but rather an advantage. Productivity of a tree is practically not connected with climatic conditions. Pollination of flowers is carried out even in conditions of a cool spring, as well as in the absence of bees - natural pollinators of plants.
According to the standard, "Morozovka" ripen in early terms. In the case of warm sunny weather, the crop is harvested at the beginning of summer. However, a massive harvest of ripe fruit is expected only on 3-4 year after disembarkation.
In addition to the attractiveness of the berries are very refined taste. The acidity of the fruits of this variety is significantly reduced, so the pronounced sweetness of the cherries is successfully underlined by a slight and pleasant sourness.
Variety "Morozovka" shows a fairly high yield. With proper care and favorable climatic conditions, the average yield of cherries will be 50–65% per hectare or 35 kg per adult plant.
Полученный урожай обладает низкой восприимчивостью к вибрационному воздействию, то есть хорошей транспортабельностью. This fact makes Morozovskaya cherry interesting in terms of timely delivery of products to agricultural markets.
The tree of this variety also demonstrates good survival rate (high degree of winter hardiness and drought resistance). However, it is worth noting that winter hardiness is not inherent in all parts of this cherry. The buds and flowers of the tree can freeze and disappear during a harsh winter and even with relatively light frosts. This fact significantly worsens the winter hardiness of the Morozovskaya cherry.
Nutritionists say about the great benefits of eating fresh fruit "Frost". This dessert variety is very useful for the human body. In the pulp of its berries there are many blood-forming chemical elements (copper, cobalt, iron), which help with anemia.
Berries are rich in organic acids, effective bactericidal microelements and various valuable vitamins. In addition, cherry berries contain pectin substances that are responsible for removing harmful compounds from the body.
Cherry "Morozovka" - valuable dietary product. When it is consumed, the appetite improves, thirst is quenched, the work of the intestine is stabilized.
During heat treatment, the taste characteristics of the Morozovka cherry are not lost. From Morozov cherries prepare various useful compotes, jams, jams. The fruits of this tree are often used to prepare a variety of desserts, homemade alcoholic beverages (brandy, liquor).
Breeders recommend planting in the spring season (in March) or in the fall (early September). At this time, the plant is not exposed to frost and drought, so that it can better take root. Try to get a two-year-old tree, because the foliage of this plant is already quite developed. However, the one-year-old sapling is also suitable.
Choosing a place
Place of landing must be on the sunny side of the land. It is desirable that there was as little wind as possible, and groundwater is not located close to the ground surface.
Before starting the planting works, the chosen place must be carefully prepared for the future adult tree. Select a 3 by 3 m area for a single tree. Within the boundaries of such a plot, the rhizome of a tree can grow and develop normally.
Process and scheme
The soil at the landing site should consist of acid-neutral loam, sandy or sandy loam soil.
- In the center of the plot for planting cherries, dig a hole 50 cm deep and 80 cm wide. The earth taken out of the pit should not be thrown away: mix it in the same ratio with humus, then add ash, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
- Place a 130 cm long peg in the center of the hole.
- Form a mound 15 cm high from the prepared substrate at the bottom of the pit.
- Set the seedling on the tubercle. The root neck of a tree should be a few centimeters above the ground.
- Spread the rhizome of the seedling well, then fill the pit.
- Condense the soil slightly, then dig a ring hole at a distance of 30 cm from the plant and pour 30 l of water into it.
- When water is well absorbed, cover the near-barrel zone with mulch (fresh earth, chips, peat).
- Tie up the seedling to the peg. Place the pollinators at a distance of 2.5–3 m from the tree.
Watering and loosening
Immediately after planting, water the plant at least 3 buckets warm defended water. Since “Morozovka” easily tolerates drought, produce further watering only when needed.
Activate the irrigation after the flowering of the plant, so that the tree will bear good fruit, and the berries will be juicy. Water one adult tree 4 times a month, 1 bucket of water in the morning and evening.
After each watering, loosen the soil. This manipulation helps to ensure air access to the roots of the tree. First, clear the irrigation circle from the weeds that take nutrients from the ground. Then dig the zone of the trunk circle 10–15 cm deep. The diameter should converge with the crown projection. It is in this area near the water that water is supplied.
The quality of the future harvest depends on the adherence to the correct technology of feeding the cherry tree.
Sprinkle the ground on moisture with a layer of mulch consisting of sawdust and humus. The desired height of this layer is 2 cm.
The first 7 years fertilize the tree annually. In the future, observe certain intervals between dressings. Mineral nutrients to make 2 years after planting, and organic fertilizers - every 4 years.
Fight against diseases and pests
"Morozovka" is generally resistant to fungal diseases. However there is a number of diseasesfrom which the tree should be protected:
Coccomycosis (The causative agent of the disease is the mushroom Sossomuse s hiemalis). With severe infection, the leaf is covered with reddish formations. Soon the leaf dries and falls rapidly. The tree weakens, loses the ability to eat normally and dies prematurely. For the treatment of coccomycosis cherries, perform a triple wood treatment with fungicides. Carry out the first treatment before bud break, the second - at the very end of the flowering phase, and spray the plant a third time 2-3 weeks after budding.
Anthracnose. On the skin of young fruits appear small dull-brown formation. Spots grow quickly, hitting the whole cherry. Soon the flesh turns brown. Eating the affected fruit is impossible. In turn, small black spots are observed on the foliage. The leaves do not dry out, but gradually fall off. Prevention of anthracnose is spraying with a solution of 0.2% zinc or manganese sulphate composition. If the tree is already sick, immediately dispose of the affected fruit. Then treat the tree with a fungicide ("Poliram", "Topsin-M", "Topaz", "Horus"). Spraying carried out before or after flowering. The procedure must be repeated in 12-14 days.
Perforated spotting. Brown spots with dark edges are fixed on the leaves. In order to prevent it, regularly collect and destroy dead leaves, then carefully dig the soil. Before or after the flowering period, treat the tree with the Xom fungicide, repeat after 15–20 days.
Monilioz. Symptom disease is a sudden rotting of young leaves. Foliage looks burned. Fruits are covered with spore growths. Preventive spring spraying of wood and earth beneath it with a 3% Bordeaux liquid will help avoid contamination. In the fight against moniliosis before blooming the kidneys, treatment with a solution of ferrous sulfate (3%) is practiced. Before the flowering period, spray with "Horus", "Fundazole", "Azofos", "Zircon". In addition to diseases, cherry trees are sometimes attacked. insect pests. Consider the most common ones:
- Aphid. This small enemy of the cherry tree amazes its young shoots and leaves. If with the onset of spring you set trapping belts, then the appearance of aphids can be avoided. This event will not allow ants to drag aphid larvae onto a cherry. You can also scare away ants with strong water infusion of garlic.
- Fly - The second and most dangerous pest of the cherry. Adults overwinter under the plant, buried in the ground. The larvae of flies cause the main damage - they penetrate into the ovary and in the phase of ripening of the fetus turn into a white worm up to 1 cm long. There are several effective methods of fighting the cherry fly. Be sure to remove all fallen fruit from under the tree and dig up the tree trunk. The dug up soil will freeze, and wintering flies will die naturally.
Cropping and crown formation
Cherry "Frost" also requires regular pruning and the formation of the crown. The trimming procedure is recommended in early spring and autumn. For pruning, you will need a saw, pruner, knife, and garden var. Garden var - a universal remedy that reliably protects the tree from pests and diseases. To prepare the garden war you will need:
- animal fat (part 1)
- wood ash (1 part),
- turpentine (5 parts),
- denatured alcohol (2 parts),
- rosin (10 parts).
- Shorten all bare branches of the crown.
- Leave 5 strongest shoots on the tree. Such branches should be located in several rows (3 shoots on the first row, 2 branches on the second and 1 on the third).
- After the formation of longlines, the subsequent pruning consists of eliminating shoots that grow too tight.
Protection against cold and rodents
Although “Frost” is positioned as a frost-resistant variety, it’s worthwhile to take care of preparing the tree for the winter season:
- collect all the fallen leaves around the tree trunk,
- after each irrigation, dig and mulch the ground with peat, straw or sawdust,
- clean the surface of the trunk and skeletal shoots of dead bark, then whiten,
- in the northern zones of the shtamb, it is desirable to wrap paper or sacking.
These procedures will help protect the tree from the effects of adverse climate.
From rodents, damaging the bark and lower shoots of the tree, rescues the wrapping of the trunk with a special net or any other dense material.
As you can see, Morozovka cherry is a universal dessert variety with excellent technological qualities of fruits. In order for your cherry tree to grow healthy and make you enjoy rich crops, do not forget to follow all the above recommendations.
Appearance of cherry Morozovka
Cherry Morozovka has the following characteristics:
Differs in low or medium height, in most cases plant height does not exceed 2.5 meters.
Crown and branches. Enough wide, raised. It is characterized by moderate thickness and has a shape close to the ball. Formed somewhat wilted branches. On the main trunk and skeletal branches of the crown forms a bark of a light brown color.
Shoots. Grow quite large, gray-green color. They produce a relatively small number of lenticles. On the shoots buds are formed, in the contour similar to the egg, which, developing, deviate from the shoots.
Leaves. They are distinguished by a dark green color, with a glossy-looking plate, at the base - with a slight reddening. The shape of a relatively narrow sheet resembles a pronounced oval. At the edges of the leaves, there is a distinct bicuspid serration, the leaf surface itself is smooth. The leaf is kept on a long and not very thick petiole.
Flowers The flowers, rather large in size, have rounded petals of white color. Dates of flowering cherry Morozovka estimated as average.
The main wealth of this tree - its fruits - has a round shape and a rich dark red color.
Ripe berry weight reaches 4-5 grams on average. The fruits are kept on the tree by means of a sufficiently long stem.
However, with mechanical shaking, fruits can easily break off the stem. Inside the dense and juicy dark-red flesh is a medium-sized oval bone, which is very easily separated from the cherry pulp. On the skin there are no characteristic points and spots.
Characteristics of a variety
This cherry belongs to the most common of the existing categories of varieties - categories of self-infertile cherries.
A characteristic feature of such plants is their practical inability to fertilize with the help of self-pollination of their flowers.
So that the culture could normally grow, develop and bear fruit, in the immediate vicinity of it is necessary to plant self-fruited cherries.
The best pollinators for the variety Morozovka considered Griot Michurinsky, Zhukovskaya, Lebedyanskaya.
These pollinators are very effective, even in the conditions of a bad climate and in the absence of active "work" of bees.
Under normal ecology tree begins to bear fruit on the 3-4th year after planting the seedlingthat gives reason to position this variety as skoroplodny. In the homeland of breeding, in Michurinsk, the fruits of the average term of maturation can be collected in the second half of July.
With good care and favorable weather conditions, regular Yield is in the average range of 50-65 quintals per hectare.
Good survival rateenough high yield and valuable flavor and biological qualities of fruits Some physical properties of Morozovka also contribute.
In particular, the tree of this variety demonstrates a high degree drought resistance and winter hardiness. It should be noted that the latter property is not inherent in all parts of the plant.
Winter hardiness indicators worsen flower buds and the flowers of this cherry, which can freeze and die during the harsh winter and even with slight return frosts, often recorded in the northern regions of the Russian Black Soil Region.
High winter hardiness is also demonstrated by the Volochaevka, Shokoladnitsa and Zhukovskaya varieties.
A big plus of the variety is low susceptibility to vibration. This means that Frost fruit can tolerate long transport wellthat is very important for timely deliveries of products to agricultural markets. All this makes this cherry universal grade with excellent technological properties of the fruit.
The ratio of the main chemicals included in Morozovka is as follows:
Experts say about the great benefits of eating fresh fruits of this species.
Dietitians recommend not only eating fresh cherries, but also making various healthy compotes, jams and jams from them.
It should be noted that the berries of this tree are very popular as a source of raw materials for the preparation of various desserts, as well as home-produced alcoholic beverages (liqueurs and liqueurs).
And this is quite understandable, since the fruits of Morozovka, ripening, acquire very pleasant and valuable flavors.
Red cherries of this dessert variety, the pleasant sweetness of which is successfully underlined by a slight sourness, turn out to be very delicious. Moreover, the fruits practically do not lose their taste, even during cooking and heat treatment.
Versatile are also varieties Volochaevka, Moscow Griot and Lighthouse.
Planting and care
For the good development of the plant throughout his life it is extremely important to choose the right place for planting the seedling.
So the right place for Morozovka is a highly fertile soil that absorbs moisture and is well ventilated. (but without cold drafts). Of course, it should be well lit by sunlight.
Normal Morozovka reproduction occurs by grafting and budding. The rooting rate of green cuttings is about 70%.
Harvest seedlings in the fall, but they are planted in the spring. Soils are preferred. with neutral acidity. Well live young plant on sandy, sandy soils and loams.
Having chosen a suitable soil for planting, you should think about the correct distribution of seedlings in the garden plot. In order for trees to develop fully, between them it is necessary to withstand distance in the range from 2.5 to 3.5 m.
Then the landing pits are formed. Each such fossa should have diameter 50-60 cm and depth 40-50 cm. The soil extracted during digging is mixed with manure (humus), a small amount of chloride potassium, ash, superphosphate. If the soil has a high clay content, it is desirable to add 1-1.5 buckets of ordinary sand.
Having established a sapling in a hole, its trunk is instilled in it, the soil of the trunk is stamped. In radius 20-30 cm from the trunk from the earth form a radial shaft. In the funnel thus created pour 2-3 buckets of cold refined water.
The soil that sank after watering is mulched with a mixture of humus and sawdust. For a good effect, a layer of mulch that protects the soil from drying out should be at least 2-3 cm thick.
Proper care of the plant during the entire period of its growth and development is regular weeding and loosening the soil, as well as in the periodic application of appropriate fertilizers.
It should be borne in mind here that in the case of the addition of mineral fertilizers at the time of planting, nutrients are not introduced in the next few years.
Also an important element of proper maintenance of cherries Morozovka is constant monitoring of the condition of its crown and, if necessary, its dilution. Pruned branches also in the event that the shoots become too long (50 cm or more).
If you do not carry out these procedures, the period of vital activity of the bouquet branches can be greatly shortened, and the fruits themselves will most likely become smaller and lose their gustatory qualities.
Here you just need to remember that pruning of the crown is allowed only with the arrival of spring, three weeks before the buds swell.
Description and characteristics
This hybrid won the sympathy of many gardeners due to its unpretentiousness, excellent taste and early maturation. Let's take a closer look at its main characteristics.
The “Dessert Morozova” cherry is a relatively low tree (about 3 m), with a branchy spherical crown. The bark on the lower part of the trunk and the main knots has a light brown color, on young branches it is gray-green. Large shoots have an average number of lenticles. Плодоносят только молодые побеги, в связи с этим обрезке дерева необходимо уделять особое внимание. Весной на веточках появляются яйцевидные почки средних размеров, которые сильно отклонены от стебля.
They have a smooth relief and a matte surface with a light green color. The buds of this hybrid have no pubescence, like other plants. The leaves are rather large, similar in outline to an egg. Their surface is smooth, the stalk has an average length and thickness.
At the base of the leaf and on the handle there are 1-2 veins of red hue. The creeps of the “Dessert Morozova” cherry are short and fall off early. The foliage spreads over the crown evenly, but it is not so much. The leaves of this hybrid have a dull green color of light shades.
When the tree begins to bloom, it is covered with many large white flowers that exude a pleasant sweetish aroma. They are collected in inflorescences and have petals of a round shape, and pistils slightly protrude above the stamens. Flowers appear quite early, as the variety belongs to the early flowering.
After flowering, a berry is formed on the pedicel. The fruits of the “Dessert Morozova” are large and juicy, bright red. If we look at the cherry in the light, you can see small subcutaneous dots. The flesh is very juicy, red in color and delicate texture. Stone rounded, medium size. Did you know?Cherry is a rich source of coumarin (a substance that affects blood formation and improves blood clotting). For this reason, the berry will be useful for those who suffer from problems with blood clots or from various diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
The average weight of the berry is 4.6-5 g. It has an average depression near the stem and a barely noticeable abdominal suture. The stem is of medium thickness, and a separating layer forms at the border between it and the fruit. Berries varieties "Dessert Morozova" have a sweetish taste that looks more like the taste of sweet cherries. They contain more than 12% of sugars, and the tasting of the hybrid to taste was 4.6 out of 5 points.
This variety is widespread due to good transportability. That is why the hybrid is often used for sale in various regions of the country, even the most remote.
Thanks to the excellent taste qualities, the dessert dessert by Morozova fell in love with the confectioners and the sweet tooth. It is often used for making jams and preserves. And young children with great pleasure eat ripe and juicy berries for both cheeks, since this cherry has minimal acidity. We advise you to read about how to make a liqueur, compote, tincture, cherry jam, as well as how to dry and freeze cherries.
For successful cultivation, cherries need to be in the right place. So, the solar site protected from a wind and draft is best for landing. Ideal - near the south side of any building.
When choosing a place of cultivation, it is necessary to remember that the depth of groundwater should not be less than 1.5 meters. Otherwise, the root system decays and the plant begins to die. Cherry "Dessert Morozova" prefers neutral soil, which consists of subglinka (a mixture of clay and sand), sandy or sandy soil.
Regarding the time of landing of this hybrid, there are two opinions. Some gardeners believe that the cherry can be planted in the fall. In this case, in the spring the seedling is already rooted and will develop better. Others - that it is better to plant a cherry in the open ground after the snow melted. It will be useful for you to read about how to plant a cherry in the fall.
This will protect the plant from the effects of unexpected spring frosts, which can destroy a young, fragile tree.
It should be taken into account and what kind of seedling will be at your disposal. Young tree with an unprotected root system is best planted in the spring, but for containerized seedlings, planting time does not matter much. Important!It is better to choose a sapling by age from one to two years. In this case, the probability of successful engraftment increases.
When planting, it is necessary to determine the area of 3x3, where the tree will grow in the center. In this case, it will not intertwine with neighboring trees in the process of growth, and the root system will be able to develop freely.
A hole is dug in the center of this section, the depth of which should be 40-60 cm and a diameter of 50-60 cm. Some gardeners recommend digging a hole 80 cm in diameter, but this diameter is not rational, since the root system of the seedling is not so developed.
The soil, which is removed in the preparatory work, is mixed with mineral fertilizers and humus. In this way, the young plant will be nourished and better rooted. You can also apply fertilizer directly to the bottom of the fossa, for example, 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate. However, in this case, before planting a seedling, it is necessary to pour a layer of earth over the fertilizers so that the roots do not get burned. To root rooted better, roots can be soaked in warm water, it will stimulate growth.
Placing the seedling in the hole, you need to straighten the roots and cover them with earth. Having well tamped up the soil, a peg is driven in near the young plantings at a short distance, which will be maintained by an unstable seedling and will not interfere with growth. Find out why you need soil mulching.
Around the cherries make a watering hole, which is poured into a few buckets of water, and a wet bud well mulch. A layer of mulch will retain moisture and protect the roots from drying out. The use of such a layer is very important in regions with a dry climate and the lack of opportunity to regularly water the sapling.
Video: planting cherriesImportant!Experienced Gardenersrecommend for better survival of cherries «Dessert Morozova» pick 80% of the foliage during the first year after planting.
How to care
Cherry "Desert Morozova" does not need special care. Caring for her as well as for other varieties.
Regular watering is required during awakening after winter and during budding, which is carried out 4 times a month, and more often if necessary (depending on climatic conditions).
When the tree begins to bloom, watering is reduced, and in the process of ripening berries, the soil is moistened as it dries. When excess liquid moisture accumulates in the berries, and they become much more watery, and consequently their transportability deteriorates. Irrigation needs to be done in the morning and / or in the evening, pouring one bucket of water on a tree - then the liquid will evaporate less.
After planting, organic fertilizers are applied not earlier than in 2-3 years, but mineral fertilizers are applied to the okolostvolnoy zone every fall. It is better to apply nitrogen fertilizers in early spring, as they stimulate the growth of cherries.
Potash is used before flowering, but closer to the fall is better to use phosphate fertilizers. Particular attention should be paid to feeding trees with potassium, as with its lack of plants cease to bear fruit.
It should be remembered that rich soil does not require frequent feeding, but the poor are recommended to be fertilized annually.
Video: how and how to fertilize fruit treesImportant!Once in 6 years, the Morozova Dessert cherry needs to be fed with lime, which is introduced into the basal area, in the amount of 200-400 g.
The land around the trunk must be regularly loosened. This allows you to make the soil more airy, and moisture will easily and quickly penetrate to the roots. Periodically, the stalk zone should be weeded, removing young shoots and weeds.
It is important to pay special attention to proper pruning, as it may affect the yield of the tree. The “Dessert Morozova” cherry is cut for the first time right after planting, which allows it to form a crown, and later on each spring before the buds are dissolved. We advise you to familiarize yourself with the rules of cutting cherries in spring and autumn.
It is necessary to cut the branches at the very base so that hemp does not form. Shoots that are directed towards the ground or spread along it must be cut completely. Regular thinning of the crown helps to protect the tree from parasites and diseases.
Young shoots are also pruned, leaving only smooth and healthy. However, one should not get involved in such a procedure either, because excessive pruning takes a lot of energy from the plant and inhibits its development. Cherry, which has reached three years of age, is limited in growth, pruning her upper shoots.
Preparing for the winter
Due to the high degree of frost resistance, the “Dessert Morozova” cherry does not need additional shelter. However, the tree is not protected from rodents, therefore the trunk of a cherry is wrapped up and a wire fence is installed.
Experienced gardeners in the winter period throw drifts under the crown of the tree - this reduces the impact of spring frosts on the root system.
Video: how to properly prepare fruit trees for winter
Description and distinctive features of the variety Morozovka
The variety was developed in the All-Russian Research Institute. I. V. Michurina breeder T. V. Morozova on the basis of Vladimirskaya cherry. The tree has medium size, its height does not exceed 2.5 m. The crown is spherical, slightly raised, moderately thickened. The shoots are thick, covered with gray-green bark. The trunks and skeletal branches have a light brown color. The buds are egg-shaped, not strongly deviated from the shoots. Most of the fruit ripens on the bouquet branches, but a small amount can be tied to the growth of last year.
The leaves are small, have an oval shape and jagged edges, are painted in dark green color. The surface is smooth and shiny. Petioles are long, have an average thickness. The flowers are large, in the inflorescences form 5-7 pieces. Petals are white, round shape.
Morozovka berries are large, in the mass are gaining 4–5 g. The shape of the cherries is round, there is a groove at the base. They also have an abdominal suture, but it is faint. The skin and pulp of burgundy color. Fruits are juicy with dense structure. The taste is predominantly sweet, but there is also a slight acid. The stone is small, has an elongated shape, well moving away from the pulp. The stem is long. Feature of a grade is high frost resistance.
Cherry Morozovka: raisins of culture
The variety appeared as a result of the selection works of T.V. Morozova. The material for the new species was the seeds of Vladimirskaya cherry.
It is not too tall a tree with light brown bark. The wide-round crown slightly raised, moderately dense.
A long petiole is crowned with narrow-oval leaflets of medium size. They are smooth and shiny, green color. The base of the leaf plate is decorated with several small dark red glands.
At the time when the time comes, the bouquet twigs are covered with large white horn-like flowers. Their petals are rounded, stamens located below the stigma of the pistil.
In the second half of July the fruits ripen in a rich bright color. They are quite massive (4.8-5.1 g), round in shape. At the base of the berry has a recess.
The abdominal suture is small, virtually invisible. In a medium-sized bone, which is easy to separate from the pulp.
Juicy sweet berry, with an acidic hint. Due to such qualities, the variety is ranked as dessert. The fruits are good fresh, do not lose their taste at the end of cooking.
Cherry Morozovka pleases regular crops.
This is a self-infertile culture that is successfully pollinated by Lebedyanskaya, Griot Michurinsky, Zhukovsky. This is also a guarantee of fertilization in the absence of bad weather conditions and flying bees.
Fruits ripen on the tree within 3-4 years after planting, which is considered a short period of time. Harvest from a three-year plant - 200 g from 1 bush.
The indisputable advantages of the variety include:
- High winter hardiness of wood
- Average strength
- Drought tolerance
- Tastes of berries
- Average fruit ripening time
- Immunity to coccomycosis
- Good transportability
- In the northern regions of the Chernozem region, flower buds do not tolerate winter well.
- Generous Morozovka cherries are adored for their durability and tasty fruits to adverse weather conditions.
How to plant a cherry seedling
Culture planted in the spring. Young cherries harvested from autumn are added in drops. The root of the plant is insensitive to the proximity of groundwater, which allows cultivate cherries on various soils.
Because the sapling is not afraid of winter, it is successfully grown in the warm and northern regions of the country. There is no shortage of additional weatherization.
Morozok's cherry will feel excellently protected from drafts, lighted place. Suitable soil neutral acidity, sandy, sandy or loamy drained.
Secrets of planting seedlings:
- The distance between the planted plants is from 2.5 to 3.5 m.
- The optimal dimensions of the landing pit - 40-45 cm in depth, 50-60 cm in diameter.
- Earth from the pit is combined with humus (1: 1), potassium chloride (20-25 g), superphosphate (30-40 g), ash (1 kg). In the heavy clay soil is recommended to add 1.5 buckets of sand.
- Planting a tree, at a distance of 25-30 cm from the trunk form a small earthen shaft. His role is to create a watering hole.
- Sapling watered 2-3 buckets of hot water. The soil will noticeably settle at the end of how the fluid is absorbed. The area around the trunk mulch humus and sawdust. A protective layer (2-3 cm) is formed, which will save the earth from drying out and strong evaporation of moisture.
Faithful planting Morozovka cherries is the key to its future successful development.
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