General information

Silo and silage


Silo technology offers many advantages to livestock farms. The method allows the livestock to provide a nutritional feed base at any time of the year. If traditional harvesting of hay provides for the preservation of 70% of useful elements, then ensiling increases this figure by 20%. In many ways, this is achieved by maintaining conditions that exclude negative processes of breakdown of valuable elements, including protein. Most importantly, silage feed can be organized even in small farms. Of course, we are talking about small volumes and with minimal technical means of organizing canning, but for a typical private property the method can be effective.

General scientific basis of ensiling

The process of obtaining food is focused on maximizing the target economy with essential nutrients. Therefore, the basis of silage feed is a complex of biochemical reactions, during which relatively fresh, but dense and safe plant mass is preserved. Technologists exclude the admission of air to the future feed in the process of conservation, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids. In particular, lactic acid is produced, which acts as a necessary means to ensure the effect of canning. In addition, the biochemical medium formed at the first stages of storage protects the mass from damage and decomposition.

There may be a question of where the necessary preservation of the substance is so necessary for favorable conditions. And this is one of the main advantages of this technology. The fact is that ensiling feed practically does not require the introduction of special modifiers and reagents. All processes occurring during conservation are natural and are based on the work of local plant enzymes and beneficial microorganisms that enter the feed along with green grass.

What affects the quality of the silo?

The quality characteristics of the silage mass depend on two factors - its ground and moisture. The optimal process of lactic acid reaction is determined by a balanced concentration of sugar and other components in the herbal juice. With increased humidity, the risk of dilution of the sugar base increases, which is not the best effect on the properties of the finished feed. Conversely, excessive dryness, as a rule, puts more air into the mass, which reduces the effectiveness of conservation as such. The optimal moisture content of plant mass is about 70%. As for the ground, this factor is associated with the previous one. If the ensiling of the feed is carried out at a humidity of 60%, then cutting is performed in 2–3 cm increments. With 70%, the indentation between sections should be 4–5 cm. If the moisture index is 80%, then grinding provides for intervals of 9 -10 cm. At the same time, fine-grassed grass can be kept in its original form, except for hard-to-compacted and coarse plants.

Microbiological control

It has already been noted that the silo mass in terms of providing with preservatives is self-sufficient. But this can be achieved only if the biochemical processes are properly regulated, during which the main active element, lactic acid, will be produced. The main tool for controlling its production is the restriction of access to oxygen. Full tightness of the place bookmarks will provide high-quality silage feed. Mold fungi appear in cases of violation of this rule and adversely affect the characteristics of the mass. In particular, aerobic fungi of the Mucor and Aspergillus families appear in the air and decompose not only lactic acid, but also protein elements with carbohydrates. If there is no confidence in the reliability of the structure from the point of view of tightness, it is possible to use feed additives in the form of molasses such as formic acid, formic acid or natural ferments from cultures containing lactic acid bacteria as an additional preservative.

Bookmark silage mass

The laying process should be carried out as quickly as possible, since the mass in the building is heated and contact with available oxygen leads to loss of protein, and the protein becomes difficult to digest. As a rule, the process takes 5-7 days to maintain large multi-ton repositories. Similar work on small farms should be completed in 2-3 days after the start of the event. Just as quickly, the first layers of insulating material should be laid, thanks to which the silage feed preservative is more actively produced and stored for a long time. As such material can be used film, but only with reinforcing notches to impart rigidity.

Conservation facilities

Now it is worthwhile to consider in more detail the structures in which the installation can be made. There are two options for organizing the ensiling process - horizontal and vertical. The first option involves the use of trenches and pits, which contain plant mass. Such methods are good serviceability and minimal cost. But they are more often used in private households, since they cannot accommodate large volumes of harvesting. Vertical methods of ensiling feeds involve the use of cylindrical building structures. They are also called silos, and, depending on the technical implementation, can hold from a few to 500 tons of plant mass.

Sealing silage mass

Tamping is also a necessary technological step in the process of preparing the plant mass for ensiling. The operation can be performed by various technical means, including household materials. It is impossible to overdo the compaction - the higher the density, the better, as less air will remain in the laid layers. If home feeding without machine means is carried out, special attention should be paid to corners and places near the side walls. In such areas, air is most often collected, which descends into the lower strata.

The advantages of siloing

Compared with other types of feed, this option allows you to get exactly the natural product at low costs for the implementation of technological stages. Even on large livestock farms that invest considerable financial resources in special equipment and silos, the preparation of food pays for itself. The advantages of the method include the availability in the organization of the overall process. Even in household conditions, technology can be observed. Thus, the basics of ensiling feed as the main condition for the maintenance of plant mass claim to ensure tightness. It can be done with the help of a recessed trench and several layers of film material.


Still, the preparation of silage can not be called a completely free option for obtaining nutritional feed. Those who wish to try out this method in the conditions of their farm should initially determine which herbs are available for this task. For example, it is recommended to use legumes and cereals. Also, the ensiling of feed, depending on the scale of production, requires regular monitoring with the help of special instruments. So, modern silos are equipped with measuring devices that determine the humidity and temperature. But in any case, even additional investments are justified by the fact that the livestock receives a truly nutritious and environmentally friendly feed, which can be used even in winter with appropriate conservation.

Corn silage

Corn silage has a high concentration of exchange energy, which reaches 12 MJ per 1 kg. It reduces the load on the body of livestock and poultry without reducing the energy nutritional value of their diet. Corn protein has a low digestibility (37%). Most of it does not split in the rumen of animals to ammonia, but decomposes in the intestine in the form of amino acids. So is the starch. Corn starch is completely absorbed by livestock and poultry, increasing their glucose levels. Due to this, the level of milk production in cows grows, and young animals gain weight gain better and faster. Also, starch has a beneficial effect on the normalization of metabolism.

Unfortunately, corn silage has a low protein nutritional value, excess acidity and other disadvantages. It is practically not suitable for feeding dry pregnant cows, because carotene does not turn into vitamin A.

If the silo is finely crushed, then it will contain lactic acid and there will be no butyric acid. Lactic acid converts sugar into organic acids, and the silage is absorbed by livestock and poultry completely. Grind to the desired size will help self-propelled combines, but most often used a method of separate ensiling grain part of the corn. Above-ground, in-depth or semi-deep trenches are considered to be the best place to store corn silage. Most often it is used above-ground, since the processes of extracting feed are better mechanized. In this case, the possibility of flooding by groundwater is reduced.

When choosing a trench, you need to take into account its dimensions in height (not less than 3 m) and width (selected taking into account the technology of extraction of feed). The silo is removed every day with a layer of 40 cm across the entire width. Do it better vertically. 10 days before the start of siloing, the trench needs to be cleaned, sterilized, whitened from the inside and patched tracks.

The silage mass must be isolated from the wind from the moment it is laid in the storage. Filling technology should be aimed at the rapid and complete cessation of contact with the draft.

At the bottom you need to lay out a layer of straw chop (50 cm thick), and then fill it with silo. The mass of the bookmark should be regularly sealed near the walls

Silo should be covered with triple protection. The first layer is a thin and elastic stretch film, the second is a dense polyethylene film (it can also be covered with a protective net to protect the silo from the crows). The third is a weighty weighting agent.

The fermentation of silage lasts up to 6 weeks, but it is better to hold corn silage for 8 weeks, since acetic acid is formed during these couple of weeks. This increases the aerobic stability of the silo.

Siloing improves feed efficiency and feed efficiency, and also affects the cost-effectiveness of dairy production. In silage pits store less economically than in the sleeves. All costs pay off over time due to high-quality feed preservation. In the sleeves, feed grain, corn, haylage, perennial pulp, alfalfa and others are harvested. There are many advantages of such sleeves:

  1. Low nutrient losses due to instantaneous cessation of air intake.
  2. No loss of silage in the extreme and surface layers of silage mass.
  3. Good compaction of silage mass.
  4. Full absorption of silage juice in the tank.
Due to the aforementioned advantages, it is safe to say that storing silage in polymer hoses is considered a favorable method without air entering the feed.

Sunflower silage

Researches of scientists showed that ensiling of sunflower in different phases of vegetation shows different results of microbiological processes. If you collect plants at the beginning of flowering, then at high humidity the fermentation of the silo takes place quickly than if the harvest is carried out in the phase of seed ripening. It is important to note that the ensiling of this plant at the beginning of flowering leads to a decrease in the sugar content by 10 times, while the loss of protein is 10%.

In the seed ripening phase, the sugar level is reduced 5 times, and the loss of protein is 8%. The nutritional value of the green mass: in the flowering phase - 0.23 feed units, in the phase of ripeness of seeds - 0.25 feed units per kg.

In the finished silo we can observe the same pattern. In the flowering phase and in the maturity phase of the seeds, the nutritional value of the silage is 15% higher, and the amount of protein decreased by 40% per 1 feed unit.

therefore we recommend cleaning the sunflower to silage at the beginning of flowering. But before that, you need to sow sunflower. It is sown in pure form or mixed with legumes. Early crops provide a high level of green mass, and also allow you to finish the ensiling before harvesting grain crops.

During the harvesting of sunflower, the water level in greens is 80%, with a nutritional value of 0.13 feed units and 12 g of protein per 1 kg. Also, the plant contains 2% sugar and at 87% moisture, the sugar minimum is about 1.6%. It is also important to reduce the humidity to 70%, and this can be done by adding 10% of dry and well-ground feed during silage. If you add peas to sunflower silo, then you can do it without restrictions. It also ferments well with corn, while you can get high-quality feed that can be given to cattle and pigs.

You will need to dilute 5 g of dry yeast in 5 liters of water 2 hours before use. They are you and spray the mass.

Whey is used depending on the moisture content of the silage. You need to make 30 liters per 1 ton. In order to get high-quality silage from sunflower, you need to chop the stems evenly and carefully and tamp the silage mass well. To eliminate the loss of juice, a layer of straw cutting (50 cm in thickness) should be laid at the bottom of the storage. The mass must be covered with a film on top.

Ready silage contains:

  • 2.3% protein,
  • 6% fiber,
  • 9.5% nitrogen-free extractives (BEV).

Sorghum silage

Sugar sorghum, which we recommend to use as a silo, contains a high level of sugar and is silage until full grain maturity. The silage from this plant is not inferior to corn.

Before laying the silo you need to clean up the period of wax ripeness of grain. At this time, the sorghum forage mass contains a high level of solids, the optimum amount of water and a high yield of feed units.

Laying sorghum in a trench should be layered (1: 2), and then compacted. The bookmark is completed with a layer of juicy green mass 80-90 cm thick. From above, the silo should be covered with film and earth.

Since when harvesting silage, sorghum loses 25% of nutrients, we recommend the use of preservatives, but this does not completely eliminate the loss.

It is best to use straw when ensiling. Undoubtedly, it allows you to significantly increase feed resources, eliminates the loss of sorghum nutrients, improves taste, does not require the use of preservatives and is laid in a trench in any weather.

We can also offer you non-waste sorghum ensiling technology. At the bottom of the trench you need to lay 100 tons of straw, tamp and get a layer of up to 1 m. On it you lay the sorghum with a humidity of 70%. Then it is shifted by straw in 2: 1 layers. The silo matures in about 2 months. It contains more lignin and silica than in corn.

Rape silage

It is possible to make silage from rapeseed, which will contain 6.7 MJ of lactation energy. The only problem is that it contains undesirable substances that affect the taste of milk and animal health.

We turn to the manufacture of rapeseed silage. You will meet only one problem in this matter - a contaminated mass of foliage. It leads to the formation of butyric acid, therefore, we recommend that you use Cofacil Liquid (3 liters per ton of fresh mass). When using chemical preservatives, a high amount of nutrients is maintained (90%), and the finished silage can be used as early as 2 months after laying.

We now turn directly to the technique of laying canola for ensiling. The rapeseed, which you have previously roughly crushed, is placed in a common pile and stretch the tarpaulin on the first phase until the silage mass settles. During the day, ground canola loses a lot of juice, which needs to be collected and eliminated. The volume of silage mass is greatly reduced, so after collecting the juice you need to carefully close it.

Also, it is not allowed to raise the temperature in the mass for 3 days. It should not exceed 40 ° C. This leads to a decrease in protein and sugar in the silo by 30%.

The main reasons for the increase in the temperature of the rapeseed silage are poor tamping, a high level of moisture mass and a long bookmark.

Rapeseed silage should be given to animals, mixing it with other silos (grass, corn, sunflower). This should be done because the rapeseed silage contains sulfur-forming compounds, and the animals simply do not eat enough.

1. The essence of ensiling.

In the fresh vegetable mass, tightly laid in the pits or trenches, as a result of fermentation, organic acids accumulate up to 1.5-2% of the silage, mainly lactic, which protect the feed (canned) from further decomposition. Главная задача при силосовании - создать такие условия в заложенной кормовой массе, которые способствовали бы молочнокислому брожению, а следовательно, накоплению преимущественно молочной кислоты.

На силосование оказывает влияние доступ воздуха. Молочнокислые бактерии, вызывающие брожение, как организмы анаэробные, для своего развития в кислороде не нуждаются. Чем больше воздуха останется в силосуемой массе, тем больше она будет согреваться, энергичнее дышать, а следовательно, и больше будет терять питательных веществ. If there is air in the silo, the mold will grow stronger. The moisture content of the silage should be 65-75%. With increased humidity, the necessary acids slowly accumulate, with less moisture, the feed does not fit tightly, and air remains in them. To ensure the required humidity, water or succulent feeds are added to dry food, and chaff, straw cutting, etc. are added to high moisture content. Temperature does not matter for ensiling, since different types of lactic acid bacteria develop at a temperature of 5 to 55 °.

2. Siloing technique.

Forage should be ensiled in special towers, pits, trenches and, as a last resort, in elevated shoulders. Pits, trenches should be dug in dense clay soil, better - lined with cement, good clay, planks, etc. The bottom and walls of the pits should not leak moisture.

The fermented landings are crushed up to 1-3 cm, and the corn and sunflower are up to 5 cm. Each layer of the silage is well tamped. It is necessary to lay silage as quickly as possible. From above, a well-compacted layer of 15–20 cm moistened with water is placed on the silted food. To protect it from freezing, the silage trenches are covered with straw, and in some areas they also lay the ground over the straw. Drainage channels are dug around the trench. A shelter or a gable tent should be set up above the ensiled feed in order to protect the feed from rain and snow.

3.1 Sowing corn cobs

Collected cobs can not be stored for a long time, so for ensiling cobs it is better to arrange trenches, divided into sections with a capacity of 15-25 tons, and alternately load them in one to two days each. The capacity of the section-trench is recommended 2.5-3.5 m3. When calculating the silo capacity, it should be taken into account that 1 m3 of finished silo weighs about 800 kg.

It is necessary to silage cob in a finely divided look. Then they are thoroughly compacted in the silo storage, as in the ensiling process they are much harder to produce juice than ordinary green mass. It is recommended to silage cobs on the day of their cleaning,

At the end of the loading of the pit or trench with corn cobs, a layer of about 0.5 m of chopped ordinary green mass should be laid on top of them and tamped tightly. This layer isolates well coiled cobs from air penetration and will be a kind of pressure for them.

With a shortage of specially prepared silo facilities and machines for grinding corn cobs, some farms silage cobs whole. At the bottom of the silo, crushed corn stalks are loaded with a layer of 30 cm, then cobs are laid with a layer of 15-20 cm and compact them well, 30 cm crushed stalks are again applied to the cobs, etc. From above, crushed green corn mass is applied and compacted 1-1.5 m thick, then a hole or trench is covered.

Excellent silage mass can be obtained from corn stalks (bodilya) after harvesting ripe grain on the cob. To do this, the stems are crushed in a forage cutter, silage along with crushed melons (pumpkin, watermelon fodder, melon, etc.) - into one part (by weight) of crushed stems 2-3 parts of melons and cabbage leaf.

All this mass is thoroughly mixed and compacted. In the future, the ensiling technique is no different from the ensiling of other silage plants.

4. Siloing of potato tops.

Potato tops are silage mixed with other feeds: 1-2 parts (by weight) of tops of fodder or sugar beet or cabbage leaves are added to one part of the tops of the tops. If the mass is very wet, add 10-15% (by weight) of chaff or straw cutting.

In the absence of root tops, 25–30% (by weight) of chaff or straw are added to potato tops. If you do not have the necessary raw materials for the additive, potato tops can be silageed in its pure form, pre-wring it up to 50% moisture.

All types of tops and additives, as in other cases, are ground simultaneously. When grinding the tops and additives they must be thoroughly mixed.

Silage facilities, silage technology, silage care is the same as in the silage of conventional silage crops.

5. Siloing of melons and gourds.

Gourds - pumpkin, feed and table watermelons, melons and zucchini - silage in conventional silos. When siloing them, they are pre-chopped into pieces with sharp shovels or chops (spoiled places are removed) and 20-30% (by weight) of straw or chaff are added to the fruit. Then the crushed fruit with straw or chaff is passed through a silo cutter. Bookmarking, compaction and storage of the ensiled mass is carried out in the usual way.

The crushed fruits can be preserved in silage pits, adding to them 3% of common salt (experiments of the Chkalovsky Institute of dairy and beef cattle breeding).

When silting the tops (lashes) of melons and gourds, tomatoes, cucumbers add easily silted products: tops of root crops, vegetable waste, afterburning of herbs (for 1 weight part of the tops of the tops 2-3 parts of lightly silageable products).

In this case, you need both silage products to simultaneously pass through the silage cutter. Loading a silo tower or a trench in layers (in rows) is not recommended.

For better storage, beet pulp and bard ferry. Barda poured into the pits. After settling, the water is removed, and the pit is refilled with fresh barda, and so on until the pit is completely filled with a thick mass. In this form, the bard can be stored for summer feeding of animals.

6. Silage of straw.

Sometimes straw cutting is fermented along with shredded root crops or pumpkin, watermelon fodder, etc. Well-moisturized straw cutting is placed in pits or trenches in layers with a thickness of 20-25 cm along with shredded root crops. Root crops put up to 15-20% or melons up to 30-50% of the silage mass. The whole mass is well mixed and compacted in layers. After laying silage pit or trench tightly closed.

High-speed silage of straw.

Straw and chaff of winter and spring crops, as well as coarse hay, but always of good quality, with normal color and smell are suitable for high-speed ensiling. Flattened, moldy feed to silage unsuitable.

The straw is ground in a chaff or silage cutter to a size of 2–5 cm, then soaked with saline at the rate of every 16 kg of cutting 10 l (one bucket) of saline at the temperature of the barnyard. Pre-dissolve 200 g (1 cup) of salt in 10 liters of water.

Cutting can be wetted in two ways.

  1. Straw dry cutting (chaff) is poured into a pre-weighted measuring box, where it is moistened with a saline solution in the required amount and mixed, then poured into a trench pit, leveled and rammed.
  2. Straw cutting (chaff) is placed directly in a trench in layers of 15-20 cm, moistened with an appropriate amount of saline in an appropriate amount, then leveled over the entire area of ​​the trench-pit and rammed. On cold days, straw cutting (chaff) and saline solution are prepared in advance and set up the evening before in a warm room, for example, in a cattle yard.

Cutting (chaff), unevenly moistened, poorly rammed, very chilled, poorly fermented, moldy, especially at the walls and at the corners of the trench. A favorable effect on the quality of silage straw, chaff has a sprinkling them when laying in a trench with a small amount of flour feed (bran, milled grain), chopped root crops, cutting good-smelling hay, and beet pulp, bard, whey. They are unsuitable for sprinkling the cake, as they delay the process of fermentation and cause spoilage of feed.

With a limited amount of flour feed, straw (chaff) can be spiced only in the middle layer.

Each compartment of the trench, after its filling, is tightly covered with a wooden shield or thick planks, tightly adjacent to one another and to the walls. Straw mats or a thick layer of shallow straw are placed over the cover-shield for insulation. To displace residual air from the trench, a heavy load is placed on the cover evenly over the entire surface.

Animals eat warmed silage straw (chaff) better, that is, immediately after excavation from the trench.

Each section of the trench, after a complete selection of feed from it, is cleaned, aired and dried, and then reloaded with a silage feed.

Preparation of straw should be carried out depending on the specific conditions of the farm, on the degree of livelihood of livestock feed and the use of straw in animal feed.

Method of high-speed ensiling of straw according to Polyansky.

The crushed benign straw and chaff of winter and spring crops are moistened with a 2% solution of table salt, then tightly placed in an earthen trench-pit and covered from above (warmed). After 3-4 days, the food is very self-heating, fermented, becomes soft, acquires the fragrant smell of freshly baked bread, is eagerly eaten by animals.

Pit trench device. A trench - a pit of four or two compartments is constructed inside the barnyard (in the vestibule) or outside it on the south side, under a shed, but in such a place that the slurry, groundwater and sewage can flow into it. In the northern and northeastern regions of the country, trenches-pit are arranged only in insulated premises.

The width and depth of each trench compartment are pit not less than 1.5 m, and the length is determined by the estimated daily requirement of cattle in straw silo; it should not be shorter than 1.5 m, since in smaller pits the silo does not heat up. In 1 m 3 pit-trench is placed with a good tamping up to 1.5 C dry straw cutting, or up to 2 C straw silo.

This straw silo ripens on the fourth day after laying. For uninterrupted feeding of livestock, it is necessary to divide the trench (brick or wooden partitions, earthen bridges) into 4 compartments of the same size, each of which must accommodate the daily need for straw silage.

7. Feeding silage animals.

Silo from corn, sunflower, young grass with proper preparation can be ready for feeding in 2-3 weeks, from leguminous plants - in 2-3 months. A good silage should have a pleasant, slightly sour smell. With successful ensiling, the view of the ensiled plant is preserved almost unchanged. Properly prepared silage is tasty, has a good effect on digestion, and is readily eaten by all farm animals. Dairy cows of good silage per day can be fed up to 8 kg per 100 kg of live weight.

Young calves (calves) are beginning to be given silage from 2-21 / 2 months of age, first in small portions, and by the year up to 8-10 kg per day. Adults pigs fed 3-4 kg, sheep - 1-2 kg per day per head. Horses are fed silage of exceptionally high quality up to 6-8 kg per day.

Feeding spoiled, moldy silage causes serious illness, especially in horses. Frozen silage is fed after thawing.

Alfalfa silage

Alfalfa is very difficult to silage, but if you do it right, you will provide the animals with a rich supply of protein.

Silo harvesting technology begins with the collection of alfalfa. Do it better during budding. At this time, alfalfa contains the maximum concentration of nutrients, crude fiber (280 g per 1 kg of dry matter). It also contains a lot of lignin, and the plant loses its digestibility very quickly. That is why alfalfa should be harvested in the growth phase with an optimal cutting length (40 mm). You can use preservatives. They should increase the breakdown of fiber.

We turn to the mandatory rules for the silting of alfalfa.

The first is that the plant should contain an average amount of dry matter (35-40%). The second - wilting lasts 40 hours and not more.

The suitability of alfalfa for ensiling is determined by the content of soluble sugars in water. By sugars we mean carbohydrates. They are amenable to fermentation. During the ensiling process, the sugar is changed to fermentation acids. That they preserve the silo.

We recommend that you collect alfalfa during budding, because at this time the nutrient content is as follows:

  1. Raw ash - 120 g / kg.
  2. Crude protein - 210 g / kg.
  3. Cellulose - 250 g / kg.
  4. Sugar - 1.0 g / kg.
  5. The energy value is 5.5 MJ.
It is the high level of crude ash and protein that makes the alfalfa ensiling process difficult. We recommend the use of preservatives that contain lactic acid bacteria, such as Bonsilage Forte.

In the case of using preservatives, the level of acidity decreases and the protein content stabilizes. Alfalfa is better to silage with other components, for example, corn, sugar beet or sorghum. This will improve the taste of feed, and animals will not turn up the nose of the trench.

Both components must be thoroughly mixed and evenly placed in a container. You can also add molasses (3%). This will give alfalfa silage a good taste and smell.

Adding straw to silage from alfalfa will reduce moisture and improve fermentation of silage. You need to mix 200 kg of straw with 800 kg of green alfalfa. The silo that you get will contain half the dry weight of straw, and this reduces the digestibility of the feed.

To improve fermentation, you can use another technology, such as haylage. This is canned herbal feed. It possesses the basic properties of high-quality silo, but the preparation of haylage is different in that for this silage it is necessary to carry out a two-phase cleaning.

Alfalfa should be mowed and left on rollers for wilting. During this time, the plant should reduce moisture to 60%. Then the grass is ground by a forage harvester. After that, alfalfa is laid in a trench and left for 1-2 months.

This variant of siloing has a number advantages:

  1. You do not need to add preservatives to the silo.
  2. The mass of the transported feed from the field is reduced by 50%.
  3. Due to the release of silage juice and the formation of undesirable fermentation products, the loss of nutrients is eliminated.
  4. More feed is saved.
  5. When feeding animals receive more nutrients.
You also need to quickly fill the silo. It is better to do this in cold windless weather, so as not to lose organic matter. A good cover prevents access of air and water. You can use plastic film, and on top of it you need to pour loose earth.

Silage root crops

Root crops are also included in silage crops. This food is suitable for pigs and poultry. Feed root vegetables are good raw materials for creating vitamin flour in the fall.

You can silage potatoes in boiled or raw form in pits or trenches. Raw vegetables are washed and minced. Then the feed is loaded into a trench and compacted. A lot of froth and juice stand out at this time. In order to preserve the juice, we recommend that you lay a layer of straw at the bottom, and the foam will not overflow, the vegetable porridge must be loaded 60 cm below the trench walls. The foam settles in 3 days. After that, you need to load a little more chopped potatoes and then cover.

When boiled it is necessary to steam the washed tubers and knead them. Then, without waiting for the potatoes to cool, lay it in a trench, level and compact. You can also add 10% carrots or legumes.

After the storage is completely filled, the mass must be carefully covered.

Root vegetable tops you can silage without adding straw.

The botve contains:sugar - 11.9%, protein - 11.7%, fat - 2%, fiber - 10.5%, calcium - 1.3%, phosphorus - 0.3%, BEV - 52%, carotene - 132 mg.

Grain-bean mixes

You can prepare high-quality feeds with the help of spinning. This is haylage, which is prepared from the vegetative mass of grain crops. Harvesting begins during the period of wax ripeness of grain (humidity - 60%).

It is best to use multi-component cereal-bean mixtures, for example, barley, oats, peas.

Plants contain many nutrients and less fiber than alfalfa haylage, but this silage is easily digested by animals.

Before starting to harvest silage or grain dumping, it is important to clarify the advantage of this technology, which lies in the fact that this mixture allows you to use the full biological potential of the productivity of grain crops.

It is also an advantage to prepare a grain spin using a feed mixture that the moisture content of the mixture during the collection in the wax ripening phase is 63%. During maturation, plants contain the optimal amount of nutrients, a lot of starch and protein.

In order to prepare the correct silage, you need to properly squeeze a lot of cereals. This can be done with the help of special tension cables. After laying the process of fermentation. Due to the immediate cessation of air access, you can protect yourself from the loss of nutrients. At the same time you can still use the preservative "Bitasil". It is possible to apply grain outflow in the form of feed after 4-6 months.

Combined Silo

The combination feed includes components such as root vegetables, which means that making silage from them is not that difficult. In addition, you can use carrots, pumpkins, potatoes, beets, green beans, cereals, cereal waste, chopped straw, seed flour and other ingredients. Этот набор обеспечит высокую питательность силоса, так как в нем будет содержаться сахар, крахмал, витамины и протеин.

К тому же питательные вещества в комбинированном силосе лучше сохраняются в хранилищах. Такой силос хорошо поедается животными круглый год и не требует дополнительной подготовки перед скармливанием.

При подборе компонентов нужно знать следующее:

  1. The nutritional value of the combined silage in 1 kg - 0.25 feed units.
  2. 1 kg of silage must contain at least 20 g of digestible protein and 20 mg of carotene.
  3. In the silo should be 5% crude fiber.
  4. A quality silo contains 1.8% lactic acid and no butyric acid.
  5. The palatability of the feed should be such that silage makes up 50% of the total diet of pigs.
In order for the combined feed to meet the requirements for low fiber content (2%), and still well eaten by pigs, it is necessary to add melon crops up to 60%.

It is the melon crops that are a valuable component of the combined silage. Their addition improves taste.

Rules for laying a combined silo:

  1. Before laying the silage in the trench, it is necessary to ensure the preservation of the silage juice mass. If it leaks, you lose a lot of nutrients from the feed.
  2. The ground mass must be thoroughly compacted, especially near the walls.
  3. Separate feed needs to be mixed and filled into the silo container in layers.
  4. At the end of the bookmark you need to cover the silo with an airtight film or tire.
  5. Above the trench you need to arrange a shelter to keep the silage from rain and snow.
Bird and pigs are taught to feed like this gradually.

Now that you know what a silo is, it’s easy for you to make it right. Follow the recommendations and you will get nutritious food for animals and birds.

Siloing - a method of preserving feed

Silage - one of the most common and reliable methods of preserving feed - green plants, wet grains, root crops, melons and gourds, vegetable waste, field crops and food industry.

As a juicy form of food, silage increases the bird's appetite, improves digestion, and provides, to some extent, the need for vitamins and minerals.

Main silo advantage consists in the fact that benign silage in its nutritional value and biological value is almost not different from the feedstock. Moreover, in some cases, the quality of such a product even improves in comparison with the original components.

Siloing allows, with the existing technology and technology, it is relatively easy and quick to harvest a large amount of juicy feed, almost regardless of weather conditions, to create 1.5-2-year stocks.

The essence of siloing It consists in preserving plants, tightly packed in storage, with organic acids, which are formed from sugar contained in the green mass, as a result of the vital activity of bacteria.

The acid reaction of the medium created by lactic acid bacteria is the main condition determining the safety of the feed. Therefore, the main task in the preparation of silage feed is to create optimal conditions for the life of lactic acid bacteria.

The main factors determining the correct course of lactic fermentation include the favorable composition of the feedstock and the creation of anaerobic conditions (without air access).


The suitability of the food for ensiling, due to its chemical composition, is called fermentability.

Chemical plants differ greatly in fodder plants and, depending on this, are subdivided into three groups: easy and difficult to slug and not to slug.

  • Lightweight - these are plants whose minimum sugar is completely ensured by the actual sugar content,
  • hard to bear - plants in which the sugar content does not provide a minimum of sugar, and the green mass can be ensiled only if the yield of lactic and acetic acid is 90-100%,
  • non-splitting - plants, the sugar minimum of which is completely not ensured by the actual sugar content even with the release of organic acids in an amount up to 100%.

When ensiling the plants of the second and third groups, they should add easily saccharified feed (molasses, boiled potatoes, beets, oatmeal) or plants of the first group with a high sugar content.

First of all, the intensity of lactic acid fermentation, and hence the degree of acidification (pH), is determined by the presence of a sufficient amount of sugar in the fermented raw materials.

Of all silage crops, corn containing many sugars is considered the best. For poultry, silage from corn cobs harvested in the phase of waxy ripeness, uncut, leguminous grasses and fruits of melons and gourds is more suitable for poultry.

Sunflower baskets are easily ensiled with the fruits of gourds, beet tops and other succulent fodder.

Peas, vetch, plyushka, fodder beans, lupins are high-yielding crops that are good raw materials for preparing silage from legume-cereal mixtures (with oats, barley).

The fruits of melons and gourds (pumpkin, zucchini, watermelons, etc.) - the most valuable component for the combined silage.

Root crops (potatoes, beets, carrots, etc.) are also easily ensiled in mixture with other components.

To increase nutritional value and optimize moisture, grass flour, grain feeds and minerals should be added to the fermenting mass.

An important factor in high preservation and obtaining good quality of such a silo is the moisture content of the mixed raw materials. Therefore, when harvesting, it is necessary to select the composition and the ratio of components so that the finished feed has an optimum moisture content within 60-65%, moderate acidity (pH 4.2-4.3) and a favorable ratio of organic acids (lactic acid 70-75% ).

The main condition that ensures high efficiency of feeding the combined silage to the bird is the use of unarmed plant mass for its laying.

Silo stock

Preparation and storage of combined silos should be carried out in the capital storage: towers, trenches of reinforced concrete. The time of laying one storage should not exceed 2-3 days in any weather conditions. The silage should be benign and clean, and the roots should be thoroughly washed. Contamination should not exceed 2%.

Root vegetables, pumpkin, green fodder are crushed into particles about 0.5 cm in size, and cereals to a state of tear. Succulent fodder is ground to a pulp state if a lot of dry fodder is added to the silage, which quickly absorb the juice produced. The silage should have a uniform structure.

Before laying the silo, a layer of 15-30 cm of chopped straw or chaff is necessarily laid on the bottom of the storage. The pledged mass is thoroughly compacted, especially along the walls and at the corners, and covered with synthetic films and a layer of earth or clay 25-30 cm thick. Rain and melt water cannot enter the storage facilities. When laying silage in a trench daily, the compacted layer should be at least 70-100 cm.

The optimal dates for gathering forage crops for silage are: corn cobs - in the phase of wax ripeness, lupine - when shiny bobbins appear in the lower tiers, peas and vico-oat mixtures - in the first and second lower tiers.

The optimal time for harvesting perennial grasses coincides with the beginning of the budding of legumes and entering the tube - the beginning of earing of cereals.