Dark-passe - guest from faraway India, known as eggplant, long ago caught on our beds and became one of the favorite vegetables on the table. Breeders brought out the most varied in size, shape and color varieties of eggplant, trying to create an ideal for taste and pest-resistant vegetables.
Many owners cultivate eggplants on a par with other popular crops and take good yields. However, growing them is not so easy. Eggplants are attacked by many insects like any cultivated family of the Solanaceae family.
Colorado beetles are the most common and voracious pests that can destroy the eggplant crop and negate all the work of gardeners.
The beetles that overwintered in the soil come to the surface in spring, as soon as the daytime temperature reaches the mark of +15 degrees. It happens in the middle lane around mid-May.
Females are quite fertile, and the hatched larvae are highly active - in three weeks they go through all stages of maturation and turn into imago. Several clutches on the same plant are likely to lead to illness, weakening and loss of yield of eggplant.
For the life of one female is able to lay from 800 to 2500 eggs.
Control measures are reduced to collecting beetles in the period of their appearance on plants. Ovipositions break along with the leaves. You can pick only the side and bottom leaves without affecting the growth points. In the case of a massive injury to seedlings, treatment with “Aktara”, “Confidor” and other insecticides of systemic action is applied.
Spider mites can often be found on plants in closed ground.
The pest exists covertly. Detecting eggplant contamination is possible only with careful Viewed plants on a sunny day. The first signs of infection are bright spots of pricks or bites on the foliage. With an increase in the colony of the point turn into spots - there is a characteristic marble color. During this period, a cobweb is easily found on the back of the leaves, under which mites accumulate.
They multiply at an accelerated pace, especially in the hot and dry season. The leaves, from which the mites suck the juice, dry out quickly and fall off. Eggplants reduce yields, and weakened plants die within two to three weeks.
When pests first appear, eggplants are treated with Fitoverma or Akarina. These biologics slow the spread of ticks. Large colonies of insects are destroyed by Aktar, Karbofos, Aktellik.
Aphids feeding on cultivated plants of open and closed ground, there are about thirty species.
This extremely prolific insect can give up to twenty generations per season. Adult pests and their larvae suck the juice, piercing any parts of the plant - shoots, leaves, stems, flowers and ovaries.
Eggplant is lagging behind in growth. A characteristic curvature of the stems appears, the leaves curl and soon die. Young fruits are also showered for the most part, and some remaining on the plants has an ugly, underdeveloped form.
In greenhouses, aphids harm eggplants constantly, and in the open, they breed only in rainy and warm weather.
The preventive measures include the destruction of weeds and leaves already affected by aphids. Large colonies of insects are exterminated by spraying with the solution “Aktar”, “Phosbecid”, “Aktarina” or “Fitoverma”.
Greenhouse whiteflies are another common eggplant pests. It affects mainly young greenhouse seedlings.
As soon as the first leaves appear on the sprouted sprouts, these small butterflies lay eggs on them. Both adults and larvae are sucking pests. Sucking the juice from the leaves and shoots, they deprive eggplant opportunities to develop normally. Seedlings wither and often die, and not waiting for transplantation in open ground.
Plants are covered with specific sweetish secretions of whitefly. Black dirt appears on the polluted areas - this is how a black fungus, a dangerous eggplant disease, develops. The leaves curl and turn black. The disease and the whole life activity of whiteflies as a whole leads to a decrease in yield and death of weakened plants.
The fertility of pests is about 130 eggs. For the year it develops up to twelve generations.
Insect control requires timely weed control. Butterflies are caught using sticky baits. For spraying used "Fufanon", "Aktellik", "Confidor" and other insecticides.
Winter scoops damage eggplants during planting.
Larvae of pests, wintering in the soil, are selected to the surface with the beginning of the springwarming In fragile plants, they gnaw through the base of the stem. Can appear in greenhouses and on open ground plants.
Caterpillars feed up to 60 days and then pupate. Butterflies appear in early May. During the season, females are able to lay up to 2,200 eggs. Insects develop in two generations. The greatest damage to plants brings the second generation of larvae that survived the winter.
The measures of prevention include deep loosening of the soil after watering and the destruction of weeds. The reproduced larvae are exterminated with the Kinmiksa, Inta-Vira and Karbofos solution.
One of the most effective methods of dealing with roseal sawflies is spraying the bushes with Aktar. Read more in this article.
Thiacloprid is an effective insecticide that belongs to the group of neonicotinoids. In which drugs is this insecticide present, you can find out at http://stopvreditel.ru/rastenij/borba/insekticidy-protiv-vreditelej/tiakloprid.html link.
Eggplant pest control measures
For the destruction of pests used a set of measures:
- Greenhouses where seedlings are grown must be kept clean. In the fall, all plant residues are destroyed, and the soil is dug up. The greenhouse is treated with a solution of bleach (20%).
- In the spring, before the emergence of aphids and mites, seedlings can be treated with ashes or tobacco dust (a glass on a bucket of water).
- The imago scoop and whitefly destroy sticky bait.
- After transplantation into the soil, the beds are loosened after each watering. Plants must be examined for the presence of pests.
- The soil under the roots can be sprinkled with ground black or red pepper.
- Before flowering and after it, the eggplant beds are sprayed with insecticides.
- Also used and popular methods of struggle. You can further treat the plants with a mixture of garlic, onions and dandelion leaves. All ingredients are passed through a meat grinder, mixed with a tablespoon of liquid soap and diluted in ten liters of water. Spraying with this solution is allowed even during fruit ripening.
We fight with spider mite
A common pest of Solanaceae is a spider mite. It cannot be viewed with the naked eye.and the effects of his presence are immediately visible - ticks are very voracious. Tying the lower surface of the leaf with a small web (looks like a “marble drawing”), the tick pierces it and feeds on life-giving juice. The bush of the plant looks as if it is being constantly injected (many holes appear on the leaves and trunk).
If you do not pay attention to it in time, then the trunk is covered with spots, and the leaves curl into a tube. The reproductive function of spider mites is very high, a new generation appears every 2-3 weeks. In case of late response to this pest, you can lose the entire crop.
Use of chemicals includes insecticaroicaricides and acaricides. Observing the instructions, a preparation solution is prepared for the preparations, which are sprayed with the plants. Greenhouses are fumigated by burning chemicals. Around the plant is treated with soil.
These methods can be applied not only separately, but also by combining them.
Agrotechnical methods create an unfavorable environment for the existence of a tick: increase air humidity and increase foliar irrigation, plant plants that scare ticks, destroy weeds, and treat the soil.
There are many folk remedies. to fight and scare spider mites, but not all of them are effective. Various infusions and broths with which eggplant seedlings are sprayed belong to them. As soon as you notice that pests appeared in your eggplants in the form of a spider mite, immediately start a fight with them. To reduce the number of insects, remove and burn all the weeds.
Damaged shoots and leaves should also be torn off and burned. Decide on the method of control and proceed to the destruction of the pest. After a few days, inspect the seedlings and make sure that the tool you have chosen has helped. If a cobweb or new points appear again, it means that the selected drug is ineffective, and it should be replaced by other types of struggle. To certainly get rid of the insect population, the treatment is carried out repeatedly. And after complete destruction of the pest, monitor the appearance of the seedlings and carry out prophylaxis to prevent new invasions. Prevention includes agrotechnical methods of insect control.
Aphids control measures
Aphids, like spider mites, suck the sap of plants. Although outwardly it looks harmless, it can bring huge damage to the crop. Her life activity takes place on the leaves, stalk and flowers of crops. Aphids do not feed on fruits, but are one of the most dangerous pests on eggplant seedlings. The tissues of the plant affected by aphids are deformed and dry up. Deformation occurs due to toxins that an insect emits when sucking a life-giving juice. This pest covers the leaves of the papay (sugary discharge), which is a favorable environment for soot fungus. Also aphid carries all possible bacteria.
Plants affected by aphids slow down their growth; complete drying of young growths can occur. It can destroy the whole planting of seedlings. It is necessary to completely destroy this pest, because, having absorbed one planting, the aphid may hide and appear during the next planting seasons.
The fight against aphids must be complex, otherwise the destruction may be ineffective. Immediately begin to apply chemical exposure to insecticides that quickly decompose. Such substances do not linger and do not accumulate in the plant. Such drugs include: Karbofos, Aktellik, Detsis Profi, Aktara. When using these drugs strictly follow the instructions, for each of them has its own pattern of application. Also take care of personal protection, skin and mucous membranes are sensitive to pesticides. Use gloves, goggles or a mask. Work with poisons spend in dry weather.
Folk remedies are used if the defeat of aphids occurred during flowering or fruiting. Several ways to fight:
- In a ten-liter bucket, mix the tops of potatoes, tomato, celandine, garlic and kabak in a ratio of 1: 1, 1 cup of liquid soap and 400 g of wood ash. All this mix and leave in a dark place for three days. Stir periodically. Strain the mixture, use once a week.
- In a 10-liter bucket, mix 50 g of chilli pepper and 50 g of tobacco ash in warm water. Insist for 2-3 days, and then add soap 3 tablespoons and 200 g of wood ash. After filtering use 1 time in 2 weeks.
- Boil wormwood and tansy (1 kg each) in 2 liters of water. Strained broth diluted to 10 liters and add 5 spoons of soap.
- Soak a kilogram of dried yarrow in 2 liters of boiling water, strain, dilute in 10 liters of water and add 5 spoons of soap.
For the fight and prevention of aphids will help plants that it can not tolerate, and insects that devour it. With eggplants you can plant fennel, onion, coriander, mint, garlic. The aromas of these plants scare away insects. Insects that feed on aphids - ladybug, ground beetle, predatory mites and bedbugs. But it is worth remembering that some of them can destroy other crops grown by you.
Primary damage is caused during the disembarkation of eggplant seedlings. Larvae, wintering in the ground, with warming climbs to the surface. Able to gnaw the trunk of a young plant, as well as feed on fruits. Appear on open ground and in the greenhouse. For two whole months, they feed on agricultural crops, and then pupate.
In one season, they can lay over 2,000 eggs. The most dangerous are the scoops that have survived the winter. The appeared larvae are exterminated by the chemical solutions "Inta-vir", "Karbofos", "Kinmiks". Prevention consists in loosening the soil after watering and removing weeds.
How to deal with whiteflies
During the season, the whitefly gives more than 15 generations. Its appearance is typical for closed ground, where there is high humidity combined with high temperature. Favorite places - greenhouses and greenhouses. Insects suck eggplant juice. Located on the back of the sheet, and on the surface of the bottom sheet there is a whitish coating (whitefly litter), on which the fungus develops. It is believed that the soot fungus causes more damage to the seedlings.
The methods of control are similar to the destruction of aphids; chemical agents are considered effective: “Actellic” - no more than 4 treatments, following the instructions. "Konfidor" - one-time use. "Pegasus" - 2 times with an interval of a week.
The biological method of control is replanting enkarzii. The female lays eggs in the body of the whitefly, and this is a very effective method. Macrolofus bug bedding is also used. Folk methods: lowering the temperature in the greenhouse, glue traps, infusion of garlic. Prevention: sufficient ventilation, moisture-temperature regimes, planting scheme of eggplant, plant nutrition. The whitefly's natural enemy is the ladybug.
Ways to combat the Colorado potato beetle
These insects move from potato tops to seedlings and adult plant eggplant. Its leaves are eaten and the larvae lay, which also feed on the sap and pulp of the leaves of the plant.
To protect seedlings from the Colorado potato beetle, it is enclosed with special fences. If the beetle settled on eggplant, but has not yet laid aside the larvae, it can be harvested by hand. When larvae appear, chemical treatment is used: “Calypso”, “Prestige” and other insecticides from the Colorado potato beetle.
If in the process of growing eggplant you are faced with an insect attack, do not despair. First, determine who you are dealing with in order to know how to treat eggplant seedlings and from which pests. Timely treatment of seedlings will provide an opportunity to grow a rich and tasty harvest.
Why are eggplants sick
South Asia is considered the birthplace of eggplants. In this region, eternal summer with bright sunshine and intense rain. In this regard, this culture is very demanding on heat and needs certain growing conditions. To get a high yield of eggplants in Russia, summer residents will have to make a lot of efforts in agricultural technology and create the most approximate conditions that would fit the South Asian climate. If these requirements are not observed, the immunity of plants decreases, which contributes to the development of various diseases, which affect the quality and quantity of fruits.
As a rule, eggplants suffer from diseases and pests for the following reasons:
- lack of light
- water shortage
- watering with cold water
- insufficient air circulation
- wrong way to grow,
- lack of nutrients in the soil.
If, however, provide timely care for plants and suppress the center of disease, eggplant will be able to restore their strength and bring a decent harvest.
There are several types of diseases that can harm eggplants in their development stage, that is, seedlings. Moreover, the culprits of their occurrence, in addition to improper care, are contaminated soil or unprotected seed material. It is possible to determine the occurrence of diseases by the plants themselves. At the initial stage of infection, the seedlings begin to turn yellow. At later infection periods, the roots of the plants wither, leading to their death. To avoid these negative consequences, when growing eggplants, it is important to conduct preplant preparation of the soil and seeds.
- Eggplant seeds are disinfected for 20 minutes. in a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
- After disinfection, the seeds are rinsed with cold water.
- To eliminate essential oils, planting material is boiled over.
- Seeds for a day soaked in any nutrient solution for eggplant.
After the specified time, the seed is again washed well in running water and placed on a moist substrate for germination.
In order to disinfect the earth, it will be enough to warm it with a temperature of +100 degrees, and wash the pots with soap and rinse with boiling water.
The above manipulations will serve as a good prevention in preventing the development of diseases. If we make mistakes, the seedlings may experience the following diseases.
Такая патология, как скручивание листьев у рассады может произойти по нескольким причинам. Наиболее часто этому служат:
- дефицит света,
- переувлажнение почвы,
- нехватка минеральных удобрений,
- перепад температуры,
- повреждения вредителями.
Determine what the problem of leaf curling, you can own. To do this, you need to expand the sheet and pay attention to its inner side. If eggs, spiderwebs or other signs of insects are observed on it, it is necessary to take urgent measures.
In pest control experts recommend to abandon chemicals and use folk remedies. One of the most effective methods is considered a soap solution. To do this, it will be enough to dilute part of the bar of soap in water and process the leaves of the seedlings with the resulting liquid. If insect traces were not found, then the plants will need to create optimal growth conditions. That is, eliminate shading and drafts, reduce the number of irrigations and feed them with mineral fertilizers.
Black leg is considered one of the most dangerous pathologies for eggplant seedlings. This disease is expressed in the darkening and depletion of the stem of a plant, which over time acquires a grayish patina and fades. As a rule, the causes of the black leg are contaminated soil or an excess of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
To cope with this disease, the seedlings need to be watered "Fitosporin" at the root. The calculation of the drug 100 ml per 10 liters of water. Or use the 1% Bordeaux fluid.
A typical pathology in eggplant seedlings is the yellowness of the leaves.
Basically, this problem appears for the following reasons:
- lack of moisture
- watering with cold water
- nutritional deficiencies
- increased acidity of the soil.
To avoid yellowing of the foliage, the seedlings need to be fed with mineral fertilizers. At the same time, care must be taken that the soil is moist and loose, but not acidic.
Black spot, like blackleg, is a dangerous disease for eggplants. Pathology is expressed in small dark specks on the leaves of a plant.
The main reasons for this phenomenon are:
- planting density,
- excess moisture,
- unsuitable soil.
It is possible to cure seedlings from black spot only at the initial stage of its development. To do this, young plants with an interval of 3-4 days is recommended to spray twice with organic fungicides. More affected seedlings must be completely removed, and the soil must be disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Mealy dew is characterized by a white bloom on the leaves of plants. At first glance, such a defect seems harmless. In fact, powdery mildew can lead to partial withering of the foliage or complete loss of seedlings. There is such a pathology, usually due to high humidity or due to a sudden change in temperature.
In the fight against powdery mildew, 2-3 times with an interval of 10 days, seedlings should be treated with microbiological preparations, and the soil should be sprinkled with ashes. Also, young seedlings are recommended to provide protection from drafts and reduce watering.
Dangerous diseases and treatments
After the plants are planted in open ground, they will also require special attention of gardeners. The fact is that the growth of solanaceous crops at the same place contributes to the oxidation of the soil and the accumulation of fungal and viral diseases in it.
In greenhouse buildings or in small greenhouses, due to the lack of regular ventilation, a favorable environment is created for the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, in mini-rooms, reduced illumination and increased air humidity adversely affects the immune system of eggplants. Consider the most dangerous diseases of these plants and their treatment methods.
Fomopsis is a thermophilic mushroom that is the causative agent of dry rot of eggplants. The disease is expressed in the form of round light spots with concentric zones on the foliage, stems and fruits of plants. The disease develops at an air temperature of about +20 degrees and a humidity of 60-90%.
Also, this pathology is facilitated by frequent rains and an excess of nitrogen in the soil.
Methods of dealing with Phomopsis:
- Presowing seed treatment.
- Spraying the bushes with fungicides.
- Removal of infected plants outside the territory.
It is also worth observing timely agricultural practices, such as watering, crop rotation, weeding and loosening.
Late blight is one of the most common diseases that eggplants undergo when grown in greenhouse conditions. The first symptoms of pathology are brown spots on the trunk and leaves of plants. Then there is a whitish bloom from the underside of the tops. Over time, the plants dry out, and the fruits begin to deteriorate with hard rot.
There are several ways to treat egg blight from late blight. However, according to experienced gardeners, the following folk method is considered the most effective:
- 200 g chopped garlic pour 3 liters of water.
- Garlic solution insist 2 weeks in a dark place.
- After this time, dissolve the infusion in a 1: 1 ratio with water.
The resulting liquid is recommended to spray all the plants, and sprinkle the soil with wood ash.
Alternaria (gray rot)
Alternariosis is dangerous for eggplants in both open and closed ground. First of all, these diseases are affected by the lower fruits, on which water falls upon irrigation of the soil. In addition, there is the likelihood of infection during a long period of ripening eggplant.
Symptoms of Alternaria are characterized by gray or brown spots on the leaves. There are cases when this disease affects the eggplants themselves.
Alternaria is treated using contact fungicides. Spraying is carried out with a spray so that the solution falls on the underside of the leaves.
Sclerotinia (white rot)
Sclerotinia is a fungal disease that spreads in the ground. The most common occurrence of this disease are fogs, prolonged rains, thickened landings.
Initially, the disease harms only the root system, then the fungus sneaks inside the plant.
Dark spots begin to appear on the stems and leaves of the vegetable, and the fruit itself acquires a softened structure. Over time, eggplants become skinny with white spots.
Treatment of sclerotinia is carried out in the following order:
- Removed damaged parts of eggplants.
- Cut locations are treated with wood ash.
- Plants are fed complex fertilizers.
Then the greenhouse is recommended to be well ventilated and warm until the dampness disappears.
This fungal disease of the genus Hyphomycetales is transmitted through spores during irrigation, working equipment or wind. In the initial stage of the defeat of cercutagia, eggplants appear white spots with small veins on the leaves, stalk and peduncles. In later terms, the foliage of the plants dies off completely, the fruits acquire a non-marketable appearance and lose their taste.
Treatment of chalcosporiosis involves the use of Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide. Complex mineral fertilizers will help to increase the resistance of eggplants to this fungal disease.
Phytoplasmosis is a viral disease that is dangerous for eggplants when grown in open ground. However, there are cases when this disease harms plants and in greenhouses. When infected with stolbur in eggplant deformation occurs bush. The leaves become shallow and become white or purple. The stem of the plants is woody, the inflorescences change their color and shape.
This disease is usually treated with insecticides. Processing eggplant is carried out 2 times with an interval of 13-16 days. In this case, all heavily affected bushes must be removed, and the ground must be disinfected.
Pests, their signs and possibilities of struggle
Very often, eggplants suffer not only from various diseases, but also from pests. If the plants are not timely protected and the control measures are not taken, gardeners will not get a good harvest.
These gastropods actively eat both the bushes and the fruits of eggplants. Active reproduction of them are frequent rains and thickened plantings. These pests can be identified by large openings on plants and by mucus, which they leave when moving.
Methods of dealing with slugs:
- Remove weeds in a timely manner.
- Ventilate the greenhouse regularly.
- Sprinkle the paths and paths with coarse salt or sand.
- Mulch ground with spruce needles.
- Sprinkle the soil with black or red pepper while tilling the soil.
In cases where the above methods do not give a positive result, you can use metaldehyde. For this powder at the rate of 3 g per 1 sq. Km. m is recommended to sprinkle the tracks in between rows.
Insects such as cruciferous flea can lead an active lifestyle in almost all areas of the backyard. However, they do not tolerate shaded and humid places. Eggplant leaves are under attack by these black little insects. For a short period, cruciferous fleas are able to destroy all the greens of the bush, leaving only the veins. At the same time, not only adult insects are dangerous for eggplants, but also their larvae. Small individuals for their development actively eat the roots of plants, which leads to their death.
In the fight with cruciferous fleas use dandelion or garlic infusion. In order for the liquid to stick well to the plants, it is recommended to add chips of laundry soap.
On the territory of our country there are several types of aphids, which feeds on the juice of eggplants. Their color can be varied, from dark black to bright red. But despite this, the methods of dealing with them are identical.
Methods for the destruction of insects at home:
- Dissolve household soap chips in water. The resulting solution is applied to plants 2 times with an interval of 1 week.
- In a 1: 1 ratio, baking salt and soda are mixed. In the resulting mass add water and laundry soap. The resulting mixture 1 time in 3 days sprinkled eggplant until the complete disappearance of insects.
Of professional tools, gardeners are advised to use biological products that do not contain harmful chemical components.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, in order to reduce the risk of disease, it is recommended to carry out preventive work in advance.
A set of measures to prevent the development of diseases:
- Seed processing.
- Disinfection of soil and greenhouses.
- Airing greenhouse facilities.
- Timely watering.
- Removal of weeds at their first appearance.
- Top dressing complex fertilizers.
- Pest control.
- Loosening the soil.
Also, eggplants can not be planted annually in one place. The best predecessors for them are: peas, beans, cucumbers, cabbage.
As you can see, when growing eggplants require special attention and compliance with the rules of agricultural technology. Without proper care, they are exposed to various diseases and insect attacks. But if you make an effort, then every gardener will definitely get the desired result of the yield of tasty and healthy fruits.