Trees obtained by grafting the desired variety on a special stock are called dwarf, but it is more correct to say this: trees on a dwarf stock.
The selected rootstock must be one or two years old. Vaccination is carried out by budding a sleeping or sprouting eye. Some gardeners in the spring prefer to make a side graft over the bark.
Dwarf trees can also come from vigorous trees when the plants are still young. American authors Gertman and Koestler in their book say that such an operation is possible if a young tree cuts a strip of bark and turns it upside down. But in our country, such experiments have not yet been done, therefore, the reliability of the information can not be said.
The main advantages
A dwarf garden in our latitudes has not yet become widespread, but many gardeners in the world have already been able to appreciate the benefits of such options. Marked by:
- The shortened period of onset of fruiting. Everyone is aware of the fact that traditional vigorous trees begin to bear fruit only 5-7 years after planting. And another 7-10 years they need to stabilize the harvest. Dwarf fruit trees come into fertile age as early as 3-4 years after planting. And it will be possible to enjoy a full-fledged harvest on average in 7 years. Saving time is significant, is not it?
- Ease of care. Dwarf trees do not grow above two meters. Strong growth of the crown is not peculiar to them. All the necessary care procedures can be done directly from the ground.
- Relatively small food area. Where one tree grows in a traditional garden (its feeding area is up to 45 m²), it is possible to plant 5 dwarf plants with a feeding area of 8 m².
- High yield. Breeders around the world, as well as gardeners and agronomists, have noted higher yields for dwarf fruit trees, and not for their traditional counterparts.
Imperfections of dwarf landings
Despite the considerable list of advantages, dwarf fruit trees and orchards have a number of drawbacks that must be taken into account. Namely:
- The considerable initial costs required to create a dwarf plantation can stop some gardeners.
- Some varieties are adapted exclusively to warm climatic conditions, which means they simply cannot survive our winters.
- Short life span.
- Dwarf fruit trees due to illiterate planting tend to change the quality of the variety.
- Additional expenses associated with the installation of supports. In some cases, this is simply a necessity, since dwarf plants have a shallow root system. And the supports allow you to avoid damage to the tree, breaking off branches under the weight of the crop, washing away the soil.
- Frequent and careful pruning of these trees is a must. Otherwise, deterioration in the quality, size and presentation of the fruit will be immediately noticeable.
- Despite the fact that the care of a dwarf garden is simple, you need to do it often. Otherwise, nature will make its negative corrections.
Main varieties for stunted garden
Despite the comparative simplicity of creation, it is not possible to obtain its dwarf analogue from each sort of fruit tree.
Good dwarf fruit trees are obtained from peaches, nectarines, apples, pears, plums, because they can be grown even in pots. But when buying a stock, we should not forget about the compatibility of the plant and the culture to be planted.
The most popular dwarf trees are:
- Apple tree, to which it is easiest to make a stock. Today, thanks to the persistent and painstaking work of breeders, there are many dwarf apple trees that delight in abundant crops and disease resistance.
- Pears, which in a dwarf form are quite hardy, resistant to changeable weather conditions and fruitful.
- Fig fig peach Sweet Cap, which in adulthood has a height of 1.8 meters. Dwarf trees on this rootstock fertile. They have a sweet, with a slightly noticeable sourness of white flesh. Among the advantages worth noting frost resistance, resistance to drought.
- The fig fig peach of UFO, which will delight the fleshy fruits with yellowish flesh and sugar-sweet taste.
- Bluefly dwarf plum, which is resistant to disease, drought, frost.
- Plum President on a dwarf stock. This is one of the most winter-hardy varieties, yielding abundant yields and quickly filling the garden area.
- Late plum Chachakskoy with a crop in late September. Dwarf plants on this stock are resistant to chlorosis, cancer of the root system. Saplings of dwarf trees of the Cachaksky variety are resistant to frost and summer drought.
Growing dwarf saplings
Growing dwarf saplings of fruit trees occurs mainly through winter grafting. When choosing a variety to which the cuttings of the clone rootstock will be grafted, it should be remembered that the cutting to be planted significantly reduces the winter resistance of the first plant. Therefore, the best graft will be a zoned winter-hardy variety. The clone insert can only be a stalk of a dwarf winter-hardy stock.
The insert should be no longer than 18 centimeters. Shorter length does not give the necessary weakening of the growth of the grafted variety. Saplings of fruit dwarf trees, or rather, their inserts with a large length strongly inhibit the growth when planted in the garden, which slows down the yield and spoils the quality of the fruit.
Rules for planting dwarf trees
Beautiful from an aesthetic point of view and a fruitful garden of dwarf trees can be formed if you follow a number of rules put forward to planting trees on a dwarf rootstock.
- Early in spring should be planted in a wide, deep pit, where the roots of the plant can be freely accommodated.
- Ground from the pit must be mixed with green compost.
- Examining the roots of the seedling, remove the damaged or sore tips, and the roots before planting should be dipped into the root mixture.
- To raise the tree, the bottom of the pit should be lined with a small amount of compost fertilizer.
- We lower the seedling into the pit, sprinkle it with earth, spread the soil between the roots with our hands.
- Then the pit is filled up by half, the ground is well compacted.
- The rest of the land is also filled and compacted.
Too deep tree plant is not worth it. This may lead to its deterioration, deterioration of yield and quality of the variety. Do not forget about the leash of the plant to the support, which is necessary for dwarf trees. To do this, you can use a strip of rubber, which, while supporting the tree, will not injure its thin bark.
How to cultivate these plants
Proper cultivation is the key to a bountiful harvest on a healthy and strong tree. How to properly care for dwarf fruit trees?
- The area around the tree trunk should be kept clean, that is, all weeds should be removed.
- It is not recommended to allow the formation of crusts on the ground. To avoid this, the soil must be loosened and nutrient mulching should be used. The best mulch for dwarf plants is semi-decomposed compost.
- Mulch should not be near the trunk of a tree. The optimal distance is half a meter and more. The outer boundary should coincide with the crown circumference of the plant.
- Mulching should be discarded during wet season and in very heavy soil.
- Ustyil of hay is simply necessary in arid regions with rapidly drying ground.
Top dressing of dwarf trees
New shoots and branches on the tree are formed in parallel with the new root processes, leaving the soil. To stimulate growth, experienced growers use compost manure, decomposed compost mixtures, and their combinations.
Top dressing fit ring in the soil. It should not touch the trunk of a tree, as this may damage the nourishing roots of the plant. Composting is allowed in the same way as mulching.
As already mentioned, the root system of dwarf plants is shallow, so they need winter shelter. To protect for the winter, the soil around the trunk circle is mulched. To do this, you can take sawdust, peat, mulbumugu in several layers. An 8-10 centimeter layer is quite capable of protecting the roots in a snowless winter.
It is better to carry out mulching after the first frost, so as not to impede soil moisture from autumn rains.
If snow fell, then mulching can be waived. During the winter, it is advisable to pour snow on the trees, but from those places that will not expose the ground to the tree trunks.
Dwarf trees, the photos of which today often adorn garden publications, are capable of outgrowing any traditional strong-growth tree with proper care in terms of yield.
Varieties of trees for stunted garden
Fruit trees are the leaders among all the variations of vegetation in the dwarf garden. However, not all varieties have their own stunted counterparts. A good solution for modern gardens are peaches, nectarines, apples, pears and plums, because they can be grown even in a pot.
The most common method of growing dwarf trees is grafting them to the usual plant species. Thus, it is possible to cultivate several small fruit plants at once, which take root rather well and generously endow the crop. However, the stock has its own characteristics, so before buying dwarf trees, One should inquire about the compatibility of the fruit representative with the plant to which you wish to plant the culture.
Consider the most popular varieties of stunted trees:
- An apple tree is a sort of tree to which it is easiest to make a dwarf stock. Modern technologies and experienced breeders developed a lot of varieties of dwarf apple trees, which are easy to graft, successfully cope with diseases, as well as extremely prolific.
- The pear is also enough for her to simply make a little double. Among all the representatives of a low-growing garden, these dwarf fruit trees are famous for their endurance, weather resistance and give a good harvest.
- Fig fig peach Sweet Cap - quite popular saplings of dwarf trees, who in the adult form does not exceed 1.8 meters in height. This representative is extremely prolific: peach has a white flesh of sweet taste with a slight sourness. On such a stock, the fruit dwarf is characterized by frost resistance, precociousness and endurance to drought.
- Fig figs peach UFO - the best option for intensive plantings. It brings fleshy fruits with yellowish pulp, sugar-sweet taste and easily separated bone. Dwarf rootstock for such a peach tree brings resistance to drought, frost, as well as a protective barrier against disease.
- Dwarf plum Blue Free belongs to the varietal and samoplodnomu variety. This stunted representative is resistant to root cancer, drought, frost and chlorosis. The fruit of the tree has an almost black skin with a waxy coating, a sweet-sour taste and an oval shape.
- Plum President on a dwarf stock - the most winter-hardy variety. Such dwarf trees, photos of which adorn gardening publications, give a bountiful harvest of excellent quality. Fruits are sweet, have yellowish-green flesh, without sourness. This variety of dwarf plum quickly fills the garden area and is very unpretentious in the care.
- The Cachakska plum is a species of late bonsai that produces crops by the end of September. Plants on such a stock do well with chlorosis and cancer of the root system, and the best pollinators are Blue Free and Stanley. The fruits have yellow-creamy flesh, slightly elongated shape and sweet-sour taste. Dwarf saplings of Chachak plum tolerate winter and summer drought.
Benefits of growing a dwarf garden
Short garden has gained wide popularity throughout the world, thanks to a number of significant advantages. Let us consider in more detail the positive characteristics:
- The early period of fruiting is an important indicator that affects both industrial and individual gardening, because trees are designed to produce a bountiful harvest. In comparison with its traditional counterparts, which bear the first fruits only after 4-6 years from the moment of planting and require another 10 years to stabilize the harvest, dwarf trees bear fruit for 3-4 years. At the same time, a full volume of fruits can be expected already in 6-8 years, i.e. the owner shortens the waiting period by an average of 10 years.
- Easy to care. Due to the fact that the height of many representatives of dwarf plantings does not exceed 2 meters, their crown does not grow much and it is much easier to look after them from the height of human growth. Harvesting, spraying, pruning shoots - all of these actions are available directly from the ground.
- Small food area is also a significant indicator for gardeners. In traditional fruit trees, this area can reach up to 42-46 m 2, while dwarf plants require only 7-9 m 2. In other words, on the site where one ordinary tree is grown, 4-6 short-growing analogs can be planted at once.
- High yields - perhaps the main advantage of fruit dwarf saplings. Breeders, professional gardeners and agronomists confirm that low-growing trees produce a better crop than their traditional varieties.
The disadvantages of growing a dwarf garden
Despite the impressive advantages of growing trees on a dwarf rootstock, low growing garden has its drawbacks. Consider them in more detail:
- considerable start-up costs - due to the fact that the creation of a dwarf garden requires a larger amount of material for planting than the formation of a conventional fruit plantation, the initial costs significantly affect the budget,
- weakness of some plant species - there are a number of varieties that can be planted only under warm climatic conditions, since they are not extremely winter-resistant,
- low life expectancy - dwarf trees live much less than tall counterparts,
- the risk of losing or changing the grade - illiterate planting of trees is fraught with changes in the quality of the variety,
- high support costs — since many species of dwarf trees have a shallow root system, they need to be installed with support pillars. This will avoid damage to the plant during hurricane winds, breaking off branches from the crop, undermining the soil, etc.,
- the need for frequent pruning - for growing dwarf trees, this factor is extremely important, since such manipulations will save the crop from deterioration in the quality and presentation of fruit, and their grinding,
- regular maintenance - despite the fact that the maintenance of a dwarf garden is a fairly simple thing, it requires more frequent maintenance than traditional trees. Otherwise, nature makes its own negative adjustments.
Requirements for planting dwarf trees
According to plant breeders and organic gardeners, annual ornamental dwarf trees are best suited for planting a garden.. In any case, compliance with the rules of planting will allow you to create a fruitful, aesthetic and beautiful garden. Consider the basic requirements for planting plants on dwarf rootstocks:
- planting occurs in the period of early spring, for which it is necessary to dig a fairly wide and deep hole, where you can hold the roots of the tree,
- then mix the soil obtained from the pit, adding a little green compost,
- cut off all diseased tips from the roots of the prepared seedlings and dip them into the root mixture,
- lay a small amount of compost fertilizer on the bottom of the pit to slightly raise the tree,
- sprinkle some more soil and gently, shaking the seedling, spread the hands between the roots,
- after that, fill the pit with soil to half its depth, carefully seal the soil on top,
- empty the rest of the earth outside, compacting it around the trunk of the tree so that it is stable.
Important! You should not plant a tree too deep to avoid damage, changes in yield and variety.
It is also worth remembering that dwarf trees with a shallow root system must be tied to a support. Any rack and strip of rubber will work well for this purpose.
- loop the rubber band around the tree trunk,
- cross it and put the second loop on the support, slightly higher, to form a figure eight.
Such a binding holds the sapling well, does not hurt its thin bark and does not stretch.
Cultivating a stunted garden
Abundant harvest, healthy and tidy trees - this is the desire of every gardener. For these purposes, it is necessary to adhere to certain requirements for the cultivation of dwarf plantings. Consider them in more detail:
- Carefully remove weeds around the tree, keep it clean.
- In order to prevent the formation of a crust on the ground, it is necessary to slightly loosen it and apply nutritional mulching. В качестве мульчи желательно использовать компост, разложившийся на ½ или ¾.
- Для регионов с засушливой погодой и быстро пересыхающим грунтом, почву нужно защищать и удерживать внутри ценную влагу. Для этого подойдет устилка из сена.
- Any type of mulch should be at a distance of at least 60 cm from the trunk of a dwarf sapling, and the outer border should end with the crown circumference of the tree.
- You should not use the technique of mulching in particularly wet seasons, as well as on excessively heavy soil.
Fertilizer dwarf trees
Dwarf trees are perennial plantations that develop rather slowly. The growth of new shoots and branches is proportional to the formation of root processes that go into the soil. In order to grow a strong and healthy tree, experienced gardeners use composted manure, decomposed compost mixtures, or combinations thereof.
Such a fertilizer should be placed in a ring with the soil, but not close to the trunk of the tree, as this may harm the plant's feeding roots. Place the compost around the diameter of the crown, similar to the mulching rules. At the same time, it is permissible to sprinkle a tree in the fall and spring in order to make it happy with its harvest and health.
Guide to planting a short garden can be seen on the fragment:
Benefits of Dwarf Gardens
We begin, as usual, with the positive aspects, thanks to which dwarf gardens have gained some popularity around the world:
- Early entry into fruiting. This is a very important indicator, both for industrial and for private gardening, because the fruit trees on the plot we plant are not at all for beauty, but for a bountiful harvest. So, an ordinary fruit tree starts fruiting 5-6 years after planting. For more than ten years, it increases and stabilizes the yield, and only by the age of 17–18 years of life, it begins to give a constantly abundant crop, that is, the time begins for full fruiting. In dwarf pears and apple trees, the situation is slightly different. The first fruiting occurs within 3-4 years after planting, but they can start to give full harvest in 8-10 years. Simple math helps to calculate that the full crop of dwarf trees begin to give almost 10 years earlier,
- Easy care of dwarf trees. And indeed, it is much easier to care for short growing trees than for vigorous ones. Why? Yes, the answer is very simple. Standard fruit trees reach a height of 7–9 meters and a crown width of 5–8 meters. If we take some special varieties, then these figures may increase slightly. This is the main reason, because at the level of human growth only a small part of the tree crown, and its main part is much higher, respectively, it is very difficult to harvest, cut or process a tree at that height and for this you have to use a special tool or even a technique. If we consider dwarf trees, then there are no such problems. The whole complex of care can be provided directly from the ground, since the height of dwarf apple trees and pears, on average, is about 2.5 m. Harvesting, cutting unnecessary shoots, spraying the tree will be much easier
- Food area for dwarf trees - Another rather weighty advantage compared to ordinary fruit trees. Here the calculation is also very simple. In tall wood, this area can reach 40-48 m2, in some varieties, and more. If you take dwarf trees, for example, dwarf apple trees grafted on the parade, you can feel a significant difference in the area of food, because it is only 8-9 m2. The conclusion suggests itself: on the area of a standard tall fruit tree, 4-6 dwarf trees can be grown,
- Productivity of dwarf trees - The most revealing value, on which you can rely when choosing. Professional gardeners, breeders and agronomists have repeatedly proved the fact that the yield of dwarf trees is much higher than the yield of tall fruit trees. It is worth noting the quality of fruits that grow larger and closer to the standards.
This list of advantages allows us to draw some conclusions that work exclusively in the direction of dwarf gardens.
Dwarf trees can be grown as independent plants, or as seals among tall fruit trees.
If you mix the planting, it will not affect the quality of fruits of various varieties and types of fruit trees, and even, on the contrary, you can grow on the same area much more individual fruit varieties, and consistently receive high-quality fruit products from them.
Disadvantages of dwarf trees
Unfortunately, there are a number of drawbacks when growing a dwarf garden:
- Serious initial costs. Naturally, planting dwarf gardens requires much more planting material than when laying an ordinary orchard, and this increases the initial cost several times, which can shake the budget,
- Life expectancy of dwarf trees. Dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties on rootstocks live much less than vigorous fruit trees, and you must take this fact into account when planting single specimens in a country house or when laying an industrial-scale garden,
- Support costs. Many dwarf varieties of fruit trees have a shallow root system, and therefore trees can be directly affected by hurricane winds, undermining, or even during high yields, when there are a lot of fruits on the branches and a small tree can simply fall on its side under their total weight. For this reason, experts recommend installing supports under the trees, preferably under each individual tree, since it is almost impossible to predict which tree can give a heel or fall.
- Loss and change of variety. With improper or just deep planting, dwarf trees can lose their properties and go completely to the roots of the scion,
- Care for dwarf trees. We have already said that caring for such a garden is much easier than for rich plantings of vigorous fruit trees, but it is worth noting that such care should be done much more often, which makes its own negative adjustments to the regime and schedule of the gardener. And this is watering, and pruning, and fertilizer,
- Weakness of some varieties. There are a certain number of varieties of dwarf trees that do not tolerate severe frosts, so you need to seriously think about the right choice of planting material or the constant wrapping and covering of vegetation from frost,
- The need for frequent pruning. This is not a whim to form a crown or the original look of a garden, but a natural requirement for a dwarf garden. All trees in it, in particular, grafted on the paradise, require constant pruning. This will save your crop from chopping and loss of presentation, and the dwarf garden itself will be from scrapping branches.
As you can see, there are a lot of dwarf gardens and flaws, but here it is worth knowing that many of them are fixable. And, if so, then before laying a dwarf garden, you will only need to correctly determine the planting material, as well as strictly follow all the requirements when planting a young garden.
Popular species and varieties
Among the popular dwarf and semi-dwarf fruit trees, there are dozens of popular varieties that differ in terms of ripening fruits.
The most popular stock for apple trees is the stock M9. It is especially good for industrial gardening. Popular in our area such early ripening varieties of short apple trees:
- "Candy". Apples of this species have a yellow-green, striped color, firm and juicy flesh. Ripen in August, weighs about 120 grams on average,
- "Wonderful". Fruiting begins in the fourth year after planting. It is characterized by frost resistance and high yield. The apples are large, yellowish, with red barrels, flattened, round. It tastes honey.
- "Melba". Superearly variety. Fruiting begins in the second half of July, yields are high. Fruits are medium size, juicy with caramel flavor. Among the disadvantages are frequent scab damage,
- "Suislep". Less popular dwarf. It gives fruit in three years. The color of the apples is pink-yellow, striped. Fruit weight - from 100 grams.
TO mid-seasonautumn include the following types:
- "Autumn striped". Fruits are large, weighing up to 200 grams. The color is bright yellow, taste sweet and sour. Apples of this sort can be easily stored at low temperatures in basements and cellars,
- "Zhigulevskoe." The most resistant to weather conditions and diseases grade. Gives red-orange fruit in the second half of September. It has high product characteristics,
- Sokolovskoye. The variety is high-yielding: one tree gives 80-90 kilograms of greenish, with a sweet-sour taste of apples with granular pulp. The plant is a natural dwarf.
Winter, or late maturity low-growing apple trees include varieties:
- "Bogatyr". The variety is tolerant of extreme weather changes, but it requires increased attention: for the apple tree to bear fruit regularly, frequent pruning of the branches is necessary. Fruits are elongated, red-yellow, sour,
- "Snowdrop". The fruits have a conical rounded appearance, yellowish color and red barrel, sweet-sour taste. The weight of an apple reaches 150 grams.
- "Moscow Necklace". The view is quite new, but already quite popular. Fruits are bright red with pinkish flesh and have a sweet and sour taste.
- "Grushevka near Moscow". The tree begins to bear fruit in the sixth year after planting. Differs in rather small fruits of white color. It has good preservation and yield.
- "Aroma de Varé,"
- "Airlie Mac"
- "Airlie Geneva."
The most common types of undersized pears in gardeners - medium and late maturity:
- "Grand Champion".A variety with high yield, the fruit is large, weighing up to 250 grams. The pulp of pears is oily, very juicy and sweet. Also distinguished by frost resistance,
- Veles. Dessert pear round shape. The color of the fruits are greenish. The weight of one pear is 180-200 grams,
- "Parisian". The fruits of winter ripening, taste sweet and sour, quite large. On color - green-yellow, with a emerging redhead.
- "Blue Free". Very winter hardy type of miniature plum. Differs in precocity. Ink-black and oval-shaped fruit.
- "Chachak". Late-ripe plum tree. The plum flesh is creamy, the taste is sweet and sour.
- "The president". The most unpretentious plum tree. The harvest gives quickly, a lot and high quality. It has high product characteristics. The fruits are oval-shaped, sweet in taste.
The maximum height of undersized peaches is about two meters.
- Figy peachesik"Sweet Cap" considered the most common. Winter-hardy, very fertile. Fruits with whitish flesh and sweet taste.
- "UFO" - Another kind of miniature fig peach. Very disease resistant look. The fruits are extremely sweet, large and juicy. A great option for industrial gardening.
- "Airlie Red Orange". Superearly variety of undersized apricots. Apricots are large, light orange, with a red side, sweet in taste. Market variety, has high rates of transportability and storage.
- "Hardy". Late apricot variety. It is very common in our area due to the endurance of low temperatures and drought. Fruits are large, with easily separable bone. The skin is thin, the flesh is saturated orange, juicy, sugar-sweet.
- "Crimean Cupid." Medium late variety. Apricots are large and compressed, weighing up to 100 grams. The color is light orange, with a sour taste. Very fragrant.
The quantity and quality of fruits in dwarf trees are not inferior to an ordinary garden; moreover, they are even higher. This is due to both earlier maturation and a relatively small waste of energy on the growth of the tree itself.
How to plant and care basic rules
Dwarf trees can serve not only for planting in the garden, but also as a decoration for the house. Such babies are planted in the tub and at any time can be transferred to the open ground.
The most optimal time for planting fruit crops is autumn. Temperature conditions and a long period before the beginning of the growing season contribute to the rooting of the roots and the growth of the root system as a whole. The soil should be plowed and flat, marked up for planting seedlings. Planting pits should be 60-70 centimeters in depth and about a meter in width. When laying the planting material in the pits should be added mineral and organic fertilizers, which will significantly accelerate the formation of additional shoots. Before planting, seedlings are inspected, sorted and cut. Planted cuttings should be in the ground at the level of grafting, it is not worth to sprinkle the grafting itself with the ground. Upon completion of the landing trees need to be shed properly.
Unlike ordinary fruit trees, dwarf trees are more demanding on the soil, so its condition should be monitored: carry out regular watering, fertilize. Loosening here will be inappropriate, since the young roots of trees are shallow. As the garden develops, garden care activities may vary slightly. So, over time, it is necessary to pruning, preventive treatments, organize supports and cover the garden for the winter.
The most pleasant thing in the process of growing an orchard is, by all means, the time of harvest. Harvesting takes place at different times: it all depends on what types of plants you have planted - early, middle or late ripening. The process itself is fairly easy and fast, this contributes to the size of the trees. Like any other occupation gardener, planting and growing a dwarf orchard takes a lot of effort and time. But the return is worth it: the yield of such plantations exceeds the yield of ordinary gardens, and most importantly - you can receive the fruits much earlier.
Benefits of Dwarf Trees
Small trees have a large number of advantages, allowing them to quickly achieve the love of both professional gardeners and novice amateurs. Among the advantages of dwarf trees:
- The rapid achievement of the fruitful phase - the usual seedling begins to bear the first fruits about five years after planting. He will begin to give a truly rich harvest in 15 years. In small trees, the cycle is shortened - the first fruits appear after three years, and a bountiful harvest begins after 8 years.
- Simplicity of care - if ordinary plants reach a great height and crown growth of several meters and require stairs and other devices for the care and removal of the crop, then dwarf plants are compact. Fruit picking and care are very convenient.
- The feeding area is high in tall individuals (up to 40 sq. M). Dwarf trees boast a root area of 8 square meters. m, which means that in the same area you will be able to plant a larger number of seedlings.
- The yield of individuals is large, the fruits are large and always correspond to all varietal indicators.
Thus, we can conclude that for the same money you can buy a tree that grows faster, gives a big crop and takes up little space.
Garden dwarf trees and their cons
It is important for any novice gardener to know about the drawbacks of such breeds, because it is better to be fully armed in your area. If you decide to build a dwarf garden, then keep in mind:
- Since the area of nutrition of these individuals is less, then the seedlings need to buy more. At the beginning of the journey it can hit the pocket.
- Life expectancy of such varieties is lower than that of ordinary ones.
- Additional spending on support will be required, as dwarf trees do not have a powerful root system. To keep the seedling in a vertical position, you need support. It can suffer from the strong wind, rain, a huge harvest, which breaks branches with the weight.
- Changes in the variety - if you plant a sapling incorrectly, avoiding the recognized rules, a transfer may occur. As a result, the tree may even stop producing crops.
- Fear of frost - many individuals do not differ frost resistance. They can simply die in the winter. A gardener should take care of the weatherization.
- Constant pruning is necessary to preserve the integrity of the branches, to prevent the shredding of the crop.
High yields of such plantings should overshadow all the minuses. This professional is not afraid of difficulties and caring for plantings with love!
What varieties of small trees are found?
Breeders brought a large number of varieties of dwarf apple trees - the leaders among gardeners. Apple tree is not afraid of many diseases, gives a high yield, and, most importantly, you can easily make a dwarf stock to it. Pears also bear fruit well. They are not afraid of bad weather, diseases.
Peach Sweet Cap has a pleasantly tasting crop with whitish flesh. The harvest is stable. The tree is not afraid of drought and cold. Peach Ufo is also resistant to drought and frost. The flesh of the fruit is yellow, with slightly pronounced sourness.
Plum Blue Free often land in areas with a cold climate. Not afraid of root cancer and chlorosis. Fruits are oval, dark (almost black), have a wax coating on the skin. Plum Chachak - late-ripening variety, fruits ripen in autumn. Слива Президент перенесет холодную зиму. Плоды сладкие, с желто-зелёной мякотью. Сорт очень неприхотлив.
Хвойные малорослые деревья для сада
Помимо карликовых плодовых деревьев в саду можно высадить и их хвойных собратьев. From the decorative point of view, they look great on the site. Coniferous individuals are divided into groups depending on their shape:
- Western thuja - dark green needles, size - up to 30 cm.
- Spruce - light green needles, size - up to 50 cm, dense crown.
- Mountain pine - dark needles, size - up to 50 cm.
- Mountain pine grows up to 2 m, the needles are very thick, dark and beautiful.
- Gray fir - needles slightly bluish, grows up to 60 cm.
- Serbian spruce - size - up to 25 cm, needles are dark green.
- Oriental thuja - needles slightly yellowish, size - up to 60 cm.
- Virginian juniper - grows up to three meters, has slightly blue needles, a narrow crown.
- Berry yew - approximate size - 80 cm. Needles give yellowness.
- Horizontal juniper - size - up to 20 cm, silver needles, gives into the blue.
- Sprawled juniper - size - up to 20 cm. The needles are green on one side and blue on the back.
Using different varieties of coniferous seedlings, you can create very interesting compositions in the country.
Planting Rules for Low-Grade Varieties
It is important to remember that dwarf trees should be planted differently than normal ones. All landing work is allowed only in spring. Low grades love only fertile soil. If the land you choose is not the same, then proceed as follows - dig a hole 1.5 m deep and transfer all the soil to another place. Pit fill a good, fertile land.
Since the root system of small trees does not penetrate into the soil deeper than a meter, it is better to choose the area where groundwater flows close to the surface. It does not matter what place you choose to land - a slope or a hill, the main thing is that it is well lit by the sun.
Before planting, inspect the roots of the seedling, if they are dry, it is better to put them in a bucket of water for a short time. Roots should be well saturated with moisture.
In the soil, dig a hole 50 cm deep, 70 cm wide. Put a bucket of humus on the bottom of the hole, a layer of earth above it. Spill the ground before a viscous slurry forms in the pit. Now you can install a seedling.
Seedlings of dwarf fruit trees placed in a hole very carefully. The root neck should be on a par with the ground. If you put a seedling too deep, it may rot and not survive. After placing the sprout in the hole, the ground around it is tamped down and a shaft is created. Its height is about 10 cm, and its width is 60. It is necessary so that water gets straight to the roots during watering. When the seedlings of dwarf trees are established, grumble the soil around them.
If you are creating a dwarf garden, do not forget about the distance. The distance between the trees should be at least two meters. Do not forget that small trees need support. The trunk of the tree is best tied to the peg with a narrow elastic band.
Care for low plantings in the garden
Low garden trees are not dwarf tundra trees that grow by themselves, without additional care. Be sure to loosen the soil in pristvolnom circle, remove weeds. It is important to mulch the soil (for example, compost), this will avoid the crust on the ground, which prevents the passage of oxygen to the roots. Do not place mulch close to the trunk, make a small indent. If there is a large amount of precipitation, do not mulch.
Particular attention should be dwarf fruit trees in the period of drought. To avoid trouble, the land around the trunks is better to impose hay.
Water your green friends once a week. For one seedling you need two buckets of water at room temperature.
Do fertilizers need undersized seedlings?
Yes, of course, soil fertilization is necessary. But it must be done correctly. Dwarf fruit trees are important to fertilize only after watering. Well react to the plantings feeding chicken droppings and mullein. Korovyak diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10, and chicken manure - 1:20.
In young plantings, fertilizers are laid from the moment of planting. Filling the wells with fertilizers and then putting them on the tree-to-trunk territories will provide uninterrupted wood supply with all the necessary elements.
What winter gardening work should be done?
As mentioned above, the root system of low trees does not have a large area of growth. For this reason, it is better to lay the soil in the land cover by mulch from sawdust or peat. Above, you can put a porous paper (in the spring it will limp). Such a multi-layered shelter will save dwarf saplings of fruit trees in winter. As soon as the first frosts come and the earth hardens, it is necessary to start warming.
If the winter was snowy, you need to go the other way. Mulching is better not to venture, just warm the trunk with a snowdrift of snow thrown around and rammed.
Do white trunks whitewash?
There is no single answer to this question. Every gardener looks at it for his part. Some lovers of dwarf trees, the photos of which you see in the article, believe that whitewashing trunks are not needed. Many gardeners, on the other hand, are inclined to believe that the procedure is necessary. Whitewashing is an excellent prevention of many tree diseases.
Professionals believe that dwarf varieties must be treated with whitewash. This not only frightens off pests, but also helps the trunks survive the temperature drops, the first rays of the sun in the spring.
Whitening is necessary not only young shoots, but also adult plants. True, the solution being prepared for seedlings should be made less concentrated. Very rich lime can spoil the tender young bark.
It is better to whiten the trunks three times a year (in October, May and July).
How to choose a dwarf graft?
The beauty and yield of the garden is largely dependent on the correct seedlings. Dwarf sapling and his choice are different from the young of the usual varieties of fruit trees. A dwarf seedling buds at the ends of the branches should be larger than the normal. The root system is fibrous, with many small roots. High breeds have a strong root stem.
Look carefully at the vaccination site. At the junction of the neck and trunk, the protrusion should be clearly visible. Do not be surprised that the price of a dwarf is much higher than a tall sapling.
There is a variety of tall apple trees, a seedling of which is very similar to a dwarf. In order not to pay money for fraudulent sapling, take a close look at it. Tall trees have almost no branches (there is only the main trunk).
For a laid-up dwarf garden, most often people buy grafts that are one or two years old.
The ideal garden, aesthetic and cozy, cute and comfortable ... Perhaps it is the dream of every summer resident gardener. Make the dream a reality dwarf trees will help. They will fill the site with beauty and allow you to harvest a large crop very quickly. After reading this article, you will understand what kind of care dwarf trees need.