Cedar is a coniferous evergreen tree of the Pine family. The cedar has a pyramidal or umbrella-shaped spreading crown and a slender trunk with cracking dark gray scaly bark. The root system of the cedar is superficial, so it is often subject to windfall.
Cedar needles are needle-shaped, hard and prickly, three- or four-sided, silver-gray and green-yellow. They are collected in bundles of 30 pieces. On elongated or shortened shoots are arranged singly or in a spiral. Cedar needles live from 3 to 6 years.
Cedar blooms in the fall. Female and male cones are located throughout the crown. Male cones are solitary, surrounded by tufts of needles, and female cones are 10 cm long and about 6 cm wide. The cones resemble an egg or a barrel, 10 cm long and 6 cm wide, erect, solitary, ripen in the 2nd year, then crumble. Seed scales shirokopochkovidnye. Seeds 12-18 mm long, resinous, triangular, with a wing.
Cedar is a giant plant. It can reach a height of about 60 meters, and their crown diameter is about 3 m. In addition, this giant is also a long-liver: its life span is 3,000 years.
As a rule, cedar grows in the mountains at an altitude of about 1500-3600 m, forming forests with fir, spruce, oak and pine.
There are only 4 types of cedar. In Africa, Atlas cedar grows - a large tree about 60 m tall with a pyramidal crown, with silver-gray or bluish-green needles. In Syria, Lebanon, you can find Lebanese cedar. Cypriot short-coned cedar grows in Cyprus, but some scientists consider it a subspecies of Lebanese cedar. In youth, the crown of the cedar of Cyprus is cone-shaped, in the mature - sprawling, in the old age - umbrella-shaped.
Some specimens of this coniferous tree reach a height of about 40 m. Its shoots are slightly pubescent or bare, tetrahedral needles of green color, 5-10 mm long. In Cyprus cedar single light brown barrel-shaped cones, with a length of 6 cm and 4 cm in diameter. In the Western Himalayas, Himalayan cedar grows - a tree with a height of more than 50 m with a pyramidal crown and gray-green needles.
Cedar is a tree healer. All parts of this tree have healing properties.
In addition to the true cedars called on almost all continents, there are many tree species, which the locals call cedar. They may be deciduous trees. In Africa, this is Guards Thompson, which is called fragrant cedar, in Asia it is Burmese cedar. In Russia, Siberian cedar pine is called Siberian cedar.
Planting and care
Growing cedar is a very difficult thing. For example, in the summer it requires controlled watering - without overdrying and without stagnant water.
Under natural conditions, cedars do not grow in northern latitude, because these trees are very thermophilic.
Cedar loves fresh, well-drained, loamy soil. It is very poorly tolerated by sea winds, and also suffers from chlorosis on dry calcareous slopes.
Planting is best in early spring (before bud break) or autumn (after leaf fall). The place for cedar should be spacious and open, bright, because this tree likes to grow in sunny and free areas.
When transplanting cedar, 9-year-old seedlings are more reliable. They need to be dug up with a lump of earth and transferred to the landing site, having previously wrapped the lump with film or cloth. Landing holes must be prepared in advance. Remove the soil mixed with fertilizers (humus, peat, rotted manure, wood ash).
Under natural conditions, cedar propagates by seed. In culture, it is propagated by grafting.
There are more than 130 species of insects that harm cedars. The most significant damage is caused by: - cone-type fire. Way of struggle: spray the plant in the beginning of flowering Lepidotsidom. Repeat treatment after a week.
Great damage to the old cedar causes variegated trunk rot caused by pine sponge.
The roots of cedar are affected by the root sponge, which contributes to the windfall of trees. The tree with the affected trunk must be removed from the site.
To protect cedars from diseases and pests, you need to use biological and chemical methods to control them, buy only highly immune forms of trees, and create normal conditions for their growth.
Silver and blue forms of cedar are often used to decorate gardens and parks. Currently, in the Crimea, as well as in the Caucasus, cedar is used in forest plantings.
In particular, drought-resistant Lebanese cedar is used in park construction in Central Asia, Atlas cedar - in the Crimea. Cedar looks great in groups, contrasting with other plants contours of its crown and green needles. Cedar looks even more attractive in single plantings, and when creating alleys plantings.
The wood of this cedar is very resinous, fragrant and durable. It is used in the furniture industry.
Under natural conditions found in North Africa. It grows together with stone oak, smelly juniper and Aleppo pine in the lower mountain belt, already above the Atlas cedar forms pure stands.
The tree is about 40 m tall, with a pyramidal, loose crown, stiff bluish-green needles and ovoid or cylindrical, shiny, dense, light brown cones. In youth, Atlas cedar grows faster, in the spring it moves off late in growth. Atlas Cedar is frost-resistant, withstands temperature drops of about -20 ° C, very light-requiring, dust-proof. Poor lime in the soil. Suffering from waterlogging. It has a number of decorative forms.
In nature, it grows in the Himalayas, Afghanistan.
The tree is about 50 m tall, with a wide cone-shaped crown. In adult trees, the crown is flat from above, with branches on the branches. Young shoots pubescent. Himalayan cedar needles have a bluish tinge, light green, longer than in other species, in bundles. Cones 10 cm, ovoid, bluish in youth, then red-brown.
Durable, fast growing cedar rock. It tolerates shading well, loves increased soil and air humidity. Low soil requirements. It tolerates a decrease in temperature to -25 ° C. Dislikes windfall.
Himalayan cedar, as well as its shape, as a very beautiful tree, deserve widespread use in park construction in the south of Russia. It looks great in group plantings, contrasting with the characteristic contours of its crown and green needles. It also looks spectacular in single landings, when creating walkways. Perfectly tolerates a haircut, forming the original hedges. Himalda cedar forms mixed forests with spruce, fir, pine and oak. This cedar is especially appreciated in greening plantings in the south of Russia. It is the most valuable breed in the Southern Crimea.
In nature, it grows in Asia Minor.
The tree is about 40 m tall. In youth, the crown is wide-spreading, conical, in adulthood - umbrella-shaped. Shoots lightly pubescent or bare. The needles are dark green, about 4 cm, tetrahedral, rigid, in bunches of 40 pieces each.
Cones are light brown, single, 10 cm long, about 5 cm in diameter, barrel-shaped. It grows very slowly, light-requiring and frost-resistant. Drought-resistant, undemanding to soils. Durable.
Majestic, beautiful tree, characterized by mighty growth, thick branching and large trunk. Beautiful in single landings.
Its wood is strong and fragrant, rather soft and light. Due to this, its wood is used in shipbuilding, in construction, and for the manufacture of furniture.
What does cedar look like: photo and description
Cedar belongs to the large family of Sosnovykh, genus - Cedar, or Pine Cedar Siberian. This genus is of particular interest because of the universal value of wood, needles and seeds. Cedar is also in demand in landscaping.
Cedar tree looks like a real giant: it has a powerful trunk, reaching a height of 25 to 45 m, depending on the species.
In contrast to the pine pine needles, cedar is surprisingly soft, long, triangular, gathered in whorls of 5-6 pieces. And at a pine tree - two and very rarely - three needles each.
Shoots of two types - elongated vegetative and shortened generative. The tree is monoecious. Male buds - in the form of spikelets, looking up, red or yellow. Women's - cones 2-4 pieces - are at the top of the shoot and have a purple color.
The description of cedar roots is akin to the tree itself: the root system is as powerful as the above-ground part, which allows the plant to endure all natural disasters and be unpretentious in culture. Adult cedar does not require agrotechnical care.
As seen in the photo, cedar tree is very beautiful with its green outfit at any time of the year:
Its antimicrobial properties are very valuable. The air around these trees is practically sterile. Many cedars are planted by amateurs at the dacha, garden and garden plots in the central zone of Russia. It can not grow on dry sandy places, and prefers sandy or loamy moist fertile soil.
By mail, all types of cedar pines in forest plantations begin to bear fruit in 30-60 years, sometimes later, and in gardens where they are treated and fertilized in a timely manner with fertilizers - in 15-20 years and continue to bear fruit up to 250-300 years. A good harvest of large cedar nuts occurs in those areas where 2-3 cedar grows in a group, as conifers are cross-pollinated trees. The cedar seed development cycle lasts a year and a half.
Four species of cedar grow in Russia - Siberian, European, Korean and Siberian elfin woods.
You can see the varieties of cedars and their photos on this page.
Growing cedar from seeds and tree care
To give the garden a finished mature look, you need to plant an evergreen, durable tree. Cedar with its appearance will give your manor solidity and power, confidence and optimism. In addition, this tree does not require systematic care. When growing and caring for cedar forget about pruning, the formation of the crown, harvesting fallen leaves.
Cedar is not only beautiful, but also useful. It heals the air with the scent of pine needles.
Planting seedlings in the area should immediately on a permanent well-lit place at a distance of 5-6 m from each other. Between young cedars you can grow stunted fruit trees and berry bushes. To form the crown should be on a low shtambe, sprawling, multi-vertex. Pruning or breaking of the lateral buds is carried out in early spring, before the beginning of the growing season. Successfully surviving trees in the first years give a 5-10 cm increment with dark green needles.
The place for this tree should be open and extensive, the soil - loamy, drained.