- Features of planting and caring for apple varieties "Melba"
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The variety of apple trees “Melba” was bred at the end of the XIX century, but is still popular among gardeners.
"Melba": description, description
This variety was bred by breeders from Ottawa and is named after the singer, whose name was Nellie Melba.
Apple tree begins to fructify upon reaching 4 years of age. Young saplings produce crops annually, and when they reach 12 years of age, they do it with a certain cyclical nature — they bear abundant fruit after a year.
Variety refers to the late summer, ripe apples can be harvested in the second half of August and early September. Fruits weigh about 150 g, the color of the peel is yellow-green with a red blush. Tastes are good, they are estimated at 4.5 out of five points. The beauty of ripe fruit shows photo.
In addition to the mass of positive qualities, Melba saplings have two drawbacks. Trees are prone to scab and can freeze in severe winters.
Knowing about the not very high winter hardiness of the tree, breeders on the basis of “Melba” brought out other varieties, for example, “Daughter of Melba”, “Melba red”.
To increase the winter resistance of the seedling, you need to choose the right place where it will grow. It is better if the tree from the north from the cold winds protects the fence, the wall of the house or other structure.
Although this variety is self-fertile, it gives more yield if an apple tree of similar flowering period grows nearby. As pollinators for "Melby" you can use apple varieties such as:
The best time for planting "Melby" is autumn, but you can do it in the spring - at the end of April and the beginning of May.
"Melbu" can not be planted in the lowlands, where groundwater stagnates. Otherwise, the roots of the tree will rot, and over time it will die. If there is no other place, then the seedling should be placed on an artificially created hill.
In order for the tree to have enough food for 2-3 years, it is necessary to fill the landing pit well. It should be 60 cm deep and 70 cm wide. Some gravel and sand are drained at its bottom as drainage. Immediately drive two pegs on one and the other side.
Humus is mixed with a previously removed top fertile soil layer, with 300 g of wood ash, 70 g of potassium salt and 90 g of double superphosphate.
This nutrient mixture is placed on the bottom of the landing pit, tamped, making a small elevation in the center. A sapling is placed here, its roots are straightened. Pour the remaining fertile mixture on top and tie the tree to the pegs so that it is between them.
To further improve the efficiency of irrigation and fertilizing, you can dig 2-3 polypropylene pipes, placing them vertically, cover the holes with plugs. Some make a roller out of the ground in a pristvolnom circle so that the water during irrigation does not overflow for it. But it should be noted that the tree trunk circle increases every year, because it is a projection of the tree crown on its underground part.
After planting the soil can not be trampled, otherwise you can damage the roots of the tree. To eliminate voids in the ground, it must be watered well. To do this, use 50-70 liters of water.
If the planting pit was well filled, then for 2-3 years the seedling does not require additional dressing. If this has not been done or 3 years have passed since planting, then the tree needs additional food.
In the spring, when the snow melts, “Melbu” is fertilized with an infusion prepared from 1 liter of liquid mullein and 10 liters of water. In early June, the tree is given top dressing, consisting of 1 cup of wood ash, 2 tbsp. l superphosphate, diluted in 10 liters of water. The same is done in a month.
To reduce the likelihood of scab, in spring apple trees are treated with fungicides or preparations prepared according to popular recipes.
In order to prevent the development of this disease in the next year, you need to remove the scab affected fruits in time. After the leaves are collected, the leaves are collected, also removed from the site or burned.
Up to five years of age in early spring carry out the forming pruning. In March-April and in the middle of autumn it is necessary to produce whitewashing of apple trees.
With such proper care, “Melba” will grow well, develop and produce fruit.
Collection and storage
The full harvest of the Melba variety is already obtained in the eighth year of plant life. The term of ripening of apple fruits is determined by climatic conditions, but mostly falls on 2-3 decade of August. Fruit culture is better to remove a little underripe to extend their storage. After picking and sorting, apples are placed in a cool place with a temperature of 2-5 degrees Celsius, where they can lie fresh for about three months and not deteriorate.
Preparing for the winter
The preparation of the plant for cold weather includes whitewashing a tree trunk by one third with a special solution and its further wrapping with sacking or tarpaulin. Between the layers of insulation, you can lay the straw or just use lapnik. Young seedlings turn around completely.
Melba apple variety is distinguished by a number of positive properties necessary for simple garden cultivation. Culture is unpretentious, but it is characterized by a beautiful appearance, and most importantly the high quality of large fruits.
Description of the apple tree Melba and its fruits
The average size of the trees of this variety is round or slightly conical, in young plants, the shape of the crown. The older the tree, the wider the crown becomes and the more powerful the trunk. But the annual Melba saplings are almost straight, covered with large foliage of rich green color and smooth reddish bark.
Both lignified skeletal branches and the trunk of adult plants themselves are covered with brown, relatively dark bark with a reddish or orange tinge. The shoots of apple varieties Melba:
- have an average length
- slightly pubescent
- covered with large, slightly curved oval-shaped leaves,
- with a large number of ovaries can strongly bend.
Flowering in the variety begins relatively early and is accompanied by the appearance of Melba, characteristic of the apple tree, as in the photo and in the description, large buds of a beautiful pink or purple hue.
Melbu is distinguished by a quick entry into the fruiting season and high yield. Already in the third or fourth year, the first apples can ripen on a young tree, and gardeners from 85 to 150 kg of fruit grow from an adult apple tree.
Moreover, until the age of 12, apple trees produce crops annually, and then abundant fruiting is alternated with a dormant period. Fruiting in this type of fruit tree is mixed, but is mainly due to the ovary, which is formed on kolchatka.
Under the conditions of the middle band, the fragrant fruits of Melba variety ripen in the second half of August. The average weight of slightly ribbed apples of a rounded conical shape is 130–180 grams.
On the shoots of apples are attached with elongated flexible stem. According to the description of the apple tree Melba, the fruit has a smooth, thin skin, covered with a waxy coating well visible against the background of a carmine with stripes of blush. The main color of apples with a pronounced candy aroma and a pleasant sweet-sour taste, is light green or almost white in ripe fruits.
The snow-white, and in some cases pink-streaked, Melba's flesh has a delicate texture, highly valued by both lovers of fresh fruits and cooks who make jams, mashed potatoes and fragrant marmalades from apples of this variety. The taste of Melba apples is estimated by experts as excellent, which is also confirmed by the composition of fruits, per 100 grams of which 10.5 grams of sugars, 13.4 mg of ascorbic acid and about 10 grams of pectins fall.
Fruits removed from the branches can be stored for up to 100 days, they tolerate transportation well and do not lose quality until winter, if they are kept at low temperatures above zero.
With a lot of advantages at Melba's apple trees, as described, there are two drawbacks:
- low resistance to such a common disease of fruit trees as scab,
- the possibility of freezing in severe and light snow winters.
However, with proper care and attention to planting apples, Melba has long and regularly produces good yields of delicious, fragrant apples.
Description of the apple variety Melba
About the popularity and high value of the Melba variety is the fact that several interesting varieties and varieties were created on its basis and with direct participation:
- Cherished, obtained after a lot of stepwise selection on the basis of Melba, Purple Ranetka, Pepin saffron and Belle Flay Chinese,
- Early scarlet, derived by Russian breeders on the basis of Papiina and Melba,
- Red early, also bred by domestic experts as a result of crossing varieties Spring and Melba,
- Caravel of Canadian breeding, created on the basis of Melba and the variety Crimson Beauty,
- Prima is the result of the work of specialists from the United States who have received a fully scab-resistant fruit plant.
In addition, in the garden plantings of apple trees, you can see Melba clones with larger and brightly colored fruits, increased winter hardiness and resistance to scab dangerous to the fruit tree. This is Red Melba and Melba’s daughter variety, common in the environs of St. Petersburg and other areas of the North-West of the country.
Planting apple varieties Melba and caring for seedlings
Planting and caring for Melba’s apple trees does not require any special skills and knowledge from the gardener, but choosing a site for growing fruit trees is a serious matter.
On a well-lit part of the apple tree, Melba, as in the photo, will definitely delight with large rosy fruits. If the light is not enough, the apples become shallow, they accumulate less sugars, which negatively affects the taste.
It is unacceptable that the tree suffered from stagnant moisture, the cause of which may be:
- spring snow melt
- prolonged autumn precipitation
- proximity of groundwater.
If there is such a risk, in the area intended for planting apple trees, do powerful drainage or equip artificial hills. For an apple tree, the soil requires not only a good supply of nutrients and moisture-conducting, but also sufficiently breathable. If the fruit tree is planted on dense clay soil or black soil, do not do without the addition of sand, peat, as well as dolomite and lime flour with excessive acidity.
The intensity of growth and the size of the crown of Melba’s apple tree determine the planting pattern for this crop:
- When the row garden device is recommended to maintain a distance of at least 8 meters between the rows and 3 meters between plants.
- If a square pattern is used, the distance between the landing pits is about seven meters.
During planting and caring for apples, organic and mineral fertilizers are subsequently used, which are applied to the soil in the form of root dressings and contribute to the rapid adaptation of the plant, early growth and active fruiting.
By the time the apple is planted, the soil should settle, and the organic matter should be perepered so that the tender roots of the young tree are not affected. The root system of the seedling is carefully and very carefully straightened out, and after filling the pit with soil, the root neck should not be covered with soil. Since Melba apple varieties may be affected by frost, according to the description, the young tree should be protected in autumn until a steady snow cover appears on the site. To do this, you can use any covering materials that allow air to pass through and do not give rodents and pests access to the rod.
In the first few years of life after planting an apple, the plant is subjected to normalization, removing, in the spring, first everything and then most of the buds formed. This measure will allow the young apple tree to acclimatize more quickly and gain strength for real fruiting. In subsequent years, the load on the tree is regulated by cutting off the green ovary, the size of a nut.
Top dressing apple trees Melba
For a friendly fruiting, the first feeding of the apple should be carried out already in early spring. As with the planting, rotted organic matter from 5 to 15 kg per meter is introduced into the soil under the crown. And when preparing the plantation for flowering, except for humus or manure, the composition of the feed should include a complex mineral fertilizer or individually about 45–55 grams of potassium chloride and 120–145 grams of superphosphate per apple tree. A good feed for apple varieties Melba will be wood ash. The number and volume of feedings gardener can adjust depending on the specific conditions of growing apples, soil fertility and climatic features.
During the summer, up to the second half or August, apple trees are fed 2-3 times with liquid nitrogen-containing mixtures, for example, infusion of humus, manure, chicken manure or “green manure” based on nettle, cereals or fodder grasses 1: 10.
When the mass ripening of fruits begins, it is important to limit the production of nitrogen by the trees, which interferes with the aging of the shoots and the preparation of apple trees for wintering.
Peculiarities of apple watering in summer
Moisture is necessary for trees, starting from the moment of planting the apple tree and throughout the life of the plant. If in spring the soil is filled with melt water, then by the summer, when the ovary appears and the crop begins to ripen, the apple trees cannot do without watering. Depending on the ability of the soil to retain moisture and weather conditions, each adult tree should receive 10 to 18 liters of water weekly.
Watering apple trees in the summer is especially important in the period from July to August, when the varieties of summer ripening period are actively growing fruits. If the fruit trees at this time receive less water, under the crown you can see the fallen unripe fruits.
But the loss of the crop is waiting for the gardener not only this year, but also in the next season, because in the summer months there is an active laying of flower buds, designed to ensure further fruiting. Active watering of apple trees in the summer is carried out until mid-August, and then the soil is moistened in the near-stem circle only when necessary. An excess of moisture at the end of the season does not affect the quality of the fruit, but it adversely affects the maturation of the resulting shoots.
It is in summer that the mulching of the soil under the crown of the Melba apple tree becomes extremely relevant. This technique preserves the friability of the soil and does not allow the moisture that the plant needs to evaporate.
Formation of the crown and pruning apple varieties Melba
Competent and timely pruning of apple trees is a guarantee of tree health and regular fruiting. The best time for this procedure is early spring, when the fruit movement of juices and the awakening of the buds have not yet begun on fruit trees.
For the first few years of life, an apple tree needs a formative pruning, which results in a strong, healthy crown that is ready for regular fruiting.
For the quickest laying of fruit branches, the central conductor is cut to one third, which limits the vertical growth of the tree and stimulates the development of lateral shoots. An adult tree gradually reduces yield, and the main fruiting is transferred to the upper, inaccessible part of the crown. In this case, Melba's apple tree, as in the photo, needs both annual sanitary and rejuvenating pruning. In order not to injure the plant excessively, the removal of large branches is carried out gradually, replacing several shoots each year.
With the planting of apple seedlings in the spring should not be long pull. It is advisable to have time to do this before the buds begin to open. The sharp onset of heat is bad for seedlings, which are beginning to lose their qualities. This is especially significant for areas with a high probability of drought.
Preparing for planting an apple tree
On a note! In central Russia, seedlings are planted since the second half of April. In the north, this event should be postponed until May.
Soil preparation is determined using a spade. If the soil can be dug without tension, then the time for planting seedlings has come. When the ground is completely thawed and the sap inside the trees starts moving, it will be late. In this case, the tree will not have enough water for normal development. This will lead to the emergence of diseases. Under the influence of sunlight, which in May is already quite burning, young leaves will dry.
Planting material of apple trees is much better acclimatized in wet soil. If you linger with the landing, you will need to increase the watering of the young tree. The further fate of the tree and its productivity depend on how correct the moment was chosen for planting the seedling.
Selection of apple varieties
The right choice of planting material depends on the variety of this fruit crop. When selecting a variety of apple trees for a specific climatic zone, it is necessary to rely on the degree of survival and yield in this zone. According to the ripening period, apple varieties are divided into the following groups.
- Summer, giving a crop at the end of the summer. Apples harvested from summer fruit trees can be stored for up to 14 days. The most famous varieties - Medunitsa and White filling.
- Autumn, fructification which is the beginning of autumn. Яблоки сохраняют свои потребительские качества в течение 30 дней. Наиболее популярными являются сорта Мельба и Кореянка.
- Зимние, плоды которых можно начинать собирать в последних числах сентября. Урожай сохраняется на протяжении почти полугода. К зимним сортам относятся Уэлси и Антоновка.
Дерево яблони сорта Медуница
Плоды яблони Мельба на ветке
Плоды яблони сорта Уэлси
Антоновка в саду
Further, the choice of variety can be determined depending on the type of tree - here there are the following groups:
- vigorousextending to a height of 8 m. The roots go deep. Well take root in areas with a depth of groundwater from 3 m. The most popular varieties include Antonovka ordinary and Arkadik.
- semi-dwarf, reaching a height of 5 m. Such trees can be grown in areas where groundwater is sufficiently close to the surface (1.5 m). These are varieties such as Candy and Melba.
Fruits of a grade Arkadik
Selection of seedlings
If a suitable variety has been selected, then the next task facing the gardener is to purchase quality seedlings. In this case, you need to take into account several nuances.
- Place of purchase. Planting material is recommended to purchase in special nurseries or stores. If the saplings bought from the hands were not provided with proper storage conditions, then the trees may not settle down in a new place. In addition, it often turns out that the seedling does not belong to the sort of apple trees that it wanted to acquire.
- Selection of seedlings. A tree at the age of two or three years should ideally have several branches and well-branching roots. The bark should not be damaged. A normal plant height is 1.5 m.
Inspection of the roots of the seedlings before planting
Selection of seedlings for planting
Preparing for landing
The plant at the age of 1 year should not have branches. Proper preparation involves the formation of a crown. To do this, follow these steps.
- Cut off the top of the plant with a pointed knife. It is necessary to skip with a few buds, so that the plant could form lateral branches.
- Remove those buds that are directed upwards, otherwise they will grow branches that compete with the trunk. It is necessary to preserve about 6 buds, distributed evenly along the trunk and directed perpendicular to it. Crown branches will be formed from them in the future.
- It should be in advance when buying to find out the height of the future apple. This will help determine the appropriate place on the landing site, as well as suggest where the shadow of the tree will fall.
The hole for planting an apple is prepared in advance. In spring, you can dig a hole for apple seedlings about a week before planting.
Planting pit for apple
The hole should be of a certain size depending on the sort of apple.
- Large trees, reaching a height of more than 2 m, need to make a hole with a diameter of about 1 m and a depth of about 70 cm.
- The roots of medium-sized trees (from 1.2 m) will feel good in the pits 100 × 60 cm.
- Saplings of low-growing apple trees (up to 1.2 m) need a hole measuring 90 × 50 cm.
Determination of tree planting depth
Layers of soil when digging holes do not need to be mixed. The upper one, more fertile, must be thrown in one direction, and the lower in the other.
Important! Clay soil before planting seedlings should be diluted with sand in a ratio of 2: 1. Sandy soil can be diluted with a mixture of peat and humus in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
The bottom of the pit must be loosened and dusted with shards of tile or brick. You can use the shells remaining after walnuts. This will create good drainage, protecting from excess water and preventing valuable minerals from leaching out of the ground.
Drainage and fertilizer at the bottom of the pit
Step-by-step landing instructions
It is necessary to prepare the hole in advance and trim the planting material properly.
Table. Planting apple trees in the spring.
Step 1. Filling the bottom of the pit
Step 2. Preparing fertilizers
Step 3. Filling the well
Step 4. Installing the peg
Step 5. Strengthening seedlings in the ground
Watering Apple Seedling
Watering hole after watering
In order to slightly reduce the adverse effects of the sun on the tender bark of a tree, you should plant a plant north of the support.
Sapling tied to supports
How to avoid mistakes when planting an apple
Even beginners in gardening can get good results in growing apples if they avoid the following common mistakes.
- Without fixing, the tree will slope in one direction or another. Reliably protect it from the roll will help support of 3 pegs, connected to each other. Their height should be 2/3 of the height of the plant.
- Fertilizing saplings with compost or fresh manure is highly undesirable. This dressing will harm the roots and create the conditions for the formation of black cancer.
- To keep the roots of the apple tree dry, they need to be fed with a mixture of fresh mullein and clay. This can be done before planting the seedling.
- It is not recommended to intersperse the planting of apple trees with other fruit trees. It is advisable to use a prepared plan for planting trees.
- When planting seedlings should take into account the places where communications are laid on the site. From them you need to keep a distance of 3 m.
- Apple trees grow best on the southeast and southwest sides of the plots.
- When plants do not have enough space, their immunity decreases. Weakened apple trees are prone to disease, they are actively plagued by pests.
A man forms a sapling crown
Features of autumn pruning apple
How to care for seedlings
In order to planted the tree better settled down, it should be watered. This is done regardless of how moist the soil is. The meaning of such irrigation is not so much to increase the moisture of the earth, but rather to ensure that the best coupling of the roots to the soil particles takes place.
The hole in which the seedling has been planted is required to be mulched after the final impregnation of the soil with moisture. For this, humus, straw or compost is used. If none of the above is found, then it is acceptable to use simple ground. Planting a seedling must necessarily be completed by tying to the support.
Mulching apple after planting
On a note! To protect young trees from pests need to treat the stems with lime. This event takes place in the spring after disembarkation. At the same time, the bases of the branches are also whitened.
Other plants can be planted under apple trees. It is best to produce sodding around the trunk. Thanks to such a step, water and oxygen will penetrate better into the earth. It is permissible to form a beautiful lawn that will improve the look of the plot. Many ornamental plants grow well around the apple tree. It may turn out a good flower garden.
Flower bed under the canopy of apple trees
If during the planting of apple seedlings to take into account all the necessary nuances, such as the choice of the variety, the seedling, the right place, the right distance between the trees, then after a few years the plant will start to yield. Until this time, it is necessary to support the apple tree so that its proper formation does not stop. It is necessary to fertilize in time, water the tree, help the development of its crown, and also protect against diseases and harmful insects. If you miss any of these moments, then all previous works on planting and care will be lost. Vigilant care for the apple orchard will provide a good harvest for many years.
Apple "Melba": description of the variety
Apple tree varieties "Melba" When describing it, attention is drawn to the quality of the fruit. They can be quite large, up to 150 g, have a rounded shape, extending to the base, and a nice glossy shade. A characteristic feature of these apples is some ribbing of their surface. The color of the fruit is light green, later - yellowish, with striped red "side" and white subcutaneous speckles. The flesh is juicy, snow-white. The taste of Melba apple is sweetish with pleasant sourness and distinct taste and smell of sweets, which allows them to be an excellent raw material for jams, jams and various compotes.
Melba apples are very rich in ascorbic acid, which is a powerful immunostimulant, especially necessary for the prevention of respiratory diseases. Also in the fruits of this apple there are pectin substances that stabilize the redox processes in the body. Apple "Melba" has an average tree height. Kolonovidnoe in the first years of life, in the future, the tree expands and takes the form of a ball.Young bark cherry color in an adult tree - brown. The leaves are oval, slightly elongated and curved. The flowers are very beautiful, white and pink, in a bud - with a purple tinge, petals are overlapped.
Apple harvest begins to give, depending on climate and weather, from the second half of August to mid-September. For long-term savings, it is better to remove the apples unripe and store in the refrigerator or in the cellar.
Apple tree shows a rather high skoroplodnost. Good care allows you to start harvesting for 3-4 years after planting. While the apple tree is young, it gives up to 85 kg of crop annually; however, “periods of rest” begin to appear with age.
"Melba" is not distinguished by good winter resistance and can be damaged in extreme cold. Also, this apple variety is quite susceptible to scab.
Varieties and varieties based on "Melba"
There are more than 20 varieties of apples, bred with the participation of "Melby". Some of them surpass their “ancestor” both in scab and frost resistance, as well as in size and taste of fruits.
So, in the North-West of Russia are quite common. Red Melba and Daughter Melba.
Multistage selection, which was attended, except Melba, apple "Autumn joy", Saffron Pepin, Chinese Bellefleur and Purple Ranetka, allowed in 1958 to bring the famous cherished variety, featuring cold resistance and high immunity to disease and pests.
Melba American Breeders Bred Apple Tree Prima, thanks to the Vf gene is practically not prone to scab.
Caravel - This is a Canadian variety of apple, also owes its appearance to Melbe. It is winter-hardy, differs in more harmonious taste of fruits and their earlier ripening.
Finally, Early scarlet and Red scarlet - varieties bred by Russian breeders VNIIS im.IV.Michurina (in the creation of the first, except Melba, Papirov participated, the second - the variety Spring).
Apple "Melba": features of landing
Apple trees are long-lived trees. Normal life expectancy for them is 70-80 years.
Did you know?Legend says that an apple tree, planted in 1647, grows and even bears fruit in Manhattan.
However, in order for a tree to live for so long, you need to know how and where to plant it and how to care for it.
Apple "Melba", like other types of apple trees, can be planted either in the fall, after the foliage falls, or in the spring, before bud break. However, in both cases it is important not to be late.
It is believed that planting a tree in the fall is more preferable, since in this case the roots of the seedling, which are inevitably damaged by digging, have time to recover during the winter, and by spring the tree can already provide itself with nutrients.
However, if the temperature in the region in winter falls below –20 °, it is better to give preference to spring planting of an apple tree.
“How to plant Melba in spring?” - an important question. This should be done as soon as possible, while special attention should be paid to constant and abundant wateringas drying can slow down the growth of a seedling and increase its susceptibility to pests and diseases.
Choosing a landing site
Since the Melba apple tree is quite sensitive to severe frosts, consider the peculiarities of the climate in your region before dwelling on this variety.
When choosing a place for planting, keep in mind that there should be no ground water near the surface, otherwise in the spring they will wash up the roots of the seedling, the tree will start to rot and will die in speed. To avoid this danger, use natural hills for planting apple trees. If this is not possible, try to remove excess moisture using artificially dug channels.
What should be the soil for planting
The soil with a predominant content of clay and a significant amount of sand is best suited for this variety of apple trees, since it is sand that provides oxygen access to the root system. If the natural soil in the intended place for planting does not meet the specified requirement, it is necessary to pour sand, then peat crumb, followed by a layer of compost at the bottom of the hole dug for Melba apple seedlings. In this soil, the tree is less sick and gives a high yield.
Apple planting technology
In order for the crown of the apple tree to have enough space for growth and illumination, for normal flowering and ripening of fruits, the distance between the seedlings should be from 3 to 8 m.
The pit for planting is prepared in advance. It should be about a meter in diameter and 70-80 cm deep, depending on the root system of a particular seedling. At the bottom of the pit immediately laid cans and walnut shells. Excavated land is divided into two parts - the lower layer and the upper fertile.
Planting apple tree should be in 1-2 weeks. First, the lower layer of soil is poured into the pit, then - the upper one, fertilized with peat and humus. Do not forget to lightly trample down the pit when falling asleep.
If the seedling is very small, you can dig a stick or other support into the ground with it, to which you can later tie a tree to protect it from strong gusts of wind.
Immediately after planting, the tree should be poured abundantly with water.
Features of watering, feeding and care for the soil
For the health and good harvest of Melba's apple trees, she needs to ensure adherence to planting and proper care.
As early as next spring, after planting, it is necessary twice - after the buds swell and just before the blooming of the buds - to spray the tree with preparations that help protect the plant from insects.
Feed a properly planted apple tree to start with 3 years. It is best to use organic fertilizers - manure or humus. Ash, white leaves and dried grass are also well suited for top dressing, which are placed directly on the ground around the tree trunk.
In the fall and spring, it is imperative to dig the ground near the apple tree to ensure the access of oxygen and fertilizers to its roots. Whitewashing an apple tree in the middle of autumn will protect it from pests and various diseases. You need to water the apple tree regularly and very abundantly, especially in the first summer after planting.
How to cut an apple tree correctly, the formation of a crown
It is very important to form the crown of a tree by proper pruning, this is the key to a high yield.
Important!It is necessary to prune both old and young trees!
In early spring, the apple tree should be carefully inspected, remove the old branches and slightly shorten all the rest. It stimulates the growth of the tree. The best fruits are borne by young branches, so do not be afraid to cut too much. Too thick greens and overloading the tree with unnecessary fruits is the enemy of the harvest!
In the absence of the young seedlings side shoots should be cut at a height of one meter from the ground. Side shoots are cut at a height of 0.5 m. Be sure to remove the branches that can not withstand the severity of apples - all that grows at an acute angle from the trunk. In subsequent years, the principle of pruning is observed the same: you need to form the skeleton of a tree, leaving the strongest shoots so that they form the widest possible angle with the trunk. The lower branches can be cut, leaving about 30 cm, the top - even stronger. The main trunk should be 15-20 cm higher than the lateral shoots. After the apple tree reaches 5 years of age, the intensity of pruning should be reduced, otherwise the tree can greatly slow down growth.
Important!A good harvest can bring only a tree that has a well-groomed and compact crown, in which all branches are provided with enough space and light!
Apple "Melba": the pros and cons of the variety
The apple tree of this variety has a good reputation among modern gardeners. Among its advantages are the early term of ripening and high yield. Apples of this variety, in addition to excellent taste and high content of vitamins and trace elements in them, have an excellent presentation, adequately tolerate transportation and are well preserved.Among the shortcomings of this variety should be allocated low tolerance of frost and a tendency to infection with scab. In addition, the Melba apple tree is poorly adapted to self-pollination, and also tends not to bear fruit every year, all of this refers to the minus varieties.
How to prepare an apple tree for winter
The low frost resistance of the Melba apple tree dictates special requirements for preparing the tree for winter. By wrapping the trunk of an apple tree with agrofibre, burlap or some other cloth, you can help the apple tree survive the cold and protect it from mice and rabbits. It is necessary to avoid using for this purpose a fabric of dark colors, otherwise at times of thaw the bark of the apple tree may subside.
When a large amount of snow falls, it can be podgresti to the trunk of an apple tree in the form of a snowdrift, which, on the one hand, warms the tree, on the other - guarantees natural watering in spring.
In the case of a thaw, the melted snow may form an ice crust around the apple tree, which in no case should be allowed, otherwise the tree may die due to lack of oxygen in the root system. Apple "Melba" - a great variety for growing in the garden. With good care, it will provide you with a bountiful harvest for many years.
Description and characteristics of apple varieties Melba
Apple Melba - sweet variety, but whimsical to growing conditions
The variety was bred at the end of the nineteenth century by Canadian breeders in Ottawa. В 1898 году культура была получена путём свободного опыления семян яблони Макинтош. Название сорта произошло от имени австралийской оперной певицы Нелли Мельба, которая в те времена пользовалась всемирной популярностью.
Яблоня относится к среднерослым сортам, высота дерева не превышает 3 м. На карликовом подвое культура достигает 2 м. The one-year sapling is straight. Further, as the plant develops, the crown grows to the sides, and when the tree reaches adulthood, it becomes sprawling. The bark has a brown-orange color. The thickness of the shoots is average. The leaves are slightly elongated, can get a convex shape. The flowers are large. Buds rounded, white and pink color with a purple tinge.
The fruits have a relatively large size - their weight varies from 120 to 150 g, some apples reach 200 g. The shape of the fruit is round or round-conical. They are covered with a dense and smooth skin on which there is white scurf. The color of the fruit to ripen green. Ripe apples have a light yellow color. Half of their surface is taken by a red blush. On fruit, you can see white subcutaneous points of medium size. The funnel is deep, not very wide. Small stem. Seeds are large, oblong in shape and brown in color.
The flesh is juicy, white, with a sweet-sour taste and caramel flavor. Fruits contain:
- 10.5% sucrose,
- 0.78% titrated acids,
- 13.4 mg / 100 g ascorbic acid,
- 297 mg / 100 g P-active substances
- 10.1% pectin.
Melba itself does not tolerate frosts, but on the basis of this culture, more than 20 varieties were bred. Among them are the Cherished, Early Aloe, Red Scarlet, Caravel, Prima. Varieties of the Melba Red variety and Melby's daughter have high winter hardiness and are suitable for growing in the Urals.
Advantages and disadvantages
Melba has the following advantages:
- abundant yield,
- high quality and portability,
- good product quality of the fruit.
The variety has disadvantages. These include:
- sensitivity to low temperatures
- poor resistance to scab,
- cyclic fruiting after the age of twelve,
Proper tree planting
Melba's planting follows a pattern typical of fruit trees.
Since Malba belongs to the samobzplednyh varieties, next to it you need to plant pollinators. For this purpose, suitable varieties such as Suslepskoe and Borovinka. The most suitable time for planting is from mid-September to the first decade of October. It is necessary to have time before the onset of frosts. Between landing and lowering the temperature should take at least 35 days.
Melba needs loamy soil, it is not recommended to choose a site on clay and clay soils. The earth should be slightly alkaline or with a neutral level of acidity. If the chosen place does not meet this requirement, dolomite flour is applied to the soil at digging at the rate of 500 g per 1 m2.
Important! When choosing a place, remember that Melba is sensitive to winds and lack of sunlight.
Nuances to consider:
1. When planting several trees, they must be placed at a distance of 7 m from each other.
2. Rows must be 3 m apart from each other.
3. Dig a hole 2 weeks before planting. The top layer of soil 30 cm thick is mixed with a similar amount of peat and humus, 5–6 cups of ash, 400 g of double superphosphate and 200 g of potassium sulfate.
Important! Nitrogen fertilizers are not applied, as this will prevent the tree from preparing for winter.
4. The depth of the pit should be 80 cm, width - 1 m. At the bottom it is advisable to fill the drainage layer with a layer of 15–20 cm: rubble, pebbles, nutshell, shards or brick chips. In case of close location of groundwater, this will help prevent root rot.
For planting selected seedling age of 1-2 years. It should be 40–80 cm long, developed root system and 2–3 lateral shoots. Ensure that there are no cracks and tubercles on the cortex. It should be supple and smooth, with a uniform color. 2 days before the procedure, place the seedling roots in water at room temperature. Before planting, also remove all leaves with scissors.
Important! Dip the roots in the clay mash. It is prepared from clay and cow dung, which are mixed in equal proportions, and then water is added to form a creamy consistency.
- Pour prepared earthen mixture into the pit, form a mound 20 cm high.
- Depart from it 10–15 cm and place a stake in the recess, which will serve as a support. It should rise 70 cm above the edge of the pit.
- Put a sapling on a hill, spread the roots and cover the hole with earth.
- Ram the ground. Place the root collar 6–7 cm above ground level.
- Retreat 50 cm from the trunk and around the tree make an earthen ramp up to 10 cm high.
- Sapling tie to the support.
- Water the apple tree with two buckets of water.
- Zamulchuyte pristvolny circle with peat or grass in a layer of 10 cm.
Watering is best done right under the trunk of an apple tree.
The frequency and abundance of watering depend on the season and age of the tree. During the spring period, the plant is moistened 4 times. The procedure is carried out twice with the development of shoots, then during the formation of the fruit.
Then the culture is watered once in June, mid-July, August and September. Before fruiting, wood requires 30–40 liters of water. The rate is indicated for one watering. When the apple tree begins to yield, the volume of liquid increases to 70 liters. Along the crown circumference, at a distance of 50–100 cm from the trunk, a roller is formed from the soil, then water is poured into the formed circle. After the procedure, the ground level.
Fertilize the tree begin in the second year. Before that, the apple tree lacks top dressing, which was introduced during planting. The process has the following features:
- In the first decade of May, Melbu is watered with a solution based on urea (500 g per 10 liters of water).
- A month later, the procedure is repeated.
- In late July, the apple tree is fed with a mixture of water and cow manure (1: 8) or chicken droppings (1:12). You can use the infusion of nettle. The stems and leaves of the plant are crushed, placed in a container, filled with water at a ratio of 1: 2, covered with a lid and left in the sun for 3-4 days. After which the infusion is filtered and used as a fertilizer.
- In September, in the process of digging, 700 g of dolomite flour, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate are introduced into the soil.
The general scheme of forming apple
Next spring, after planting, they begin pruning the apple tree. This process has the following features:
- Initially, the procedure is performed before the start of sap flow (in March). The central shoot is shortened by 1/3. Lateral branches are cut at the level of 2-3 buds.
- In the fall (October) eliminate dry, broken and diseased shoots.
- Over the next three years form the crown. The main conductor is also cut to one third the length. On the branches that form the skeleton of a tree, leave shoots growing at an angle of 45 °. The rest is cut to the first kidney.
- From the fourth year pruning is sanitary in nature. Dead and diseased shoots are subject to removal. As well as branches that grow down and inside the crown. Places cuts treated garden pitch. To make it, mix rosin, beeswax and fat in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. Put the ingredients in the pan, put on the fire. When the mass acquires a uniform consistency, remove the heat from the stove and cool.
Important! The first 2-3 years, all the buds on the apple should be cut off, this will contribute to increasing yields in the future.