General information

Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer - how not to break the head over top dressing?

Vegetables and fruits that appear regularly at the dinner table should be tasty and nutritious. Farmers succeed in achieving great taste and rapid plant growth exclusively with the help of high-quality feedings. Potassium and phosphorus mineral compounds, the use of which provides all the necessary nutrients, bring particular benefit to young ovaries, as well as to plants in the fruiting period.

Phosphorus is a chemical element that is part of proteins and other organic compounds. Compounds based on phosphorus are called phosphates. Phosphates belong to the biogenic elements involved in the synthesis of ATP.

Phosphoric acid derivatives are used for the production of phosphoric feedings such as:

1. Superphosphate. Superphosphate can be simple or double. Usually it is realized in the form of gray powder, or granules. Superphosphate plants are fed in the pre-sowing and sowing period. Greater effect can be achieved using fertilizing on alkaline and neutral soils. Adding feed to the acidic soil, does not allow to achieve high yields, because phosphorus is converted into phosphates of aluminum and iron, which are difficult to digest. A similar effect can be avoided by simultaneously introducing phosphate rock, limestone, chalk and humus into the soil, especially when it comes to calcareous soils.

2. Precipitate. Treats phosphoric top dressings of high concentration. The use of the precipitate allows you to achieve a good effect on any kind of soil, because it reduces its acidity several times. In agriculture, two types of precipitates are used, differing in the degree of phosphorus concentration in them. Fertilizer is used in dry form, it is almost impossible to dissolve it in water. Organic acids can be used to dilute the top dressing. Most often used as the main fertilizer, in the form of top dressing is rarely used.

3. Ammofoski. Universal dressing with a minimum content of sodium and chlorine, considered ballast trace elements that have a negative impact on the rate of absorption of ammophos plants. Greater effect can be achieved when using ammofoski on clay, sandy and peaty-marsh soils. 12% of it is nitrogen, 15% phosphorus and 15% potassium, the sulfur content is high - at least 14%. The use of ammofoski caused in arid regions, as well as on soils lacking nitrogen. It is advisable to apply dressing in spring and summer.

4. Thermophosphate. This type of phosphate dressing is recommended for use on acidic soils, which is associated with the presence of an alkaline reaction in thermophosphate. Top dressing is cheap, and therefore the use of it may allow even very poor farms. Phosphorus contained in thermophosphate is presented in a highly digestible form.

5. Phosphate flour. Fine-ground mineral fertilizer, widely used for the production of dung or peat compost. Well absorbed by plants planted in acidic - podzolic or peat soil.

Top dressing is ecologically safe, it is brought in the soil only in the fall.

6. Tamashlak. A derivative of phosphorus oxide and lime, is considered a valuable mineral fertilizer used on soils of high acidity. Neutralizes acids and enriches the soil with phosphorus. It is forbidden to mix it with fertilizers containing ammonia, no matter how weak they are.

Phosphate compounds are used both as a top dressing and as a basic fertilizer, it all depends on what types of fertilizers are available.

Potassium is a soft alkaline metal; it is almost impossible to meet it in its pure form in nature. In agriculture, potassium is used as a fertilizer in the composition of various mineral compounds.

Potassium Phosphate Fertilizers

Gardeners do not always understand why fertilizers are needed, when and which type of them should be used. And it is very important to know, because when introduced they change the composition of the soil from which the plant is nourished, which subsequently affects its development.

Now buy fertilizer is not a problem, but in order to make the right choice, you need to familiarize yourself with what each of them is intended for. In this article, you will learn about the use of phosphorus-potassium (or potash-phosphate fertilizers) for feeding flowers and vegetable crops.

What is potassium phosphate fertilizer?

These are complex mineral supplements, the main elements of which are phosphorus and potassium. Now there are a large number of drugs belonging to this group, but differing in the percentage content of the main components and the name of additional elements.

This kind of fertilizer is becoming increasingly popular due to the fact that they contain fewer substances, leading to salinization of the earth.

The main types of phosphate-potash fertilizers

To make it easier to understand why phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used, consider the characteristics of some of their types.

Phosphorus-potash fertilizer "Autumn". It includes:

It is recommended to use for garden, ornamental and garden crops in the following periods:

  • when digging - in the autumn of 35-60 g / m & sup2 or in spring, but simultaneously with the nitrogen-containing preparation,
  • during flowering and during fruiting make 15-30 g / m & sup2 each time when earthing up and loosening the soil, then it should be watered,
  • at the end of the vegetation cycle - approximately in September at a dose of 30-40 g / m & sup2. This is necessary for a successful wintering and aging shoots.

Nitrophoska. Its composition consists in equal proportions (12% each) of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen, which are in an easily digestible form, because all the useful substances enter the plant. Available in the form of gray granules with a pinkish tinge. Permissible dose of introduction - 45-60 g per 1 m & sup2. It is recommended to use before sowing seeds (approximately in early spring) and during the summer months.

Nitroammofosk. It contains phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium at 17% and 2% sulfur. It is applied to any type of soil at 40-50 g per m & sup2 in the spring when planting, as the main fertilizer, and in the summer as an additional feeding.

Potash and phosphate fertilizers - what are these?

Perfect for top dressing for most garden flowers.

Diammofosk. Contains nitrogen (10%), potassium (26%), phosphorus (26%), as well as a small amount of iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium and sulfur. Contributed by 20-30 g per 1 m & sup2. It is recommended to use for almost all colors.

Carboammofosk. The composition includes:

It is intended for fertilizing the soil before the sowing season.

Phosphorus-potassium fertilizer "AVA"A feature of this novelty of fertilizer production is that it does not contain nitrogen, and it belongs to coronable drugs. It consists of phosphorus and potassium, as well as 9 substances that contribute to the improvement of plant growth.

It is possible to apply fertilizer before sowing seeds. This should be done in several ways:

  • maceration of seed,
  • by dusting the seeds or mixing them,
  • watering the soil with a solution of this drug.

If you want to use natural fertilizers, you can apply wood ash, which is considered to be a difficult feeding, because it contains several important substances, among which are potassium and phosphorus. The recommended application rate is 3 cups per 1 m & sup2.

Phosphorus in plants

Phosphorus plays an extremely important role in plant life. Most metabolic processes are carried out only with his participation. He is almost always in the second low (after nitrogen).

The physiological role of phosphorus (C 3). It is part of the most important organic compounds that are actively involved in plant metabolism: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), nucleoproteins, phosphoproteins, phosphatides (phospholipids), high energy compounds (ATP, etc.), sugar phosphates, phytin, vitamins, etc. Phosphorus content (P2O5) in plants and the removal of crops by crops The average content is 0.5% of dry matter, varying from 0.1 to 1.5%, and depends on the biological characteristics of crops, the age of plants and their organs, the conditions of phosphate nutrition, and t .d So, in the grain of leguminous crops contains 1-1.5% P2O5, cereals - 0.8-1%. The straw of those and other cultures contains less phosphorus in comparison with seeds - 0.2-0.4%.

Phosphorus in plants is distributed similarly to nitrogen, is its companion. On average, the phosphorus content in plant organs is 30% of the amount of nitrogen (C 17). More phosphorus is found in young and vital organs, the leaves contain more phosphorus than the stems.

The phosphorus content in plants is largely determined by the content of its available forms in the soil, increasing with the improvement of nutritional conditions.

The removal of phosphorus yields on average is 15-50 kg / ha, varying depending on the biological characteristics of crops and the level of yield.

Sources of phosphorus for plants. The main sources are salts of orthophosphoric acid (C 19), which, being a tribasic, is capable of forming three types of anions - H2PO4–, НРО42–, РО43– (С 20) and, therefore, three types of salts - one, two- and three-substituted phosphates whose solubility and availability for plants varies depending on cations.

Sources of phosphorus can also be salts of metaphosphoric and polyphosphoric (pyro, tripolyphosphoric, etc.) acids, which are not absorbed directly by plants, but hydrolyze in the soil to orthophosphates (C 21-24).

In addition, the roots of some plants (peas, beans, corn, etc.) secrete the enzyme phosphatase, which cleaves the anion of phosphoric acid from simple organic compounds. As a consequence, the source of phosphorus for these plants can serve as its organic compounds.

Phosphorus transformations in plants. Phosphorus entering the plants very quickly passes into the composition of organic compounds. However, phosphorus is in them directly as a phosphoric acid residue. Thus, 85-95% of phosphorus is in organic form (C 26). Mineral phosphates - calcium, potassium, magnesium and ammonium phosphates - are much less (5-15%), but they are of great importance, being a reserve and transport form of phosphorus. For example, phosphorus of organic compounds of roots can move to the aerial part only after transformation into mineral phosphates.

Dynamics of phosphorus consumption during the growing season. A critical period in relation to phosphorus in all cultures is observed in the seedling phase. The lack of phosphorus during this period dramatically reduces the yield, regardless of the further availability of plants. At the same time, the root system in the initial phases of growth is poorly developed and often cannot sufficiently assimilate the phosphorus of the soil and fertilizers introduced before sowing. Therefore, presumptive phosphorus application is widely recommended.

The periods of maximum phosphorus intake by different cultures do not coincide. For example, spring wheat consumes all the phosphorus it needs by the end of the earing phase, while flax consumes only 58% even for the full bloom period, and cotton only absorbs 10% of the maximum phosphorus content in plants during the full bloom phase. Phosphorus absorption in wheat is observed in the phase of going into the tube and heading, in flax - in the flowering and ripening phases, in cotton - during fiber formation.

Signs of phosphorus deficiency for plants. The growth and development of plants slows down, the size of the leaves decreases, the flowering and maturation of the crop are delayed (C 31-33). Phosphorus is re-utilized, so its deficiency first appears on the lower leaves, which turn dark green, dirty green, and then red-violet, purple or lilac.

Phosphorus in soils. Content and phosphorus reserves in soils. The total content varies from 0.01 to 0.3% and depends primarily on the mineralogical composition of the parent rocks. In addition, more phosphorus contains humus-rich soils (in humus 1-2% P2O5). Thus, the minimum phosphorus content in sod-podzolic sandy, maximum - in chernozem soils. Plant vital activity causes biological accumulation of phosphorus in the upper soil horizons.

The total stock of phosphorus in the topsoil per hectare varies from 0.3 tons in light sod-podzolic soils to 9 tons in chernozem

Forms of phosphorus in soils and its transformations Phosphorus in soils is found in organic and mineral forms of organic phosphorus less, it is a part of the nonspecific part of humus, as well as undecomposed plant and microorganism residues.

Mineral phosphorus is predominant, with 70-90% of the total content in sod-podzolic, chestnut and serozem soils, and 55-65% (C 44) in soils with a high content of humus (therefore, organic phosphorus). Mineral phosphorus is mainly in the form of primary minerals and, above all, fluorapatite 3 · CaF2 and hydroxyapatite 3 · Ca (OH) 2.

Phosphorus of organic compounds and primary minerals is not directly absorbed by plants. As a result of weathering of the primary minerals, secondary ones are formed, representing various salts of orthophosphoric acid.

Potash phosphate fertilizers for flowering plants

Phosphates are also formed during the mineralization of organic phosphorus under the influence of phosphorus bacteria.

Salts of phosphoric acid are characterized by different solubility and, therefore, availability for plants.

Water-soluble phosphates are monovalent cations, as well as monosubstituted salts of divalent cations. They are well available for plants.

Calcium and magnesium disubstituted phosphates (СНРО4, MgНРО4) and freshly precipitated, amorphous trisubstitutes of phosphates, which are insoluble in water, but dissolve in weak acids (organic, carbonic), are called acid soluble. These compounds under the action of acidic root secretions, as well as organic and mineral acids produced by microbes, gradually dissolve and become available to plants.

Crystalline forms of trisubstituted calcium and magnesium phosphates are practically inaccessible to plants and do not dissolve in water and weak acids. But some plants - lupine, buckwheat, mustard, to a lesser extent, peas, sweet clover, espartset and hemp - have the ability to assimilate phosphorus from trisubstituted phosphates. Iron and aluminum phosphates (AlPO4, FePO4) are least accessible to plants. The chemical absorption of water-soluble phosphates (phosphorus retrogradation), which occurs in soils during any reaction of the environment, plays an important role in the formation of phosphate nutrition conditions.

In neutral, base-saturated soils (chernozem, chestnut), two- and three-substituted calcium and magnesium phosphates are formed:

Ca (H2PO4) 2 + Ca (HCO3) 2 2CaHPO4 + 2H2CO3,

PPK) Ca2 + + Ca (H2PO4) 2 PPK) 2H + + Ca3 (PO4) 2.

In acidic soils characterized by a high content of aluminum and iron (sod-podzolic, red soil), the phosphates of these elements precipitate:

Ca (H2PO4) 2 + 2Fe3 + 2FePO4 + Ca2 + + 4H +,

PPK) Al3 + + К3РО4 PPK) 3К + + AlPO4.

Due to retrogradation, water-soluble phosphates are contained in soils in insignificant quantities (as a rule, not more than 1 mg / kg of soil).

Phosphoric acid anions in the soil can be absorbed by the exchange, being fixed on the surface of the positively charged colloidal particles of aluminum and iron hydroxides To a greater degree, the exchange absorption of phosphates is expressed in the acid reaction of the medium. The process of exchange absorption is reversible, that is, phosphate ions are also capable of being expelled from PEP into solution by other anions. As a result, the exchange-absorbed anions of phosphoric acid are well accessible to plants.

Soluble salts of phosphorus are consumed not only by plants, but also by microorganisms, turning into organic phosphorus-containing compounds. After the death of microbes, the main amount of biologically absorbed phosphorus becomes available to plants again, with the exception of a small part that has passed into the composition of humus.

The content of mobile phosphorus in the soil. Mobilized phosphorus is a part of phosphates extracted from the soil by weak acid and weakly alkaline extracts that mimic the effect of the root system on the soil. It is conditionally assumed that the extracts dissolve the phosphates available for plants.

For sod-podzolic and gray forest soils, the Kirsanov method has been standardized: the extract is produced in 0.2 n. HCl, water-soluble and acid-soluble salts of phosphoric acid pass into the solution.

In non-carbonate chernozems, the content of mobile phosphorus is determined according to Chirikov: the soil is treated with 0.5 n. CH3COOH.

On carbonate soils, acids are not used, since weak acid extracts are used to decompose carbonates, and more concentrated can dissolve phosphates inaccessible to plants. Therefore, the content of mobile phosphorus in carbonate chernozems is determined according to Machigin using 1% (NH4) 2CO3, which has an alkaline reaction.

Абсолютные результаты, полученные любым методом, неинформативны, так как постоянное воздействие корней растений на почву в течение вегетации далеко не равнозначно растворяющей способности какого-либо реактива. For example, when a solution interacts with the soil, an equilibrium is established, and in the presence of plants that consume phosphorus, its concentration in the liquid phase of the soil constantly decreases, stimulating the transition to the solution of new amounts of phosphates.

However, comparing crop yields in field experiments carried out on soils with different content of mobile phosphorus, it can be concluded about how well one or another soil is supplied with phosphorus, and express the obtained regularity in the form of a group of practical importance.

The content of mobile phosphorus in virgin soils is insignificant and increases as they are cultivated. The optimum content that provides high yields is 100-150 mg / kg in grain grass rotations of the Non-Chernozem zone, 150–200 mg / kg of grain pastures, and 250–300 mg / kg P2O5 vegetables (C 56).

Date of adding: 2015-08-04, views: 4035,

Phosphate fertilizers: characteristics, names, when and how to apply

Permissible dose of introduction - 45-60 g per 1 m & sup2. It is recommended to use before sowing seeds (approximately in early spring) and during the summer months.

Nitroammofosk. It contains phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium at 17% and 2% sulfur. It is applied to any type of soil at 40-50 g per m & sup2 in the spring when planting, as the main fertilizer, and in the summer as an additional feeding.

Nitrophos. Consists of:

Perfect for top dressing for most garden flowers.

Diammofosk. Contains nitrogen (10%), potassium (26%), phosphorus (26%), as well as a small amount of iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium and sulfur. Contributed by 20-30 g per 1 m & sup2. It is recommended to use for almost all colors.

Carboammofosk. The composition includes:

It is intended for fertilizing the soil before the sowing season.

Phosphorus-potassium fertilizer "AVA"A feature of this novelty of fertilizer production is that it does not contain nitrogen, and it belongs to coronable drugs. It consists of phosphorus and potassium, as well as 9 substances that contribute to the improvement of plant growth.

It is possible to apply fertilizer before sowing seeds. This should be done in several ways:

  • maceration of seed,
  • by dusting the seeds or mixing them,
  • watering the soil with a solution of this drug.

If you want to use natural fertilizers, you can apply wood ash, which is considered to be a difficult feeding, because it contains several important substances, among which are potassium and phosphorus. The recommended application rate is 3 cups per 1 m & sup2.

The application of phosphate fertilizers has a strong influence on the rate of growth and development of plants. This is essential for many cultures. Plants such as clover and alfalfa, when phosphates are introduced, produce seeds in the year of sowing, whereas they usually yield seed yields only the following year. Tomatoes and cucumbers greatly accelerate their development. Growing tomato seedlings and planting should be accompanied by the use of large doses of phosphate fertilizers. The accelerating effect of phosphates on the development of root crops, in particular of sugar beet, has a strong effect, in connection with which it responds well to the local introduction of phosphates. The influence of phosphates on the rate of plant development is different not only for plant species, but also for varieties.
In some cases, there is a favorable effect of phosphate fertilizers on crop quality: an increase in the yield of grain and grain size, an increase in sugar in beets and starch in potatoes, which apparently finds its explanation in accelerating phosphate maturation of plants. Usually, the predominant influence of phosphates on the increase in the share of seeds in the total yield, if climatic conditions are favorable, does not always occur.
The different responsiveness of plants to the introduction of phosphate fertilizers depends on the size of their need for phosphorus, the critical periods of nutrition and the absorptive capacity of their root system in relation to soil phosphates. Experiments conducted at the Dolgoprudnaya agrochemical station showed that there are differences in phosphate responsiveness among the varieties of grain crops. If late-ripening varieties do not have time to ripen in conditions of insufficient phosphorus nutrition, then the late-ripening varieties may have a stronger effect, but if conditions for ripening late-ripening oats and wheat are provided, then they respond less to phosphates than early-ripening varieties.
In a herbal plant fertilized with phosphorus, it develops faster than an uncomfortable plant, and inhibits the development of the latter.

Phosphoric paint.

The modern consumer prefers non-standard solutions in the field of interior design and has already managed to become spoiled with trendy and expensive innovations. But all ingenious, oddly enough, simple and inexpensive. That is why it is worth considering where to buy phosphoric paint to fill your space with new light.

It is not necessary to spend large sums on decorating the space, if a creative idea can transform it beyond recognition with the creation of amazing effects for a quite modest amount. At the moment, the rich possibilities of designers gives glowing phosphoric paint.

The material is available in three types:
1. Fluorescent paint.
2. Fluorescent paint.
3. Paint invisible

The possibilities of luminous colors in the decoration.

With the help of these materials on the ceiling can float clouds or shine stars. On the walls can stretch the sea spaces or extensive flower fields. Design of children's, entertainment and residential premises is not the only area of ​​application of luminous paints. In addition, they are widely used for promotional purposes in body art, when tuning vehicles. Phosphoric paint can be bought in our company, which will help to realize all artistic ideas.

An original gift can serve as a bouquet with such a coating, which allows the day to be bright and rich, and glow at night.

In nightclubs and restaurants on the walls, you can create original 3D drawings, and the phosphoric paint price will not cause a strong cost for the design of such a vast space.

Fluorescent paint can accumulate light, and gives up the accumulated glow in the dark for several hours. Invisible helmet allows you to distinguish between the interior at night and day, you can buy luminous paint and completely update your interior.

Phosphor sale in our company. The benefits of contacting us.

In our company, luminescent paint price, which is very affordable, and not to the detriment of the quality and characteristics of products.

Thanks to the wide assortment presented at us on sale, it is possible to get the most surprising materials for an embodiment of the ideas.

We are engaged in the sale of goods at retail and wholesale, and fluorescent can be purchased both as a pigment and in ready-made mixtures. The substance is designed to work with different surfaces and has a wide purpose, which reveals the rich possibilities of use.

Features of the products allow not only to update the interior, but also help to decorate such trifles as figurines and vases, paintings and gifts. Everyone can create an unsurpassed and pleasant souvenir with his own hands. A variety of creative ideas allow you to create and create the amazing next to him. It is also difficult to overestimate the possibilities of luminous materials when organizing space in entertainment venues. Any cafe, restaurant or night club will become a real place with high popularity due to the unusual interior.

7 best phosphate fertilizers with names and photos

Visitors will love to visit this place due to the charming atmosphere and soft, bewitching luminescence of individual elements or surfaces.

In addition, only we can get detailed advice on the appointment and composition of materials, if the client had difficulty with the choice. Glowing paint is a new word in decoration, which helps not only to gain significant savings, but also opens up rich opportunities. Originality and beauty are more available than ever with our materials.

Popular preparations for fertilizing flowers based on phosphorus and potassium

Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used as the main fertilizer of flowers. Dosages and method of their use depend on the specific type of drug. Treat one of the most popular complex fertilizers on the basis of potassium and phosphorus:

  • fertilizer "AVA",
  • Carboammophoska
  • fungicide with the effect of fungicide Atlanta.

We should also note the autumn granulated fertilizer Agrekol. It contains 13% of phosphorus and 27% of potassium, as well as magnesium, and does not contain nitrogen at all. The drug is used for autumn feeding of perennial garden flowers in order to strengthen plants and prepare them for the winter period. In August, the granules should be scattered around perennials and dig, mixing them with soil. Then pour flowers abundantly.

Fertilizer "AVA"

The drug is recommended for use when sowing flower seeds, using one of the following methods to choose from:

  • shed the soil before sowing the prepared solution,
  • mix the drug with the seeds and sow in the wells,
  • soak the seeds before sowing in the solution.

Drug Atlanta

Concentrated aqueous phosphorus-potassium solution is used for foliar fertilizing of flowers (per 1 liter of water - 2.5 ml of the drug).

Atlanta phosphate-potassium fertilizer cannot be used with preparations containing copper and mineral oils.

Due to the fungicidal effect after fertilizing Atlanta plants, they not only develop and bloom more actively, but also become more resistant to fungal diseases and adverse weather conditions.

Mineral fertilizers

As you know, fertilizers are divided into organic and mineral.

That is why modern agricultural technology involves the widespread use of mineral fertilizers, although handling them requires certain knowledge both in terms of the allowable amount of their application to the soil, and in relation to the time of year when it needs to be done (for example, mineral fertilizers containing chlorine are not recommended to be applied to the soil in spring - it may cause damage to plants planted on such soil). Mineral fertilizers are simple and complex. As it was said, for normal development, plants need several basic elements. Mixing them in the required proportions, they receive complex fertilizers, while simple ones represent each individual element, and the farmer is given the opportunity to independently choose what and when to feed the inhabitants of their beds.

It is important to know that, in contrast to organic fertilizers, which can be easily added periodically to the earth for a general increase in its fertility, the use of mineral fertilizers implies the presence of at least the most general ideas about the basic parameters of the soil. So, it is necessary to take into account which crops and for how long it grew on it and which ones are planned to be planted (different crops have different needs for certain elements), what are the mineral composition and structure of the soil, etc. On which mineral additives will be applied to the soil, when and in what proportions it will be done, depends largely on how exactly the crops planted on such soil will develop, for example, whether their growth will be directed towards the formation of green mass or the formation of large and juicy fruits. So mindless watering the beds acquired in the nearby supermarket "talker" - an unacceptable mistake!

In particular, phosphate-potash fertilizers (sometimes they are abbreviated as PKU) are necessary to ensure the growth of your crops. However, as is already clear from the name, a feature of such compounds is the absence of nitrogen in them, which especially actively stimulates the formation of the green mass of plants.

Thus, the use of PKU is a great way to direct efforts to budding, flowering and the formation of the fruits of a particular crop, if you need a crop, rather than a huge and lush bush. What fertilizers belong to this group, we will understand. As was said, phosphate-potassium fertilizers can be complex (for example, Agrophoska is one of those - it contains no nitrogen, only phosphorus and potassium) and simplewhen the main part of a substance is a certain component. In the latter case, we mix the “phosphorus-potassium” cocktail on our own, depending on the element in which his garden or vegetable garden is in the greatest need.

Potash group

Potassium is "responsible" for maintaining the water balance in the plant's body. This element allows you to fully use the water that culture can take from the environment. With a lack of potassium in the dry period, the plant can dry out, wrinkle and die. In addition, potassium enhances the immunity of crops and their ability to resist many pests, and the crop makes it more fragrant.

Potassium chloride

The simplest example is potassium chloride. This is perhaps the most popular and affordable potash fertilizer, which contains chlorine (about 40%). Most vegetables react very badly to this element, so cabbage, cucumbers, eggplants, tomatoes, peppers, legumes, and melons, which are particularly in need of potassium, are better provided with this element at the expense of other fertilizers of the group. At the same time, spinach and celery do not belong to chlorophobic cultures, therefore this composition is quite suitable for them. Externally, potassium chloride looks like a crystalline pink powder that absorbs water very easily, which causes it to become caked when stored improperly (as such crystals dissolve in water much worse).

Apply potassium chloride in the fall, then the chlorine contained in it will be washed out of the soil, and by spring it is possible to plant the planned crops without fear on the bed.

Potassium sulfate

Potassium sulfate, also known as potassium sulfate, is also a water-soluble crystal, but gray, not pink. Potassium in this fertilizer contains about 50%, which makes it very valuable and popular. In addition, the advantages of this type of potash fertilizer include the fact that it:

  • does not contain soil chlorine,
  • besides potassium, it also includes sulfur, magnesium and calcium, which are necessary for plants,
  • can be used on almost any soil
  • There are no special restrictions on the time of application,
  • does not cake and does not absorb water, so it can be stored without observing the ideal mode of dryness.

Potassium salt

Potassium salt (also correctly called its potassium) refers to chlorine-containing fertilizers. It contains potassium chloride and sylvinite or Cainite, in which there is even more chlorine than in potassium chloride itself.

Potassium salt is successfully used for feeding fodder root crops, sugar beet and fruit crops, naturally, provided that overdose is avoided.By the way, compared with potassium chloride, this fertilizer will need much more (one and a half times). Potassium salt can be mixed with other additives, but this must be done immediately before laying in the soil.

Phosphoric group

Phosphate mineral fertilizers are necessary primarily for the development of the root system of plants. In addition, this element regulates their breathing and fills the plant body with energy (as you know, sugar is the source of energy, so a large amount of phosphorus in the soil increases the amount of sugar in crops, as well as starch in potatoes).


Superphosphate belongs to the most common mineral fertilizers of the phosphate group. In addition to this element, the substance contains nitrogen and, in addition, other components necessary for plants, for example, sulfur, magnesium or calcium, due to which the fertilizer has a complex effect on the plant: it strengthens the root system, improves metabolism, accelerates budding, and Beneficial effect on the immune system. Nevertheless, despite the presence of additional elements, potassium superphosphate belongs to simple phosphate fertilizers, since its main component is phosphorus.

Trees and shrubs react especially badly to the sprinkling of dry superphosphate powder. On the other hand, for such plants, it is preferable to apply phosphate fertilizers closer to the roots, since they practically do not penetrate deep into the soil surface.

Bookmark this fertilizer is best carried out in the autumn, but the spring tab is also allowed (and the consumption rate does not depend on the season - usually about 60 grams per square meter).

And again, as with the above potash fertilizers, superphosphate is contraindicated in acidic soils, since the main component of fertilizer is acid. But for sandy, sandy and podzolic soils such dressing is what you need. The undoubted advantage of superphosphate is the "long-playing" nature of its effects. Дело в том, что растения имеют способность брать из почвы ровно столько необходимого им фосфора, сколько нужно, при этом внесенное в избытке удобрение может прослужить в течение нескольких лет. Таким образом, передозировка суперфосфата не является проблемой, которой стоит опасаться начинающему огороднику.

Двойной суперфосфат

Double superphosphate differs from simple one in that its composition contains much less impurities, while phosphorus, which plants are able to assimilate, is contained in it in two or even three times more. Also double superphosphate includes nitrogen, sulfur, calcium and additionally, in small doses, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, manganese and iron. Another advantage of double superphosphate over simple is that it does not clot and does not clump together. This fertilizer is successfully used on any soils and in any season, including for feeding crops during the growing season.

Phosphoric Flour

Phosphoric flour is a gray or brown bulk powder of varying degrees of grinding. The advantage of fertilizer is that it does not cake, does not lose its properties during storage and is not toxic to humans.

The phosphorus contained in flour is not very easily absorbed by many plants, so the better the ground fertilizer is, the higher its efficiency will be. Like other phosphate fertilizers, phosphate rock can be applied once every few years, but this should be done by deep laying, otherwise phosphorus will not be available for the root system of plants. This powder is almost insoluble in water, therefore it is better to deposit it in a dry form. If you plan to plant annuals with not very deep roots, you can lay a bookmark in the upper layers of the soil, otherwise more thorough digging is necessary. Remember: the fertilizer will work in the place of its bookmark, and neither above nor below will practically move.

As a rule, phosphate rock is applied to the soil during the autumn period or in the spring as a pre-seed fertilizer. Per square meter will require from one hundred to three hundred grams of powder. Fertilizer is not suitable for feeding.

Another way to use phosphate rock is to convert manure into compost (the so-called manure composting). In this case, two problems are solved: the phosphorus contained in the flour becomes more accessible to plants, and nitrogen losses are substantially reduced. As a result, both substances are used most efficiently.

Unlike most of the above fertilizers, phosphate rock is ideal for acid soils, it is in this soil that it is best absorbed by plants. Neutral and alkaline soils should be slightly acidified before using such a fertilizer, otherwise the phosphorus will not dissolve and remain in the soil without any effect.

The benefits of using potash phosphate fertilizers

Top dressing of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is necessary for all plants, providing an increase in yield, both in quantitative and qualitative characteristics, as well as improving the immunity and resistance of the inhabitants of your garden or vegetable garden to various diseases and pests and natural disasters - + freezing winters and dry summer . With a special gratitude grapes, red currant and raspberry bushes, as well as strawberries and tomatoes will treat such feeding. At the same time, the use of such fertilizers has its own characteristics, which are due to the different effects on the plants of the potassium and phosphorus components.

Phosphate fertilizers are made in the spring, if we are talking about annuals, and in the fall, if we feed perennials. Everything is simple: the main benefit of phosphorus is obtained by the roots of the plant, therefore, what grows during one season is better provided with this element just before planting.

For perennial plants, phosphorus in the soil will allow “entering the winter” with a strong root system and then getting a supply of the necessary element for the whole future season. (as it has been repeatedly stated, phosphorus plants can be taken from the soil gradually and for a very long time). Autumnal introduction of the potash group lays the foundation for good immunity, abundant flowering and fruiting for the next year.

Spreading one tablespoon of phosphate and potash fertilizers (for example, potassium salt and superphosphate) per square meter of tree trunks for trees and shrubs in autumn will provide an excellent result in spring. For strawberries, a mixture of one and a half tablespoons of superphosphate and an incomplete tablespoon of potash salt per square meter. And potassium, and phosphorus can remain in the ground for a long time, and this is a great convenience of such fertilizers. Both elements are usually applied sufficiently deep into the soil, but if the potassium part is usually used as a solution, then phosphorus is also placed directly in the form of powder or granules.

Phosphate-potassium fertilizers are vital for grapes, because potassium, especially in light soil, ensures the resistance of the vine to the winter cold, and phosphorus accelerates the ripening of berries and makes them sweeter. Fertilizers and tomatoes are needed in this group, although they need less phosphorus than potassium. Also, the dose of potassium should be reduced when feeding crops that use their green part, since this element promotes active flowering and fruiting. In short, without such mineral elements as potassium and phosphorus, obtaining a good harvest is impossible, however, the choice of top dressing, the dosage and the period of its introduction depend on many factors.

How to determine the lack of elements in the soil

By purchasing a complex fertilizer, you can save time and effort on independently drawing up the correct proportion of vital components for your garden. However, there are cases when the soil already contains an excess of some substance, and additional feeding will not improve the crop, but will only damage it. To avoid such a situation, it is important to be able to determine “by eye” what exactly the plant needs and what it lacks in abundance. Unaccustomed to this, it may seem difficult, but with time a glance at the site will be enough to make a correct "diagnosis." So, if we talk about a lack of potassium, plants at risk are primarily planted on sandstone and super sandstone, peaty ground or in the floodplains of rivers. Eloquently about the problem show the culture, which are in the phase of active growth. Pay attention to the leaves: they become dull, turn yellow or become brown and dry around the edges.

As for phosphorus, its deficiency is even more difficult. The problem can occur on any type of soil, but red soils are particularly susceptible to it, as well as acidic and sod-podzolic soils. The high content of iron and aluminum in the soil is also often accompanied by a lack of phosphorus. Externally, the lack of phosphorus looks the same as a lack of nitrogen, which is an additional problem in the correct diagnosis. Young plants develop poorly and slowly, thin shoots, small, leaves constantly fall off. Flowers and fruits appear late. And yet there is an indicator: the color of the sheet.

With a lack of phosphorus, the plate becomes dark and dull, and in critical cases, the petioles become reddish or purple. Dries out from a lack of phosphorus, the leaves become dark, while nitrogen starvation is manifested in the lightening of the dry leaf. Like potassium deficiency, phosphorus starvation is better seen in the older parts of the plant than in the young shoots. In order for the inhabitants of your garden and vegetable garden to be healthy and delight you with tasty fruits, do not bring their condition to the above signs of a lack of the most important nutrients - potassium and phosphorus. Timely and proper fertilizing, taking into account the characteristics of the soil and the nature of the plants - the key to excellent harvest over the years. And you can get it even if your cottage area is located just a few hundred square meters, and you come there no more than once a week!