This amazingly beautiful plant breeds in different ways, the most common and simple - cutting petunias. Since the climatic conditions of our state do not allow to keep it on the street all year round, the flowering of this culture ends after the arrival of the first frosts. However, in early spring, many gardeners grow new bushes, which will soon be “flooded” with rapid flowering.
How to multiply petunia cuttings
Petunia cuttings at home in water is suitable for all varieties except terry. The cutting, with this method of reproduction, is cut a little longer than for the soil. Its average length should be 10-12 cm. Lower foliage must be removed, put the sprout in a vessel (opaque), filled with water.
Important! Water for cuttings of petunia can not be dialed immediately from a water tap, it should stand for a while, at least 24 hours.
Gardeners who have not dealt with this crop before and want to start it do not know how to cut the petunia at home in water, considering this method to be more complicated than in the ground. This is an erroneous concept. This technique is, in fact, simple and consists of the following steps:
- Preparation of water tank with sprouts. The vessel should be made of metal or plastic. Glass is not recommended.
- Greenhouse effect. To create it, it is enough to cover a container with water and a handle, for example, a cut off plastic bottle or plastic wrap.
- Penumbra. All vessels with cuttings should be, before the first roots, in a shaded place.
- Putting the germ in the water. Cuttings of petunia, with a lack of space, badly take root. If the cuttings are many, they need to be divided several pieces into one container.
Control over the amount of water should be carried out continuously, if it has become much less, you need to add the required amount.
It so happens that the roots of the cuttings of petunia rot, to prevent this unpleasant phenomenon, in the water, where the sprouts take root, you can add activated charcoal - one tablet per vessel.
Sprouts of all varieties, including cuttings of ampelous petunia, are demanding to temperature conditions. Necessary conditions for grafting all flower growers, especially beginners, should know:
- after cutting the cuttings for the soil, they need to be placed in it for an hour, if more time passes, the ability to root will drop sharply,
- in the room where the sprouts will be placed, temperature indicators should be 20-24 degrees with a plus,
- cuttings in the soil should be watered daily, in hot weather - at least twice a day,
- light day, if it is shorter than 10 hours, you need to artificially extend to this indicator,
- for cuttings, maintaining humidity only in the soil is small, they need to be sprayed every day,
- the soil in which the cuttings were carried out cannot be reused for the same purposes.
It will be possible to transplant them in an open ground approximately in a week. During this period, the fibrous roots should have already formed.
If a black leg is noticed during rooting, you should immediately stop watering.
The advantage of cutting
Reproduction of petunia cuttings at home is becoming more popular and relevant. Very few people manage to collect seeds from this culture. If you try to propagate it with a seed, it is unlikely that something worthy of this undertaking will turn out. All maternal varietal qualities can be preserved in a young plant only if it has grown from a cutting.
Many growers think that the following algorithm will work for breeding petunias: go to the store, buy seeds, plant them and grow seedlings. Easier than cutting a petunia, there is no method. So it will be more healthy, hardened, and it will take root in the conditions of the open ground faster and easier.
On a note! Petunia grown from cuttings blooms in just a few weeks. The one that sprouted from the seed will give color much later. And yet, grafted petunia has a stronger and more developed root system.
The time period - when you can apply cuttings
There is no optimal time for grafting. Theoretically, this procedure can be performed at any time of the year. If we take into account the fact that from the moment of cutting the sprout to the first bud blooming, it should take about 2 months, then the cutting of petunia in the spring should start somewhere in the middle of March, in May it must bloom.
The larger the pot (in size) in which the crop will be planted, the more luxuriant and more beautiful the bush will become. In the case of an ampel variety, it is longer than a branch.
Before cutting, the mother bush must be fed with complex fertilizers. As the sprouts grow, new cuttings are made from them. This is during summer grafting. When cutting the petunia for the winter, how to do it correctly will be discussed a little later.
At the time of rooting sprouts do not need additional feeding. After planting in open ground, they should be alternately fed with organic matter and mineral fertilizers.
To make the plant more bushy, when full leaves appear on a new plant (up to 8 pieces), the top tip is pinch off. After a few weeks, the procedure is repeated.
It is also possible to make cuttings of petunias in winter. But before the procedure several rules should be followed:
- Before the onset of frosts culture is brought into the house, digging it out of the beds. In the room where it will winter, temperature indicators should be about 16 degrees with a plus (this is ideal). The lower the temperature, the more light the petunia will ask for.
- Watering at this point should be reduced to moderate.
- Starting from the first days of January, the crop needs to be fed with nitrogen fertilizers.
- Light day to increase, albeit artificially. The optimal rate is 16 hours.
When the plant turns into a full-fledged mother-bush - you can begin cutting the petunia for the winter. How this is done has already been considered. If grafting is done not in the water, but in the ground (flowerpot), the sprout into the ground is deepened by a third of the entire length. If a growth stimulator is added to the soil, the well is made up to 1.5 cm.
What varieties are suitable for this?
Vegetative breeding method is suitable for virtually all varieties, especially terry. There are varieties that never produce seeds - this is a hybrid petunia - reproduction by cuttings is the only possible way to increase the number of crops. In addition, this method is easier to sowing, the survival rate of young seedlings after grafting is 99.9%.
Not so long ago, Japanese breeders brought a new variety of ampelous petunia, which breeds exclusively by cuttings. It will be interesting to know those fans of this culture, who follow the news. The name of this variety is Surfinia.
Hopefully, most flower growers have enough information. If all the rules and requirements are met in the order described in the material, there should be no problems with growing this culture.
In a pinch, the answers to other current questions, in terms of petunia care, can be found in other articles on this site.
What is this plant?
Petunia - a perennial herb native to South America. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, like a tomato and potatoes.
Its leaves are like tobacco leaves. They are sessile, solid or short cuttings. The shape and size depend on what kind of plant (more than 1 thousand) is grown in the garden.
The arrangement of the leaves on the branchy green hanging, erect or creeping stems alternately. Petunia flowers look like a funnel. They are simple or terry, small or large-colored, snow-white or light yellow, blue or pink, red or variegated. Petals on the edge of fringed or smooth. After flowering a box is formed - a fruit with small seeds.
- Seed propagation - the most laborious. Seeds in flower shops are expensive. Sowing them with extreme caution and not departing from the generally accepted rules, not all of them sprout, and if they sprout, they die.
- Seedling. Some flower growers buy expensive ready-made seedlings, which are transplanted into good soil and soon enjoy the view of a beautiful petunia in pots.
- Cuttings - The best breeding method.
A suitable stalk is picked and cut until the plant blooms.. The best time to select material for cutting is August and the very beginning of autumn, that is, September. Cutting it off and planting it in the ground in the fall, after 2 months notice the ovary on it. If this is not included in the plans of the florist, then we do not do weaning of the appendix before March, but for this it will be necessary to arrange suitable conditions for wintering for the petunia.
The shrub, from which the cuttings will be cut, is treated regularly to prevent possible diseases and to protect it from pests. For the treatment they buy insecticides and use them according to the instructions, so as not to face undesirable consequences. Before cutting off a suitable process, the uterine bush is fed with the help of vitamins and firming additives (carbamide, urea, magnesium, potassium humate). They accelerate rooting and contribute to the rapid strengthening of the process.
How to cut right?
- 6-8 cm - the optimal length of the process that is cut from the uterine hive. If it is longer, rooting will occur later.
- The shoot will take root faster if before cutting there were 2-4 pairs of leaves on it.
- Apical shoots cut off, noting the cessation of shoot growth. They firmly rooted in the ground.
- After a cut with a transfer to the prepared container, do not hesitate. Otherwise, the stalk may not give roots.
How to save material from autumn to spring?
Autumn is not the best time for cutting petunias. The cutting does not have time to give roots, because important processes slow down. If roots appear, and a little later leaves, the sudden death of a young plant is not excluded due to an unexpected cessation of root growth. Cut cuttings will not survive until spring. To propagate the plant by cutting in the spring, do differently.
- In September-October, a flower is dug, the stems are cut to 5 cm and transplanted into a pot. At the bottom lay a layer of drainage.
- The pot is brought into the house and put on a well-lit window sill.
- In winter, they water the plant and feed it, but not often.
- Also maintain the temperature in the room, not allowing it to rise above + 10-15 degrees Celsius.
- The flower comes to life at the end of February. New buds and processes appear on it. At this time, you can cut off the processes, rooting them in the ground or water.
Petunia planting rules:
- After selecting and cutting off suitable cuttings, place them in a solution with phytohormones. This increases the chances of petunias multiply by cutting.
- After that, they are planted in boxes, the land for which is prepared in advance.
- Sand or loose earth is poured into the crates.
- The drainage layer is not needed, since after rooting the plant is transplanted into another, separate container.
- The distance between two cuttings is 2 cm, and the depth of penetration is no more than 4 cm.
- After planting, water the plant and cover with glass.
- The box is rearranged to the window and waiting for at least one pair of leaves to appear.
How to root in water?
This method is suitable for rooting most varieties of petunia.. It is not suitable for cutting terry flower varieties.
- Preparation of an opaque container made of metal or plastic with water.
- The selection of the process and its clipping from a healthy stem, leaving a length of 10-12 cm. Cut off all the leaves on it.
- In a container of water immersed prepared cutting. It should not be a few shoots, as each requires space.
- Creating a greenhouse effect by covering the container with plastic wrap or bottle.
- Capacity put in partial shade.
- After 7 days, the first roots appear, and after 10 days, the young plant is transplanted into nutrient soil.
Choosing the right time
Petunia cuttings are carried out at the end of summer or in winter. Time of year affects growth and development of shoots, but how?
- Reproduction by cutting in the winter. The main feature of the procedure in the winter is that they prepare for it ahead of time - in the summer, at the end of August.
- Uterine bushes are dug in the garden and transplanted into medium-sized pots.
- Before this cut off the old shoots on them.
- The temperature content in the winter - + 10-15 degrees Celsius (otherwise you will need lighting lamps and lamps).
- The air in the room should not be dry, and water the bush when the leaves fall.
- During the winter, new shoots appear on it, cutting off which at the end of February - at the beginning of March, it is possible to propagate the plant.
- Reproduction by cuttings in the summer and closer to autumn (August - early September). Cutting shoots in late August, the florist is faced with the fact that on 5-10 day they appear roots. They are stuck in a glass with loose earth, put on a well-lit window sill, and after a while they notice that they have begun. Having crossed them in pots with good soil, they water and fertilize them, and after 2 months they can bloom.
What to do after the procedure?
After landing it is necessary:
- Maintain the temperature in the room in the region of + 20-23 degrees Celsius.
- At the end of spring, when the day is still short, put a fluorescent lamp on the sill for additional lighting.
- Water it.
If you follow the conditions from the list above, the cuttings will be rooted on the 7th day. After the emergence of a pair of leaves will only transplant them into a more nutritious soil and care, as for an adult plant.
What if something went wrong?
Although petunia is a hardy plant, but if you do not create suitable conditions for cutting, it will become sick and die. It is not watered beyond measure, it is not planted in heavy ground until the roots appear, otherwise it dies from the “black leg”. The signs of this disease are darkening and softening of the root part of the process. When the shoots are taken and overgrown with leaves, roll them over into a larger pot.
After a couple of days notice white bloom on the leaves. It is evidence of a fungal disease called powdery mildew. The plant is sick due to sudden changes in temperature and humidity. You can save it by removing all the affected parts and processing healthy sulfur.