If you are going on a quiet hunt, it is very important to get acquainted with all the varieties of mushrooms that are present in the field of gathering. Today we will look at a most interesting specimen, called nothing less than the autumn line. Due to its toxicity, the consumption of fruit bodies in food can cause poisoning, therefore, it is necessary to take into account all the important nuances. We will help you with this, let's get started.
Features of the form
- According to some data, it is customary to believe that a variety of fruit bodies is contraindicated for consumption as food. If we consider these mushrooms with regard to taste, they are assigned to the fourth category. If you carry out pre-treatment and final thermal preparation in violation of the rules, the person risks poisoning.
- Now briefly describe the external features by which you can distinguish this representative of the family from all others. Its top is velvet in structure, the shape is irregular, in color varies from brown to brownish. It happens in the fold, smoothed or adherent to the base.
- In these instances, the leg is pigmented in the same tone as the tip. But in some cases there may be a bluish tint, as well as the presence of lint. The shape of the base is comparable with an elongated cylinder. The pulp quickly breaks down due to its fragility, so after harvesting it is advisable to handle the crop with care.
- In the fungi of this variety, the pulp does not have any smell. With regard to the nature of growth, mushrooms prefer to settle alone, but you can find large colonies. Gathering is best done from mid-summer to the end of autumn. Mushrooms are not suitable for consumption raw, they are edible conditionally.
- The discussed variety of fruit bodies is considered to be a lobate genus. Mushrooms are considered the most popular. They received the “autumn” addition due to the fact that it is necessary to engage in gathering, starting from mid-late summer, ending in autumn (in some southern regions even late). Accordingly, these mushrooms are different from the relatives of the spring, which crawl to the surface in the spring. Also, the differences lie in the fact that the autumn representatives in the composition are much more toxic substances.
Description and growth
- Fruit bodies are more common in Eurasia and in North America. Most often, these mushrooms are found in raw pine and mixed forests. In addition, specimens grow well in the field of cutting and near the roads.
- These fruits can be found singly or grow in small groups. Most often this happens on rotting and dead trees. Also, mushrooms are found near such places. Starting in mid-summer, single specimens can already be found. Closer to the beginning of autumn begins active fruiting of the lines.
- Considered fruit bodies have enough external similarities with the Red Book and doubtful line. Such fungi are extremely rare and often live exclusively in subalpine and subarctic landscapes.
- At the same time, similar specimens have smaller sizes. Fruit bodies have brown-violet tones and fairly large spores.
- In addition, these mushrooms begin to bear fruit only from mid-autumn. Therefore, it is difficult to confuse the considered instance with such a line. Such a mushroom is poisonous and is not used for industrial purposes.
In the modern world, new studies have confirmed that it is better not to collect such mushrooms, and especially not to eat. For a quiet hunt, choose other fruit bodies for yourself, which you can cook and eat with peace of mind without any problems. No need to risk your own health.
Similar views and differences from them
The autumn line resembles a small, “Red Book” representative of the Discinaceae family - a doubtful line (Gyromitra ambigua). This inhabitant of the subarctic and subalpine landscapes is distinguished by its smaller size and violet-brown shades of the fruit body, large disputes. Later dates of fruiting - September and October - reduce the likelihood of confusing it with the line of autumn. The fungus is poisonous and unsuitable for harvesting.
Toxicity and eating
There is no unanimous opinion on how toxic the autumn lines can be, among mushroom pickers. Therefore, contradictory statements about the feasibility of its collection and use in food. Mycologists attribute autumn lines to a group of fungi containing hemolytic poison, which causes severe intoxication. In the freshly collected lines, the concentration of this substance is quite high: up to 300 mg / kg, and in some cases several times more. While the lethal concentration of poison for humans is 50 mg / kg. In the areas of distribution of autumn lines in Russia, climatic conditions and periods of fruiting are such that mushrooms growing on the soil heated over the summer have enough time to accumulate toxins and become not only completely unsuitable for harvesting, but also poisonous.
Does not make mushrooms less dangerous and pre-processing them. Gyrometrin, the main toxic substance in the composition of the autumn line, does not completely decompose in its free form even at the boiling point of water and is only partially removed during drying. Monomethylhydrazine, one of the compounds of gyrometrin, is removed during cooking and subsequent washing. But for an amateur mushroom picker, it is hardly possible to make a biochemical and toxicological analysis of the harvested crop on our own. Therefore, the most effective way to protect yourself from serious poisoning is not to collect autumn lines at all.
In a similar way, you can cook an original mushroom dish with cream and greens. In this case, the sour cream should be replaced with a fairly heavy cream, and instead of hard cheese varieties use parsley, dill and basil.
Contraindications to the use of lines
The main contraindications to the use of collected lines for therapeutic purposes are represented by pregnancy and lactation, as well as children under the age of twelve and the presence of a history of individual intolerance. It is strictly prohibited to even use previously prepared or dried mushrooms of this type to children, as well as to persons with weakened immunity or with the presence of chronic diseases.
Especially important refrain from using lines for people suffering from any cardiovascular diseases or having pathologies of the stomach and intestinal tract. There is also the opinion that too long the use of drugs containing lines, can cause very serious disruptions in the functioning of the heart and the vascular system.
Locations of autumn lines
Individual fruiting bodies occur since July, and they begin to bear fruit actively from the end of August. Often, the lines of autumn are found in numerous groups, approximately 7 copies each. They grow in deciduous and coniferous forests. Autumn lines can settle on the soil, or fall on rotting wood. These mushrooms can be found throughout the temperate zone of Russia and Europe.
Evaluation of the taste of autumn lines
Although the autumn lines are considered possible to be eaten, it is worth knowing that in their raw form they are deadly poisonous mushrooms, like their relatives - the lines are ordinary. If the lines are incorrectly prepared, then the risk of serious poisoning is high.
In general, they are classified as conditionally edible mushrooms, they are assigned the fourth category in taste. They need to boil for 15-20 minutes, while the water is drained. Also, the lines of autumn can be dried.
There are more toxins in the autumn lines than in other related species. Autumn lines can not be eaten often, because their toxins can accumulate in the body. According to studies by mycologists from different countries, the lines contain substances of protein composition - methylhydrazine and gyrometrin, which cause poisoning and can even become the cause of death. The content of toxins in mushrooms depends on their age. And if we take into account that the lines grow in groups of different ages, then the basket can get both young and overripe specimens, in which there is more poison.
Toxin gyrometrin is not destroyed in hot water. It disappears only after 3-4 weeks of drying.
Some translators mark the line autumn as a poisonous mushroom, but no cases of fatal poisoning by these mushrooms were recorded. The severity of poisoning with autumn lines, like the rest of the family, depends on the volume and frequency of their use. Therefore, it is not advisable to cook and eat these mushrooms, otherwise there is a great risk of serious poisoning.
Scientists have found that the toxicity of the lines depends on the places of their growth and climatic conditions. The warmer the weather, the more poisonous the lines are. Therefore, in Eastern and Western Europe, all the lines are classified as poisonous species. And in our country, the climate is cooler, so the giant and ordinary lines growing in spring are considered edible. But autumn lines bear fruit after warm summer in heated soil, therefore they accumulate more dangerous toxins in themselves. That is why they are considered inedible.
Other mushrooms of this genus
Lopastnik black - inedible mushroom. The hat looks like a saucer, its diameter is about 3 centimeters. Color caps black. The surface of the cap is often knobby and folded. The leg is most often bent, and its lower part is thickened. The color of the leg is dark. The flesh of the black lobe is friable and brittle.
Grow black lobes large groups. They settle in deciduous forests, and also come across in coniferous forests. They are most common in America, moreover, they grow in Eurasia.
Curved lobe - conditionally edible mushroom. His hat has a characteristic shape - in the form of propeller blades. The surface of the cap is folded. The edges are curly or wavy, they hang down and only in places grow together with the leg. The color of the cap is wax-beige or pale ocher. Leg straight, short, slightly swollen, with deep folds. The colors of the legs are white or ash-gray. The flesh is very thin and brittle, producing a pleasant mushroom flavor.
Curved lobe - not too common mushroom. Lobsters curly fruit in small groups. They grow in forests of different types. You can find them from spring to autumn.
Stingles and morel: different types
Beginner mushroom can be difficult to distinguish morel and autumn stitch. In fact, they are similar to each other only by consonant names. They even grow at different times. Ordinary line appears in the spring, as well as morel. The autumnal line, as you might guess from the name, can be found in the forests only in autumn.
The appearance of mushrooms is completely different, so we advise you to carefully look at the forest find. Morel is easy to recognize: it is quite high, on a white stem of medium thickness and with an unusual elongated hat of brown color. Morel hat resembles uneven, curved honeycombs.
Autumn mushroom line: how it looks
Autumn line - marsupial mushroom of the genus Strochok (Gyromitra), which is quite widespread. This mushroom has a rather wide cap, up to 10 cm in diameter, of a brown color. An adult mushroom can have a brown-black hat that looks like velvet, and the young one has a light brown, peanut-colored color.
The shape of the cap of the autumn line is called the hornlike saddle, because it looks like three horns intergrown together.
Visually, the cap looks unusual: instead of a straight, smooth surface, wrinkled bends, which makes it resemble a walnut (this feature is more pronounced in other types of stitching, ordinary and gigantic).
If the morel surface of the cap still has a certain structure, then the line bends on the cap look chaotic. The peculiarity of the cap is also in the fact that it literally grows from the leg, and is not worth the “umbrella”. The leg is about 1.5 cm wide, its length can vary from 3 to 10 cm. The color also varies: from white, similar to wax, to light gray.
It looks like a cylinder oblate on its sides, slightly widened closer to the ground. Inside the stitch line is empty.
The fungus does not have a specific smell, but its flesh is fragile and similar to cartilaginous tissue.
Where lines grow
You can meet the autumn line both in the deciduous forest and in the coniferous. The preferred habitat is rotting wood and the soil next to it. Less often you can see a mushroom just on the ground. The lines grow as families, in small groups, and one by one.
As we have said, his active growth begins at the end of summer, closer to September, and therefore the mushroom got its name. Other members of this genus appear in the spring months.
The distribution area of the line is autumn - North America and Eurasia, countries with moderate climatic conditions.
A characteristic feature of the autumn line is that the amount of poisonous substances that it contains is several times higher than in the ordinary line. Out of the whole family of these mushrooms, autumn is the most dangerous for the human body. The lines that have not undergone any processing contain five to six times more hemolytic poison. This poison carries an extraordinary threat, because its amount of 50 mg per 1 kg of product weight can be fatal.
The mushroom in its raw form contains 300 mg of such poison per 1 kg, which will certainly cause a person to die.
Nevertheless, mushroom pickers from different regions relate differently to this type of mushroom. What is the reason for such a diversity of opinions, we will understand later.
Any of the country's mushroom pickers with a warm, mild climate will say that eating the autumn line as food is strictly prohibited in any form. And it will be right, because the mushrooms growing in such climatic conditions are really not suitable for both humans and animals. In European countries, both autumn lines and ordinary ones are toxic. This is due to the fact that the amount of poison in the lines is influenced not only by the ambient temperature, but also the temperature of the soil on which they grow.
Mushrooms growing on warm ground absorb a greater amount of toxic carcinogens and other dangerous substances. The warmer the ground - the more toxic and more toxic the line. Thus, to collect lines in the forests of Europe in any case impossible.
As for Russia, the situation is somewhat different. You can hear that a mushroom like an autumn line can be edible if you learn how to process it properly with high temperatures.
However, in reality everything is as follows: since the lines are the general name of a genus, it cannot be assumed that all its representatives are safe. Для готовки годится только тот строчковый гриб, что созревает в марте-апреле. В это время почва еще холодная, не оттаявшая, что для пространства России вполне привычно, а ядовитые вещества если и поступают в тело гриба, то в меньшем количестве.
The appearance of the autumn line occurs in the autumn - at this time of year the ground is still quite warm, which is why we conclude that only the spring line will fit for food.
Is it possible to eat mushrooms
It is not necessary to completely avoid this fungus, you just need to treat the choice responsibly. It is best to collect mushrooms, which appeared in the spring. There is little poison in them, so it is quite possible to remove it with the help of high temperatures.
Collect line only in places with a cool climate. The colder, the, in this case, the less likelihood of poisoning.
So yes or no
The lines collected on the territory of Europe, boldly throw out - the poisonous substance in them is enough to kill several people. Simple poisoning after eating such mushrooms, you will not get off.
Also, in no case do not need to eat raw mushrooms. Regardless of the country in which you found a line. Collected in the fall is also not suitable for food.
Only spring lines are suitable for cooking, and the younger they are, the less toxic substances they have. But they are also unacceptable to eat raw. Only after careful heat treatment.
How to reduce toxic effects
To minimize the content of harmful substances in the line, you need to resort to exposure to high temperatures. We offer you three ways that are available to any hostess and do not require special costs or effort.
It is best to remove poisons using the oven. To do this, wash the mushrooms, spread on a baking sheet and place in the oven. The latter must be heated so that the temperature inside is above 60 ° C.
This is the minimum level, you can choose for yourself a high temperature regime. Drying the product in this way takes several hours. The method is called aggressive drying, and only with its help you will be able to remove absolutely all toxins and carcinogens from the line.
The following method of removing toxic substances from the line is also quite effective, but it has some nuances. To rid the lines of most of the poisons, it is necessary to dry the mushrooms in the fresh air. The air masses will draw out liquid from them, and with it, toxins will be removed. The longer the lines dry, the safer they will become for eating.
And finally, the last way to process mushrooms is cooking. Take a saucepan, fill it with water so that the mushrooms are easily placed in a container, put it on the stove. It is necessary to carry out processing, at least, a quarter of hour.
Then drain the resulting mushroom broth, rinse the mushrooms thoroughly under running water and boil them one more time.
For cooking you will need the following ingredients:
- mushrooms - lines ordinary, 1 kg,
- onion - one medium onion,
- sour cream - any percentage of fat, two tablespoons,
- greens - dill,
- salt, black pepper,
- other spices to taste.
Step by step cooking process with photo
First you need to deal with mushrooms, because they - the main ingredient that requires special, careful processing.
Immediately after you have gathered the lines, rinse them under running water. Then type water into a large container and place lines for 10-12 hours, and best of all, overnight. Before you start the treatment with high temperature, pour out the water in which they stood, and wash the mushrooms thoroughly with water from the tap.
Type in the pan water. For 1 kg of lines you need at least 3 liters of liquid. Place the main product there and put the container on fire. It is necessary to boil the lines for 30 minutes. After half an hour, remove the pan with mushrooms from the heat, drain the water, type a new one. The lines need another treatment after cooking - rinsing under cold running water. Only after you have washed them can you put them back into the container and boil again, also for half an hour.
Take your main ingredient out of the pan and cut it. The size of the pieces can be any - based on your taste.
While the mushrooms are waiting for their turn, cut the onions. The size of the pieces can vary from medium to small, depending on the form in which you prefer to use fried onions.
Pour it into the pan and fry. After five to seven minutes, add lines to the bow, stir with a spatula. Fry foods for five minutes. After that, season with salt, pepper and other spices to your taste, mix thoroughly and fry for another five minutes.
The next step - add sour cream to the mushrooms, mix well. Immediately pour greens into the pan and fry the mushrooms for another five minutes. At the end of this time, we remove the ready-made lines from the plate and we can eat them.
Who should not use the lines
Since the lines are not the safest mushrooms, women in the position, as well as children and those suffering from cardiovascular ailments in no way should not eat this product.
Violation of contraindications can provoke, at best, intoxication of the body.
Be careful when choosing ingredients for the dish. Especially when one of them is a mushroom. Carefully study its properties, and before going to the forest for snacks, try to find out as much as possible about the type of forest meat that grows in the vicinity, because one such mistake can cost you your life. We advise you to be vigilant and wish that a hike in the forest for mushrooms would bring not only a lot of positive emotions, but also a tasty, and most importantly, safe catch.