More and more gardeners with the beginning of the season are wondering: how to grow hops in the garden? The reason lies in the fact that the cultivation of this plant does not require special knowledge from them. The plant is unpretentious in cultivation, and care for it does not imply strict observance of certain conditions.
Hop - a bright representative of the Cannabis family. There are 3 types of it:
This plant has annual and perennial varieties, some of which are able to grow in one place for up to 20 years. It has a twisted green or light red stem covered with fine hairs. It reaches a thickness of 15 mm, and the length reaches 10-12 m. It has a strong root system, the bulk of the roots is located in the upper layer of the soil.
Flowers are collected in inflorescences of 30-50 pieces and are formed only on female plants. Hop fruits are brown small nuts that ripen from mid-July to September. The seeds are also small and light: 1000 seeds weigh only 3-4 g. The leaves are heart-shaped, and in the middle part of the stem they are much larger. Their upper side is dark green, and the reverse is much lighter and has glands.
Used in pharmacological, perfumery and cosmetic, bakery industries and in medicine. It is used for decorating fences, arches, buildings, creating a hedge in the country. The most popular type of hops is the most popular, since its planting, care and cultivation do not require the fulfillment of special rules, it looks more attractive and has a lot of useful properties.
How can you grow?
There are several ways to cultivate a crop in the garden:
Opinions gardeners on how to plant hops, boils down to the fact that the easiest way is to use young shoots, appearing in large numbers in the spring. If cuttings or seedlings are difficult to obtain, then seeds can be used to produce the plant.
In early April, you can start growing seedlings.
- Prepare the soil. It is acquired or prepared independently: it is necessary to mix in equal proportions the usual soil, humus and leaf substrate.
- Pour the soil into the container and plant seeds 0.5-0.7 cm deep.
- Cover all with glass (film) and put in a lighted place, but not under direct sunlight.
- Crops require periodic watering.
- With the germination of the first shoots for 2-3 hours, you can remove the film (glass).
- When leaflets appear, the film is completely removed.
- When the height of the seedlings reaches 5 cm, it should be dived - seated in separate containers.
Growing seedlings does not apply to the obligatory conditions for the cultivation of hops. Seeds can immediately be sown in the soil prepared from autumn.
First, choose a place on the plot or cottage. Hops belong to the light-loving plants, so a place to plant should be on the sunny side. The plant feels comfortable on sod, poorly or medium podzolic soil with good drainage. At the same time, groundwater should not be near the surface.
In hops, the roots develop rapidly, grow strongly and can harm the plants growing nearby. Therefore, its landing is made on a separate territory.
So that the roots do not grow and do not interfere with the neighboring cultures, limiters are used - slate or metal sheet buried to a depth of 0.5 m.
Hop develops poorly in windy areas. It is better to choose the place where the impact of wind gusts will be minimal.
Planting hops in open ground is carried out in the middle of spring, i.e., when strong night frosts end. The plant goes deep into small holes (up to 30-50 cm deep) located at a distance of half a meter from each other. In the wells to a depth of 10 cm seedlings are planted, covered with earth, compacted and watered abundantly.
Many gardeners in order to avoid the death of the roots of the plant from the night frosts advise the holes on top to additionally cover with hay.
Before planting the plant is mounted support for its further growth. For these purposes, fit the fence, the wall of the house with the string stretched on them. The hops are decorative, and their whips are drawn out to 10 m, so the support can be started up in any direction (horizontally, diagonally).
Shoot removal, pasynkovanie
An important step in care is the removal of shoots. When the sprouts grow to 15-20 cm, they are cut. Up to 5 strong shoots are left on each bush. When they reach 50 cm, they turn on the support. Usually, 3 stems are put on one support.
Extra shoots should be removed and as the culture grows. Do not forget that hops, growing, inhibits neighboring plants. To the plot in the country did not turn into impassable thickets, the growth of the hops should be constantly monitored.
Caring for a plant involves pasynkovanie - shortening side shoots. Such an operation increases the yield of cones.
Caring for the culture involves frequent watering, because the plant is moisture-loving. But it is important to ensure that the water does not stagnate in the holes. Waterlogging adversely affects the condition of the roots. If the plant grows in a dry climate, it is better to install an automatic irrigation system. Moderate constant soil moisture contributes to the growth of green mass, which provides decorative hops.
In order to avoid the occurrence of powdery mildew on the leaves, they cannot be moistened with watering.
Pest and disease control
Care includes timely pest control. They seldom attack hops, but sometimes the following insects can be found:
The complex of measures for the destruction of pests includes spraying of plants with appropriate preparations (solutions of Kuprozan, polycarbacin), destruction of dead stems in autumn, and digging up the ground between plantings of a crop. When spraying it is necessary to take into account that the majority of insects accumulate on the lower (reverse) side of the sheet.
Effective and simple ways to kill pests are infusions of tobacco and wormwood, a weak soap solution.
If brown or yellow spots were formed on the leaves, and their lower side was covered with a white-bluish bloom, then the hops are infected with powdery mildew. This is the most common disease of culture. Damaged foliage is cut off, and the ground part is sprayed with a solution of fungicide.
Further care for the plant includes weed control, loosening the soil, hilling bushes.
Care of the plant during the rest period
In the autumn, after the withering of the foliage, all the dried up shoots are cut off from the perennial hops. After they are trimmed, fertilizers are applied, and the uterus is covered from above with a layer of earth (at least 30-40 cm). Hop rhizomes easily tolerate winter, and with the onset of spring they resume growth.
If the crop is annual, like Japanese hop, it is completely dug up and discarded.
What to feed?
Fertilizers are used for top dressing:
Manure is brought in 10-15 cm in depth. It should be added in the fall so that it decomposes over the winter.
From nitrogenous fertilizers, it is recommended to use urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Urea is applied before planting hops at the rate of 20 g of fertilizer per 1 m 2. Ammonium nitrate - 15 g per 1 m 2 of soil. If fertilized with ammonium sulfate, then a single dose should not exceed 30-35 g.
Phosphate rock and superphosphate are recommended in the group of phosphate fertilizers. For flour, the single injected dose is 50 grams, superphosphate for a single additional feed is 30 g.
Among potassium fertilizers, potassium salt, potassium sulfate, and potassium chloride are used. 25-35 g of these fertilizers are added per 1 m 2 of soil. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied when the plant reaches 4-5 m in height or after flowering is completed.
Lack of these fertilizers will lead to slower growth of the plant and ripening of its cones. But overdoing with dressing is not worth it: an increased content of trace elements reduces the disease resistance of the culture.
So, in order for the hops to please the eyes for more than one year, and its healing abilities supported their health, gave strength, it is necessary to follow simple tips on growing and caring for them.