Grapes - one of the most popular and favorite berries in humans. It is rich in natural antioxidants and has a beneficial effect on human health. Grapes are not only appreciated for their pleasant taste, but are also widely used in cosmetology. Each variety has its advantages. For many years, winegrowers and breeders tried to bring varieties that would be resistant not only to diseases, but also tolerated frosts. After more than half a century of work, Amursky grapes were bred.
The history of the selection of white grapes "Amur"
The main task of breeders is not the development of one outstanding characteristics of the berries, and the combination of the maximum number of characteristics. Among them:
- disease resistance
- low temperature tolerance
- attractive view
- taste qualities.
White grapes "Amur" has a wild past and proudly combines these characteristics. But the story of its appearance is quite complicated. ME AND. Potapenko (famous breeder) took as a basis for wild Amur varieties. And as a result of many years of work, many new species were presented to berry connoisseurs. We managed to expand the viticulture zone, because the new specimens got accustomed perfectly in a fairly cold climate.
Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko with the help of intraspecific selection brought Amursky white grapes with fruits of a yellowish shade.
Thanks to all qualities, growing grapes in the northern regions has become more accessible.
This grape variety has an average ripening period. It is suitable for food and wine making. This variety can be a real salvation for those who only know winegrowing. Shoots are not afraid of transplantation, well mastered in a new place. It tolerates the effects of low temperatures, does not need to be covered for the winter.
It has excellent taste, natural sugar content can be up to 25%. Liana has the form of a powerful stem with leaves and loose clusters. The plant quickly braids nearby buildings and fences, is able to rise to a height of 30 meters. The diameter of the trunk reaches up to 20 centimeters in diameter.
It has a good rate of growth. During the year, the growth of the plant can give in growth to 2.5 meters. Not only tolerates pruning, but also needs it.
- High yield.
- Vine ripens in parallel with the harvest.
- Good ductility.
- High frost resistance.
- Even with a high load (good harvest) vines do not reduce their growth.
- Striking ability to recover. The fruits ripen even on young shoots.
- Excellent taste. Great for making juices and wine.
Grape vines are often used as decoration. It looks especially beautiful in the fall when the leaves acquire a variety of colors and shades. Bright large triangular-oval leaves look great against the background of ripe fruit.
Amur White pleases its fans with fruits at the end of August - beginning of September. The plant is moisture-loving, normally requires up to 700 mm of rain. If the climate is more arid, the vineyards need watering.
It looks different from its counterparts. Distinctive features:
- Large fruits of a yellow shade, their shape can be from oval to nipple, weight from 2.5 to 4 g.
- The cluster has a conical shape, the weight of which reaches 1 kg.
- It has a sweet taste.
The Amur White is bred from the seeds The Amur Breakthrough. It combines all the best from European table varieties and the Amur wild.
It looks like a bunch of white Amur grapes
Amur grapes, planting and care of which requires certain conditions, is considered unpretentious. The plant loves loose and sour soil. Alkaline peat is excellent as a fertilizer.
- Due to its good frost resistance, it is used to develop new varieties.
- It tolerates the first frost well: the fruits become sweeter from them.
- Excellent against pests and diseases.
- Good yield.
- Thanks to a dense skin perfectly transported.
- Shrubs overall dimensions.
- Used for landscaping the site.
Winegrowers should remember that Amur White needs frequent pruning.
Scientists had the task to improve the frost resistance of grapes, as well as to protect it from common diseases. They coped with the task. Bushes do not need shelter for the winter. Young seedlings are more vulnerable and need warming. Especially those who landed in the fall.
Amur white grapes are resistant to various plant diseases, but spraying with special products is necessary. He practically does not suffer from mildew and oidium, but it is better to be safe.
It is possible to propagate grapes by cuttings, saplings and seeds. It is recommended to plant cuttings at the end of September. Although the variety is unpretentious, it is better to plant it on sunny, non-windy areas. It is not necessary to plant near trees, the vine can completely braid them, while losing in yield. Cuttings are placed no closer than a meter from each other.
Amur white is often propagated by seed. Seeds are planted in the fall to a depth of about 1.5 cm, and after 30 days you can see shoots. Planting seedlings is practically no different from planting ordinary grapes.
Although the plant is moisture-loving, only young shoots need watering. Mature vineyards do not suffer from drought, although their watering will not be superfluous. The soil around the bush mulch to retain moisture longer.
Amur grapes are fertilized once a year. Constantly should be removed stunted shoots. With proper care, this variety will serve not only one year not only as a dessert, but also as a decoration of the site.
Amur grapes and its healing properties have long been appreciated not only by ordinary consumers, but also by physicians. It is recommended to use in diseases of the liver and gallbladder. Also recommended are fruits for hemorrhoids, tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, gastritis (not in the acute stage) and nephritis.
Juices, compotes are made from fruits, raisins, jam and jam are made from it. Amur grape products have a diuretic, diaphoretic and laxative effect.
Review Cultivation and Application Review
Regarding the question of whether the Amur grapes are good, the reviews of winegrowers sometimes contradict each other. Some do not stop praising this variety. Others do not rush to draw conclusions. The more north a consumer lives, the more he likes this variety. The grapes react poorly to warm winters, and residents of the southern regions could not appreciate it.
Many who have not yet had time to check the variety on their own plot are skeptical of frost resistance up to 40 degrees. One of the biggest drawbacks is considered to be rapid height growth. Under all conditions, Amur white grapes give very good results.
Amur grapes usually have a not too large cluster with dark blue (almost black berries), only about two centimeters in diameter. Depending on the soil and place of growth, they can be with different flavor accents. It blooms from the second half of May, and the berries ripen in September. The growing season 125−140 days. Very winter hardy and unpretentious.
Features of planting and careTo date, quite cold-resistant species have been developed that can not only survive but also successfully bear fruit in the harsh climate of the Urals, the Far East and even Siberia. But lovers still do not refuse on their sites and from the relic.
The first thing that should be considered for a novice gardener is that the cultivated and wild types of grapes have different requirements for the soil. Wild plant loves more and does not tolerate the presence of lime. Therefore, when planting it is advisable to put in a hole of highly acidic peat. Cultivars prefer neutral or slightly acidic soil.
The landing site is prepared in advance.. Carefully select the site. It should be borne in mind that the vine grows up to 30 meters and quickly braids any support, therefore, it is not worth planting grapes near the cultivated trees.
The next stage is to dig a hole 1x1 meters in size and at least half a meter deep. The layers are filled with a bucket of sand, one or two buckets of humus, 3-4 buckets of bedding soil. Everything is mixed right in the pit and, if it has not yet been filled, the procedure is repeated. You can also add weeds, but without roots and seeds.
Fertilizers are applied:
- 150−200 g single superphosphate,
- 30−40 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 100−200 g of potassium salt (can be replaced by a scoop of ash).
By the time of planting the land should settle properly. If you plant a seedling in a loose soil, then as it seals it risks to be pulled deep, losing roots simultaneously. Therefore, for the autumn planting pit is preparing from July - August, for the spring, you can be late (September is quite suitable).
When purchasing material, it is necessary to take into account the dioeciousness of the plant and plant at the rate of 1 male seedling per 2−3 female. Otherwise, the crop can not wait, especially if it was a varietal species.Unlike domesticated brethren, wild grapes have an interesting feature - on one liana it can have bisexual flowers. And if the bush will be only with female flowers, and there will not be a pollinator plant nearby, the Amurean will still bear fruit, but only the berries will become smaller and seedless. However, the latter even like someone.
I would like to mention one more feature of the relict species and some of its hybrids. When mature, the vine dries out very strongly. To such an extent that, when breaking off, it seems like a dry twig. This is such a natural defense mechanism - the plant is preparing for a harsh winter. The less water remains in the stem, the greater the likelihood that such a vine will suffer severe frosts and will not be damaged by ice crystals. And inexperienced gardeners take this phenomenon as death and throw out a living and healthy bush.
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In this regard, the Amur Break grape is much more promising in cold regions, it manages to ripen by early September and even the first frosts will not reduce yields. At the same time, sugar can reach 25%, although in most cases it does not exceed 22 g / l, and on poor soil in a blown area it can fall to 18. Amursky No. 4 Shatilova, which is closer to technical varieties, can oppose it, that is, very good for winemaking. This is an ultra early grape, it ripens in the second decade of August, accumulating up to 25% sugar by that time.
Remarkable in its sweetness, combined with high yields, and Amethyst variety, which was mentioned earlier. Its sugar content reaches 23%, which is a lot to make high-quality wine from this Amur grape, its acidity is relatively low, up to 7 g / l. Finally, we mention Muscat Donskoy, derived by Potapenko from Vitis Amuretis, its sugar content reaches as much as 30% with an average acidity of 6.5 g / l. As you can understand, this variety is also valued for the nutmeg flavor, which the Amur Breakthrough is devoid of.