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Breed of a pig "African Kistueukh": description and features of a wild animal

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Brush pig - A wild member of the family of pigs living in Africa, with the majority spreading in Guinea and Congolese forests. Sometimes you can see it in tropical forests, mostly prefer areas near rivers and swamps. Cisturia pig eats grasses, berries, roots, insects, mollusks, small vertebrates, which are capable of causing damage to plantations. They tend to live in herds of 6 to 20 members, led by the dominant male.

Cisturian pigs covered with brown-red fur. Their legs are black, and a white crested stripe is noticeable along the spine. On the muzzle around the eyes, on the cheeks and around the jaw are white marked. The rest of the muzzle is black. On the jaw and on the sides of the fur more than on the body. The ears are long and pointed; there are tassels at the ends of the ears.

Adult pigs weigh from 45 to 115 kg, their height is from 55 to 80 cm, their length is from 100 to 145 cm. Their tail is thin and usually 30 to 45 cm long. Despite this size, this species has a stocky body. with powerful shoulders and a large wedge-shaped head that allows you to get the roots out of the ground. On the elongated muzzle with long sideburns, there are short sharp canines, which give individuals of both sexes a formidable look.

Males are usually larger in size than females. Representatives of both sexes have tusks, although they are much larger in males. Males can be distinguished by recognizable humps or bumps on both sides of the muzzle, as well as the presence of fairly small, but sharp canines.

Spread

Cisteurian pigs live in tropical forests, wet dense savannas, wooded valleys and near rivers, lakes and marshes. Most often they can be found in the hollow of the Congo, the Gambia, in the area of ​​the Kasai rivers and the Congo. There is no exact demarcation of the range of distribution, but they occupy most of western and central Africa.

Cist-eared pigs avoid dry places.

Taste pigs are mostly nocturnal: during the day they hide, and after sunset they wander in search of food. They are good swimmers, they can even dive and swim short distances under water, but they are not able to hold their breath for a long time. They live in small groups of 4 to 20 animals. There are cases of the formation of groups of up to 60 animals together. The main part consists of males, several sows and their pigs.

Males zealously protect their group from predators, most often from their main enemy - the leopard. When attacked, pigs fluff up the hair on the face, which makes them look more threatening to the enemy. Fragrant secretions from the facial glands are often used as labels. Live brush pigs up to a maximum of 22 years.

Characteristic

Pigs of this breed live in central Africa or in its western part. They live in a group that is necessarily headed by a male. Often a group consists of: a male, several females and cubs.

Despite its attractive appearance, the animals are quite aggressive. They often attack livestock, dogs and cats. If an African pig pig meets with a pet, it will not survive for a long time, the pig tears it apart with its fangs and eats it. That is why these pigs are rarely kept as livestock. But some farmers in Africa managed to tame them, and send their aggressive energy to a peaceful course.

But for the most part these pigs are parasites, as they raid corn and cereal fields, ruining them. The main enemies of pig pigs are hyenas or felines. And since the number of leopards has decreased significantly over the past decades, it has become more difficult to control the population with natural selection. People tried to catch pigs with poison baits, but this type of pig has an excellent sense of smell, so all attempts failed.

Origin

These pigs are one of the most prominent representatives of the most ancient mammals in Africa. Their ancestor is the behemoth. Previously, scientists did not share the Madagascar and African breeds and attributed it to the same species category, as outwardly pigs are very similar and have the same habits. But modern breeders share both of these species, and this is why:

1. Madagascar species has a different name - shrub. They prefer to settle in dense thickets or low bushes. Pigs of this breed live in Africa and are the only representatives of ungulates on the island of Madagascar. Unlike African pigs, they have a lighter reddish stubble and a thick pale mane. They are omnivores, they feed on carrion and small invertebrates, as well as various fruits and roots.

2. The African species is also called river, due to the predilection of these animals for living near water bodies. This species is widely distributed in western Africa. And unlike Madagascar, they prefer not thick thickets, but areas near water bodies and swamps, rare tropical forests or savannas.

Since the color of these pigs is quite diverse, it was decided to group them into several subspecies by external features. At the moment, breeders do not distinguish African Tastean pigs on this basis.

Appearance

The appearance of a pig pig is quite attractive. Her bright appearance and unusual body structure instantly attracts the eye to itself:

  • The pig's entire body is covered with bright red wool, and a white stripe stands out on the back. White coat is longer than red, but rare. It also covers the stomach of a pig, is located near the snout, rarely located around the eyes.
  • The muzzle of the pig is black as well as the tassels. It is thanks to unusual ears with tassels that the animal got its unique specific name.
  • There is a brush and at the end of the tail. The tail itself is black, of medium length.
  • The color of the legs of the mumps is also interesting: they are gray below, and red is closer to the body (in the tone of the main color).
  • The muzzle is elongated, with a small neat heel.
  • Males have long burs, which can be confused with horns.

Pigs of this breed are very mobile and fast thanks to a well developed hock. Although the animal is not very hardy, a rare individual has a sagging belly or obesity. All pigs of this breed have a neat small and muscular body.

The African pig pig differs from others in its canines: they are sharp and long. Thanks to this form of canines, they can easily obtain food, both in the ground, and hunt small animals.

Lifestyle

Pigs of this breed are night residents. In the daytime, African river pigs sleep or hide in small earthen holes disguised by vegetation.

Cist-eared pig is not very prolific

They live in groups led by a male. The size of the group often reaches 20 individuals.

Cistuly pig is not very prolific, for one farrowing sow brings from 1 to 6 cubs. And since the survival rate of the piglets is weak, only 3-4 individuals reach the mature age.

Sows of this breed are very caring mothers, they make a high safe nest for their children. The lactation period lasts from 2 to 4 months, then mothers teach piglets to coarse food.

Attention! Each group of pigs lives on its own territory, which they try to mark either with scratches from the canines on the trees, or with the help of the secreted secretion. In the event of an attack by another group, the owners of the territory are saved by escaping.

Cisteurian African river pigs are susceptible to all dangerous diseases of the boar family. Most of these diseases are fatal to livestock. These diseases include African swine fever. An animal can become infected by a tick bite or a sick individual. For many, this disease is fatal.

Repeated human attempts to tame this species of pigs were in vain, only isolated cases of domestication are known. And those who succeeded in this, argue that the captured adult individual at first behaves aggressively and nervously, but soon becomes accustomed to conditions of detention and calms down. And some individuals are so accustomed to people that allow you to take care of the offspring. Pigs raised in captivity are tame and do not show aggression towards humans.

The appearance and distribution of the breed

African pig (or river pig) - an animal that is markedly different from the usual fellow. The animal has an interesting appearance and character, significantly different from what is usual to see in ordinary domestic pigs. Cousteau pigs are strong, agile and fast, which helps them survive in nature. The pig got its name due to the long hair that protrudes on the sides of the muzzle.

Kisteukhie pigs appeared in Western and Central Africa, mainly live in Guinea and Congo. Avoid droughts, occur near water bodies. Its representatives are common in tropical forests and in savannas.

Previously, the African and Madagascar pigs were considered one species. But after conducting a comparative analysis, it was found that animals, though similar in appearance, are two separate species. Madagascar (bush) pigs live in Eastern and Southern parts of Africa, they have a less variegated color than that of the Brush.

The color and size of African pigs may differ, therefore, several sub-species are distinguished, which are well distinguished by external signs. Earlier, five varieties of the spearfish pig were identified, but today they are all ranked by scientists as one.

External features and nature of the animal

African pig lives near rivers, swamps or lakes, because it does not like drought. The representatives have a rather peculiar appearance, which significantly distinguishes them from other breeds:

  • Short, hard coat of reddish-brown color, white stripe along the ridge.
  • The length of the body on average reaches 1.5 meters, height - 80 centimeters, weight - 120 kilograms.
  • The head is proportional to the size of the body. Snout elongated, wool gray-white color. The most common animals with a dark spot on the forehead between the eyes.
  • Animals have a compact and proportional body. Limbs shortish, dark color below hock.
  • Around the eyes are woolen white circles. The same sideburns color the sides of the snout.
  • African pigs have a long tail - about 40 centimeters. There is practically no hair on the tail, only at the end there is a characteristic tassel.
  • More remarkable in the breed are interesting ears - long, hanging, with tassels at the ends. They are painted in white and black shades.
  • The main tool of protection are the sharp tusks with which adult animals can cut almost any object. They are especially large in males, in females a bit smaller in size.

African pigs prefer to be nocturnal. During the daytime, they hide in dense bushes or other vegetation adjacent to water bodies. In search of food come out when it starts to get dark.

Habitat features

Animals used to lead an active lifestyle. At the slightest danger, they try to run away from the enemy, but if they are forced, they defend themselves furiously and fearlessly, protecting their offspring.

Cisteau pig has a keen sense of smell, good enough mind. Attempts to catch them at poison bait often end in failure.

There are isolated cases of domestication of these animals, mainly in East Africa, where they create semi-free conditions.

Each family has its own territory, the boundaries of which marks the male: leaves marks on the trees and highlights a special secret.

The interaction of this breed of pigs with humans is quite problematic, because animals are prone to the destruction of crops of cultivated plants and other bad habits. The Cist-eared pig has an aggressive nature, but it has very few enemies in the wild, because the main predator, the leopard that hunted it, was driven out of its habitat by humans.

Breeding

In one pack under the leadership of the leader are several females and piglets. Such a family may consist of 15 individuals. The female bears an offspring on average 4.5 months, bringing from 1 to 6 piglets. Pigs breastfeed pigs for 2-4 months, after which they gradually feed in the same way as adults. Sexual maturity in African pigs comes in 3-4 years.

African pig pigs make their nests like haystacks before giving birth. Within a few hours after birth, the pigs can follow the mother. Adult females and males from the family look after them. First, the pigs drink mother's milk, then they feed on the common food of the flock. In the wild, African pigs live for about 15-20 years.

The animal is quite unpretentious in the diet - it can eat almost any food. Most of all, they are accustomed to eating various fruits, tubers and roots. They also feed on insects, larvae and other invertebrates.

If a pig is lucky enough to find some kind of carrion, it will eat it too. Today, when the breed is a little domesticated, it can eat grapes, pineapple and other cultivated plants.

Scientific research has found that animals suffer from African plague. For the first time, the disease was recorded in Africa at the beginning of the last century. And the first carriers of the plague were the wild local pigs, including the brushbacks. Then the African swine fever began to spread in some countries of Southern Europe and America, and at the turn of the 20-21 centuries it completely migrated to almost the entire territory. Today the disease is already found in Russia, Asia, Western and Eastern Europe.

African swine fever occurs in affected animals depending on the form of the disease. With the rapid course of the disease, the pig dies almost immediately, with acute and subacute, the disease is determined by several signs: difficulty breathing, fever, paralysis of the hind limbs, weakness, vomiting, etc. The mortality rate from the disease ranges from 50 to 100%.

Since most wild pigs lead the herd way of life, the African plague can spread very quickly due to tight contact in the herd.

African pig pig is an amazing wild animal, which is characterized by an interesting appearance and aggressive character. It is opposed to people, but it also happened that a man taught the animal. Animals eat almost everything that gets in their way, it allows them to survive in the wild.

There is a pig ... horned

When looking at this in the full sense of the word bright inhabitant of the Black continent, thoughts about the pigsty come in last. But I recall a circus, a red carpet in the arena and a good mood after the first visit to the tent. Or a flower bed at the height of summer - it’s not for nothing that Gerald Darrell called the Flower a piglet, on the occasion acquired in Sierra Leone. The one who had the idea to make the word “pig” a curse, probably didn’t see the brushless river pig. However, everything is relative. If you do not plant peanuts and do not live in Africa, you are free to sing the charm of this animal. But Africans, on whose fields it regularly visits, are unlikely to select at least a couple of good words for him in their lexicon ...

Cisteuh (or red river) pigs are very beautiful: they are bright red, with a white stripe on the back and white spots on the elongated black face, on the sides of which red white-haired whiskers stickyly stick out (especially the animals with orange shade of hair are colored a sub-species from the forests of Cameroon). Nature has painted dark brown hair of piglets with pale yellow or dark yellow longitudinal stripes.

The hair comb, well pronounced on the back and especially on the rump, at times of danger, looms ominously, visually increasing the size of the pig. A bare 30-45 centimeter tail resembles a carrot or parsley root, stretched almost to the ground, with a thick base and a very thin end, topped with a tassel. The main feature, which gave the name to the animal, is long bunches of black and white hair, hanging at the ends of the elongated narrow ears, like bells on a jester's cap.

In general, the pig pig is the smallest among the pigs in Africa. The length of her body is 100-150 cm, height at withers is 55-80 cm, average weight is from 60 to 80 kilograms. Animals of both sexes have sharp fangs. Males are distinguished by well-developed bone cusps ("warts") halfway between the eyes and the patch. In their youth they are hidden in thick hair, but the old people sometimes have the appearance of two small horns directed backwards.

Dog for dessert

The species range occupies Equatorial Africa from Senegal in the west to Eastern Zaire in the south and east. West and Central Africa south of the Sahara. Cisteuh river pig inhabits a wide range of biotopes, including lowland rain forests, gallery forests, dry forests, wooded savannah, overgrown shrubs and agricultural land.

A typical group of tastean pigs consists of 3-6 individuals, including one adult male, although accumulation was observed in more than 100 animals. Борясь за лидерство, самцы бодаются лбами, тычут друг в друга рылом и хлещут соперника хвостом. Свою территорию животные метят, царапая клыками деревья и используя секрет желез на ногах, шее и под глазами. Активны в ночное время, а в течение дня предаются отдыху в непроходимых зарослях, где у них проложены тропинки и туннели.On feeding go quite far, making the transitions up to 4 kilometers in one direction. Very careful, but cornered or wounded may show enviable courage, rushing to the enemy.

Cisteurian pigs are absolutely omnivorous, as are all of the Havronina kin across the globe. Their diet consists of roots, fruits, seeds, grass, mushrooms, clams, insects, bird eggs, rodents, carrion. They dig deeper in the soil, looking for roots, bulbs, worms, and insects, but they can also swim to water plants. It is known that, in anticipation of a dropped fetus, crested swine follow monkeys (in particular, chimpanzees) feeding on trees. And the special pleasure is experienced from the nuts of the olive tree mandura, or mkonga, which are not found anywhere, but in ... heaps of elephant dung. But what you never expect from the glorious pigs, so it is the propensity for predation. However, the facts - a stubborn thing. Elegant pigs attack small domestic animals, killing and eating piglets, kids, lambs and even, according to eyewitnesses, hunting dogs.

The breeding season lasts from September to April, and its peak occurs in the wet season (November - February). Brutal pigs are born annually. Pregnancy lasts 120-127 days. Births occur in a nest of grass, its width is about 3 meters, and its depth is 1 meter. In litter from 3 to 6 pigs. Newborns weigh less than a kilogram (650-900 g). Both mother and dominant male take care of the cubs and protect them.

Being unexpectedly frightened, the pigs can deftly “play the possum,” that is, pretend to be dead. As they get older, they already prefer to run fast. In 2-4 months young pigs stop sucking milk and switch to normal feed. Sexual maturity reaches 18-21 months and later. The life span of a pig pig is 15 to 20 years.

All over the world

The species is widely distributed in Central Africa and, although widely hunted by hunters for tasty meat, it is still far from endangered. The prosperity of pig pigs contributes to the widespread extermination of their main enemy - the leopard. Other large predators - lions, spotted hyenas, as well as Nile crocodiles and hieroglyphic pythons - do not have any significant effect on the number of pigs. To a certain extent, deforestation has a negative impact on their populations, but, as research by zoologists have shown, crayfish pigs are well adapted to the neighborhood with humans, besides making raids on plantations of cultivated plants, causing them noticeable damage and giving people another reason to shoot them . Attempts to destroy the red robbers with poisons have done little: they are too sensitive to poison.

The indirect harm caused by river pigs is that they are carriers of diseases such as African swine fever, which affects livestock. The disease occurs after a tick bite, and although it is not dangerous for the savages themselves, they are able to pass it on to domestic pigs, but for those the illness can be fatal. As an alternative, it was repeatedly suggested to domesticate pigs with tassels on their ears, but for various reasons the promising idea was stuck at the theoretical stage.

An adult wild-haired pig caught in nature (at least in the first months) is a nervous and rather vicious animal. However, having become accustomed to the new situation, it calms down and even becomes attached to the people caring for it. The same pigs that still fall into captivity by piglets become completely tame.

Kisteuhs, like other wild pigs, are fed twice a day, asking them dry and juicy food in the morning, and only juicy in the evening. The daily portion of dry food averages 2 kg per adult animal, juicy - 4 kg. The first category includes dry oatmeal, steep oatmeal cooked in milk or water, crumbly boiled rice, soaked corn, jacket potatoes and some bread (dried white or gray bread, crispbread, savory crackers) You can periodically give a small amount wheat and millet grains. As the main juicy feed offer apples, pears and bananas.

From time to time, a juicy pig diet is varied with citrus, grapes, melons, carrots (if young, then it is good with tops), raw potatoes, beets, lettuce, onions and leeks, colored and Brussels sprouts, parsley, cucumbers. Only as an infrequent delicacy in the trough put white cabbage, green beans and green peas. But in summer they give plenty of fresh clover and alfalfa, green cereal grains and corn, as well as grass and foliage. We should not forget about the carnivorousness of taste pigs, therefore their diet should contain meat in the form of raw minced meat, chickens, quails, unwholesome rabbits, etc., as well as raw liver and occasionally fish.

All wild pigs, including the tastech, suffer from the same diseases as their domestic relatives. In this regard, it is strongly recommended not to keep one near the other. In addition, it is important that rodents do not penetrate into the pen or winter quarters, among which a sick or poisoned animal may be caught. Having found a dead mouse or rat on its way, a pig will eat it for a sweet soul, only the consequences for it will most likely turn out to be deplorable.

Practically up to the beginning of the 1990s, wild river pigs were brought into the collections of zoos from time to time and without any particular purpose. Success in their regular breeding was achieved by the Zoo of Duisburg (Germany), where pigs are still kept in a mixed exposition of African animals, dividing the corral with such different neighbors as large-horned cattle vatussi or vultures. Grown up pigs went from here to other parks. Now in Duisburg lives a herd of 10 individuals.

A surge of interest in the orange pigs occurred simultaneously with the development of construction in various zoos of large zoogeographical expositions and pavilions of the tropical rainforest. As of April 2002, the zoos participating in the International System of Accounting for Zoological Animals contained 465 river pigs. More than half of this herd settled in Europe. Until recently, bright pigs could be admired at the Moscow Zoo, but now, unfortunately, they no longer exist in Russia.

External description

Cisteah pig has a reddish-brown color with a white stripe along the body. The tail is thin, mobile, long (30–45 cm). Closes his thick black and white tassel. A distinctive feature of piglets - long, slightly pointed ears, at the ends of which are visible black and white tassels. This color of the brushes is a distinctive sign: at the sight of the relatives, the individuals arch the back while tilting the head so that the ears take a horizontal position.

The muzzle of the animal has a black color, slightly elongated in the shape of a wedge, a hook-noon. Special charm give long sideburns and a small penny. There is a white edging around the eyes. There are small sharp canines and tusks. A distinctive external feature of males from females is the presence of long bony hillocks resembling backward curved horns. Hillocks are located between the eyes and ears.

The fangs of African pigs are sharp enough to cut any item.

Despite its eighty-kilogram weight, the pig looks quite proportional: a muscular strong and toned body, powerful shoulders are complemented by lean, slender, short legs. The length of the body is 100-150 cm, the height at the withers varies from 56 to 80 cm. The representatives of this species lack the usual hanging pork belly.

The African pig is fast and maneuverable, its movements are light and swift. She can even compete with a hunting dog in running speed, but is inferior in her endurance, as she gets tired quickly.

Individuals are unpretentious in food. Consume and plant food, and food of animal origin.

At night, piglets often raid the fields planted with fruits and vegetables, destroying everything in their path. In addition, newborn home artiodactyls (mostly kids and lambs) are a favorite delicacy of pigs. All these tricks lead to the fact that the locals do not like them.

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