Hyacinth is a beautiful, graceful flower, which blooms in early spring, when the first rays of the sun warm the earth after hibernation.
Elegant and delicate, hyacinths amaze with an abundance and variety of color shades, ranging from pale (yellow, pink, white) to dark purple and even black plants.
- Planting hyacinths
- Growing hyacinths
- Care after flowering and storage of bulbs
- Diseases and pests
This is a universal flower that can live at home, and also feels great on the open garden plots.
People call a hyacinth a flower of rain. The plant belongs to the lily family and is 30 species. Their homeland is the Mediterranean and South Asia.
A plant appeared in Europe at the beginning of the 6th century and immediately won recognition of the elite strata of society due to its wonderful aroma and rich blue color.
In the next century, hyacinths were already grown on a large scale, and from the XVIII century there were already more than 2 thousand varieties (simple, fragrant, terry, etc.).
Today, the main suppliers of plant bulbs are the Netherlands and the UK.
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Bulbs are commonly used for planting hyacinths, although seed reproduction is also possible.
It is best to select medium-sized bulbs (large recommended for forcing), elastic and dense, not affected by diseases or pests.
Planting should begin in October: if planted earlier, under the condition of warm weather, the bulbs will begin to germinate and die at the first frost.
But it’s also pointless to delay the planting too: they will take root badly and bloom later.
The plot should be open and sunny. You should not plant the plant close to the trees and large shrubs: their roots will interfere with hyacinth, taking a large part of the nutrients from the soil. The place can be even or slightly sloping: so the moisture will drain and not stagnate.
The soil must be prepared in advance: add mineral fertilizers and humus to it, the notes are by no means fresh manure.
Before planting hyacinth bulbs, it is recommended to protect against diseases and pests by holding them for 10-15 minutes in the following solution:
- 0.2% suspension topsina-m,
- 0.1% solution of decis,
- 0.1% aktar (1 tablet per 10 liters of water).
For the disinfection of bulbs, you can use another, more well-known tool: a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
After that, the bulbs immediately land in shallow holes (10-20 cm) at a distance of 10-15 cm.
Leave about 20 cm between rows. Pour the bottom of the hole with clean river sand (5 cm) and press a bulb into it.
Then lightly sprinkle with sand on top, and then cover with soil. So the bulb will be more reliably protected from rotting and various infections.
Before the onset of cold weather and frost landing, it is better to cover with sawdust, dry peat, humus or lapnik. Do not forget to carefully open them with the first rays of the spring sun, as the hyacinth sprouts appear quite early.
The first is better to plant later varieties, although the difference between the flowering of early, middle and late varieties is only a week.
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Hyacinths require careful care: only then they will delight you with lush flowering. The soil around the plantings should be clean, loosened, in the dry season should be moistened to a depth of 15-20 cm.
During the vegetative period it is recommended to feed the soil three times. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to screen the plants (2-3 times), cutting off diseased peduncles with a sharp knife or cutting off flowers at the end of flowering.
Fertilizers are applied in dry or dissolved form, pre-moisten the soil well. The first top dressing is made at the beginning of flower growth (a solution of 20-25 g of saltpeter and 15-20 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M plot).
The second - during the formation of buds (30-35 g of superphosphate plus 15-20 g of potassium sulphate). The third dressing is carried out at the very end of flowering (30-35 g of superphosphate plus the same amount of potassium sulphate).
Care after flowering and storage of bulbs
Bulbs of European manufacturers better not to leave for wintering in the ground. In our conditions, they can successfully overwinter, but they will bloom worse every year, and then they will generally die.
Experts recommend digging them immediately when the leaves turn yellow. The end of June is considered the best time to start preparing hyacinths for the winter.
Digging will also allow inspection of each bulb, calibration and subsequent processing in order to prevent protection against various pests and diseases.
Bulb storage is an important condition for the successful cultivation of hyacinths. It is at this time that a new life is born in the bulb: the process of formation of inflorescences begins.
It is important to observe all stages of storage of future flowers:
- dug onions need to be ventilated and dried in a darkened room at a temperature of 20ºC (5-7 days),
- then they should be cleared from the ground, calibrated and separated children,
- The selected bulbs are folded in a box in two layers. If the bulbs are small, you can store in a paper signed package.
Further storage of the bulbs is divided into 2 stages:
- about 2 months you need to store them indoors at elevated temperatures (25-26º),
- last month the temperature drops to 17º.
It is necessary to maintain the humidity in the room and air it regularly. Low humidity can cause the bulbs to dry out.
The entire storage period takes approximately 95 days. Another important nuance: before planting, you need to hold the bulbs in a cool room so that they get used to the low temperature.
As a rule, root processes are formed around the bulb, therefore, it is necessary to plant very carefully, without damaging them. If there are no processes, it is necessary to cause their formation by wiping the base of the bulb with a clean and dry cloth.
Hyacinth multiplies mainly by children, i.e. small onions.
It is also possible with seeds, but this method is almost not practiced in gardening. Each adult bulbs annually forms up to 4 children.
They are carefully separated from the mother in the summer and planted in the ground in late August. After 2-3 years, the bulbs mature and begin to bloom.
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Diseases and pests
Improper care leads to the fact that the plant begins to hurt. For example, too abundant watering, insufficient lighting and drafts cause early yellowing of the leaves.
When watering, do not pour water on the unopened bud: it will get sick and will not open. Reducing shelf life can slow down plant growth.
Sometimes gardeners are faced with the fact that the plant does not bloom. This may be due to mistakes made during the care. For example:
- landed very small bulbs,
- kept the bulbs at a very high temperature,
- brought to the bright sun too early.
Hyacinth is most often affected by yellow bacterial rot, which turns the bulbs into mucus and has a sharp, unpleasant odor.
Such bulbs should be destroyed, and the hole is etched with 5% formalin solution or bleach.
After that, the plant can be planted in this place only after a few years.
To hyacinths pleased you with lush and stormy blooms observe all stages of planting, storage and growing plants.
In this case, your flower bed will turn into a colorful, fragrant carpet that will leave an unforgettable impression for a whole year.
About varieties and hybrids hybrids
As a rule, Dutch hyacinth hybrids with simple and double flowers are sold in stores. In color, they are diverse: blue, blue, lilac, pink, red, white, yellow and orange.
To choose the right varieties for group planting, you need to know that not all hyacinths are the same in height and flowering time. Yellow and orange plant with blue and blue together is not worth it. They bloom at different times. Blue and blue - bloom before anyone else, then white and pink, red, purple. A yellow, orange and burgundy variety Woodstock bloom the most recent, when almost all have faded.
I like it when the hyacinths are planted with bright squares. Therefore, I buy at least 4 bulbs of each variety, ideally 6 pieces.
❀ There is a definite relationship between the color of the flowers and the color of the bulbs. In varieties with blue, blue and purple flowers, the bulbs are usually with purple outer scales. Belotsvetkovyh hyacinth bulbs with light gray scales, in red - with dark cherry. Plants with yellow flowers have grayish-cream bulbs, and with pink - lilac. But there are exceptions, for example, the Orange Bowen variety has salmon-apricot flowers, and brownish-purple scales.
When buying bulbs, be careful: they must be dense, without damage. Take the largest, to which the integumentary scales fit tightly, without sprouts. The bottom of the bulb should be free of soft spots and dents, with root buds.
When to plant hyacinths
Hyacinths are planted earlier than tulips, a month before frosts, at an air temperature not lower than + 8-9 ° C, so that they manage to take root properly and safely overwinter. Not rooted and poorly rooted onions can not survive the winter
Early planting is also undesirable: if there is a warm autumn, hyacinths can start growing, and this will have a bad effect on their development.
Bulbs are planted to a depth equal to three times the height of the bulb, at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other.
When planting bulbs under the bottom of the bottom must pour sand, you can mix it with ash. I additionally sprinkle the bulbs with a mixture of sand and ash on top. Planting material gently put on a sand pillow and covered with a layer of earth.
Plant bulbs preferably in dry, clear weather so that they do not rot. After 2-3 weeks, when the hyacinths take root, you can feed them with liquid complex mineral fertilizer. With the onset of frost planting spud, cover with fallen leaves or snow.
Shelter hyacinths removed immediately after the snow. Most plants at this time are usually with sprouts. Weeds near the plants should not be, the soil must necessarily loosen.
During flowering hyacinths are demanding of moisture. If the weather is dry, then watering should not be superficial, but rather plentiful. This means that the earth lump should be soaked to a depth of 15-20 cm. It is better to water in the evening with water heated in the sun. It is important to continue watering and after flowering - before the yellowing of the leaves.
When and how to feed hyacinths
Proper feeding is also very important. Hyacinths continue to grow for about 1.5 months after flowering, restoring strength and nourishing the bulb. During the growing season, they must be fed three times with liquid fertilizers. Day pick overcast so that the leaves do not get sunburn.
First dressing should be carried out when the plants reach a height of 5-6 cm. It is necessary to dissolve 15 g of nitrogen fertilizer (for example, urea) in 10 liters of water. This feeding is very important. If the hyacinth in this period does not receive enough power, then the growth of the aerial part will begin to spend stocks from the bulb. At the same time, the bulb itself will be very depleted and will not have time to recover in the future. So, it will greatly decrease in size and become loose.
Second feeding carried out during budding. You can use either full complex mineral fertilizer, or organic: infusion of fermented grass or bird droppings.
The third time need to feed the plants after flowering. This supplement must contain potassium. This element contributes to the accumulation of starch in the bulbs and the formation of flower buds next year. I use potassium monophosphate, it dissolves well in water. Also, along with this fertilizer you can make wood ash.
Kids - to grow
To hyacinths bloomed well the next year, I do not cut off the flowered flower stalks, but simply tear off all the flowers on them. Fading, peduncle give the bulb the entire supply of nutrients.
Little baby bulbs do not give blossom. After the first flower is blooming, I mark the variety and cut off all the buds. So the bulb does not spend forces on flowering and grows very quickly.
Digging and storage of hyacinths
Mandatory conditions for growing hyacinths - annual digging and heating of the bulbs. To book the inflorescences they need a certain temperature regime.
Dig out the plants after the end of the growing season, when the leaves begin to turn yellow and dry, but are not yet separated from the bulb. Dug out planting material is dried for 2-3 days in the shade in the open air. The leaves are not immediately cut, give them to dry completely. Then the bulbs are cleaned of soil and roots, remnants of leaves and stalks, discarded Ash and damaged. I sign each bulb with a waterproof marker according to the variety.
Before putting the bulbs in storage, I treat with Maxim, but you can use others. Once again I finally dry them.
After the bulbs are processed and the variety on each of them is indicated, it is not terrible to put them in one box. I keep all summer in a very warm, but ventilated place. The temperature should be about + 28-30 ° C, preferably constant. Otherwise the bulbs will not warm up properly and the flower arrow will be weak and sparse.
Before landing, I bring them home for a month - for easy cooling. My hyacinths after such storage bloom better than purchased, and sometimes even better.
The appearance of the roots - a signal that the plants are ready for planting.
Hyacinth breeding methods
Hyacinths mainly propagate vegetatively, that is, daughter bulbs, which are formed on adult maternal bulbs. But the breeding rate of different varieties is different, and not all of them give offspring well and equally quickly.
After summer storage, before planting, well-formed children are usually visible in adult bulbs. For the season they appear a little - one or three. Small bulbs rarely form a baby.
In order to quickly get a good planting material, hyacinths are often propagated artificially. There are several ways: cruciform and annular cuts on the bottom, complete removal of the bottom and central kidney, getting the kids out of the scales.
For reproduction by the method of cruciate incisions on the bottom, young (but not less than 2 cm in diameter) completely healthy, dense and not damaged by pests are used as maternal bulbs. They are selected almost immediately after digging and drying.
Before making cuts on the bottom of the bulbs, they should be kept for 15 minutes in a raspberry solution of manganese-acid potassium and dried (about 6 hours). On the bottom of the bulbs make 4-8 cross-cuts, but not too deep, partially removing strips of the bottom. Need to use a sharp knife or scalpel. After the procedure, the bulbs are again treated in a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate and dried for 10 minutes. Planted them in clean sand or light soil mixture, do not water. After the scars appear on the cuts, slightly moisturize. Usually, after 1.5-2 months, small babies are formed at the incision sites due to the awakening of the sleeping axillary buds of the bulb. Babe grows over 3 years. During this time, it reaches a mass of 50-60 g and blooms. Hyacinths grown from such a child, bloom better than adult bulbs of the same variety.
The next way is cutting out the bottom. The roots, the bottom, the beginnings of the children and the central bud are completely removed from the bulbs. Leave only one stockpiling scales. It is necessary to cut the bottom very carefully, so as not to damage the accumulating scales, but at the same time remove all the bottom. Sections are treated with ashes or activated carbon powder and dried. If everything is done correctly, then a thickening (callus) will form at the place of slices on the scales. Kids will be born from this new fabric.
After the slices on the bulbs dry well, they are placed in vermiculite or light soil, slightly moistened and left in a mini-greenhouse or special chamber, where the temperature will be maintained at about + 30 ° C and humidity around 85%. In this state, the bulbs contain 2.5-3 months. During this time, an adult onion grows at the base with children from 5 to 10 mm in size with root buds, and some already have small sprouts.
The incubation period is stopped and in August the bulbs are transferred to the garden, but children are not removed from the uterine bulb. Высаживают гиацинты на место с хорошим дренажом с добавлением песка. Луковицу с детками сильно не заглубляют, но обязательно на зиму мульчируют слоем 10-15 см. Если нет возможности высадить растения в сад, то можно посадить луковицы в ящики и оставить на зиму в подвале, где держится постоянная температура около +6°С.
Spring care for uterine bulbs and babies does not differ from the care of adult plants. Hyacinth nests should be stored after digging at a temperature of + 25-30 ° C, but make sure that the children are not occupied and not dried up. It is better to separate the baby from the adult bulb immediately before planting in the ground - canopy.
In the second year, the baby is planted separately and left without digging for another year. Some bloom in a year.
Hyacinths grown from babies in this way, already in the 5th year, exceed by decorativeness those that grew from adult bulbs. Their inflorescences are usually higher, and the flowers in the inflorescence are much larger.
In this way, you can get from 20 to 50 small bulbs, which will be smaller in size than the children who received cross-shaped cuts on the bottom, but in terms of flowering quality, they will be much better than them. True, this breeding method is not suitable for beginners, as there is a chance of losing the bulb.
For breeding with paired scales, a large onion is taken, cut perpendicularly into 4 pieces. If the bulb is very large, then each part is still divided in half so that each segment has a part of the stem. The resulting segments are divided into paired scales, so that again part of the Donets remains at the base. The resulting material is treated in a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate or in a solution of the drug Maxim for 30 minutes or simply rolled in wood ash. Within an hour after the treatment, they are dried so that the plates of the segments become dry. Then placed in plastic bags with a dry substrate (peat, vermiculite, perlite). Pack tightly knotted, shaken, so that the segments are evenly spaced.
You can take a transparent bag and keep it in diffused light for 1.5 months at a temperature of + 20-25 ° С. I use dark packages. After 2-3 months, 1-3 small bulbs appear at the base of each segment. These scales with babies are planted in boxes with light soil with the addition of sand, moisturize. From above, the ground can be covered with peat moss to maintain constant humidity or cover planting with a film, but then it will be necessary to ventilate. Children grow about 3 years before flowering. Fully hyacinths will bloom at the age of 4-5 years.
Ways to grow in the suburbs
In central Russia, hyacinths are grown in gardens, using bulbs for forcing leaves and flowers in greenhouses and at home. The difficulty of growing in the middle lane - poor winter hardiness. For breeding the following methods are used:
- With the help of seeds (thus the flowers are bred by breeders to bring new varieties).
- The main method of reproduction - the bulbs.
Bulbs for planting need to select strong, so that there is no damage, medium size. Bulbs of the big size perfectly will be suitable for a winter forcing. It is necessary to examine them well for signs of disease.
The bulbs are planted in September - October. The place should be open so that it is well lit by the sun. It is better that the site was protected from strong winds. Close to trees and bushes can not be planted. They shade the plot and their roots take a lot of nutrients out of the ground. Hyacinths should be planted in such a place that there is a flat surface or with a slight slant. In this case, water stagnation will not occur.
When digging the ground under the hyacinths can not make fresh manure. The rotten can be used. It is also good to add compost. You can make a dry method full mineral fertilizer into the soil.
It is necessary that the earth be loose, weakly alkaline or neutral. Soils are dense and acidic unsuitable for hyacinths. To grow flowers in acidic lands, it is necessary to correct the situation by introducing sand with lime.
Before planting, it is recommended to soak the bulbs for half an hour in potassium permanganate (pale solution), in order to disinfect. Processed planting material should be planted, keeping the distance between plants of 10 to 15 cm. Depth of planting pits 10 to 20 cm. A distance of 20 cm is recommended. You should pour a layer of river sand approximately 5 cm thick into the pits. Put bulbs into it. Sprinkle sand over the top and then fill the hole with soil. Before the cold starts, it is necessary to warm the bed with any available materials (lapnik, dry peat, sawdust, humus).
When hyacinths bloom
These are early spring flowers that delight gardeners in the same period when tulips are in bloom. Different varieties with different flowering periods have been developed:
- In the middle of April to the middle of May days, early hyacinth varieties bloom and smell sweet. Most often they have flowers of blue color.
- A little later bloom varieties of medium flowering period. Their coloring is more diverse (lilac, pink, red, white).
- The latest flowering time in hyacinths of orange and yellow colors.
The ancient legend of a beautiful and handsome young man Hyacinth, who was in friendship with a god named Apollo, has reached our days. Apollo accidentally killed Hyacinth during a sporting event related to throwing discs. At the place where the drops of his blood were soaked into the ground, flowers grew. They began to call the name of the young man.
It is possible to do a distillation in greenhouses or at home and get flowering plants in January. Before forcing the bulbs should be stored at a low temperature (not higher than 9 degrees) for several months. 10 - 12 weeks, medium and early varieties should be cooled, 14 - 16 weeks should be kept in a cold place late varieties. After planting, they begin to bloom in about a month. When kept warm, hyacinths will bloom only by March.
How to plant flowers and care for them
The life of the bulb is several years. After flowering dried buds must be removed. The bulb can be fed and watered until the leaves themselves wither. This will happen in the month of June. Then the bulbs are dug. Large "kids" can be separated, and very small leave. Half a month they should lie somewhere, better at high humidity and air temperature of about 30 degrees. Further, it is necessary to reduce and bring gradually to 17 degrees. At this temperature, it is recommended to store the bulbs until the autumn planting in the soil.
Hyacinth requires frequent loosening of the soil in the garden. Careful weed control is needed.
Water at the root should not stagnate, but it is better that the earth does not dry out. Especially it is necessary to monitor the humidity in dry and hot weather. The earth should be saturated with water about 20 cm deep.
For the entire period of active growth and flowering 2 times the plant should be fed. Suitable both liquid and dry dressings. When applied to the soil, fertilizers are scattered over the surface of the earth and buried with a chopper. If dissolved fertilizer is used, watering should be done first and then fertilizing.
It is good to feed with superphosphate and saltpeter of the plant when they first started producing sprouts, about 20 g of each fertilizer per square meter. The following feeding is necessary at the time of the appearance of buds (15 g of potassium sulphate and superphosphate 30 g). The last time hyacinths need to feed, when they finish to bloom. Fertilizer used the same as in the second feeding.
How to care for hyacinth
After the protective cover is removed, the care of the plants will consist in weeding, regular watering, loosening of the soil, making supplements. It should be borne in mind that hyacinths are poorly related to the neighborhood of weeds. When the buds start to tie and the flowering time comes, fertilizing the soil becomes especially relevant. After sprouting sprouts, flowers can be fed with saltpeter (25-30 g per 1 m²).
The second stage of fertilizer follows the period when the buds are picking up color. Now, in addition to ammonium nitrate, you can add potassium chloride (25 g) and a phosphorus additive (for example, superphosphate, 35 g). At the end of flowering, superphosphate and potassium chloride are added to the plot - 35 g of each product per 1 m² of area. Fertilizers are cultivated between the rows or between the flowers; after adding fertilizing, watering is always necessary.
Hyacinths - how to care after flowering? Unfortunately, this beautiful period is swift, after drying the flowers should continue to saturate the roots with moisture. In order for the tubers to recover well after flowering, watering and fertilizer should come first. If you live in a “cold” region, you cannot leave hyacinths for the winter, you have to dig them up - these are necessary measures for further favorable formation of kidney replacement.
If you live in the Kuban, in the Crimea, in the north of the Caucasus, then the annual excavation of tubers can be avoided, but only on the condition of a very hot summer. It should be borne in mind that the bulbs left in the ground for the next year will produce much fewer flowers.
From my experience I can share this observation: I accidentally dug up several bulbs of hyacinths, forgetting that they grew from me in this place. I did not begin to drift, because I urgently needed to plant a rose seedling. And forgot about them, leaving to lie on the porch. Stumbled upon them only in the fall. Planted. And in the spring I was surprised by large flower stalks, abundantly dotted with flowers, which crawled out of the ground at this very place. Other hyacinths also bloomed, but their flowering was much more modest, about the same as in the photo below.Hyacinths have not been transplanted for a long time (photo by Anna Nepetrovskaya, Novokubansk, Krasnodar Territory) ↑ to content
When digging hyacinths after flowering
The best period is the last weeks of June - the first half of July, when the leaves of the plant become yellow and weak. The ground part of the flower is removed, the tubers are removed from the soil, washed with water and thoroughly dried. Next, we conduct an audit - we discard damaged (or with obvious signs of illness). If there are undeveloped children on the bulb, they are separated and set aside for growing. Before storage, all tubers must be treated for diseases and pests.
Planting material, photo:
After all manipulations, the bulbs should be dried for about 7-10 days in a well-ventilated place at an air temperature of +17 .. + 20 ° C. To do this, they need to be expanded on clean paper, and at the expiration of the specified time, hide in paper bags. It is the period after flowering, as well as the processing and storage of tubers - the most important for hyacinths. At this time, the planting material acclimatizes, the scales dry up, the tubers are prepared for the summer period.
With a sufficiently high summer temperature to the bulbs should provide access to air and moderate humidity (if the thermometer reaches + 30 ° C). About three weeks before planting, the temperature in the room with the bulbs should be lowered to +16 ° C - this will help them adapt before planting.
Cutting Hyacinth Tuber
Even when landing on the site is determined by the place where the largest bulbs are planted. After the leaves turn yellow in the plant, the tuber is removed from the ground and immediately, without letting it dry out, they arrange a “shower” under strong pressure of water. During this process, old scales are removed along with the soil. Then the bulbs are laid out in one layer in a ventilated box, put into a shaded place, dried for about 7-10 days. After this time, using a sharp knife on the bottom, a wedge-shaped cut is made, at which the kidney and the bottom itself are completely removed. The cut must be processed with crushed activated carbon.
After this operation, the tubers spread in a container, the bottom of which is carpeted with a layer of perlite. Bulbs should be laid cut bottom up. Next, the container is placed in a large plastic bag (garbage bags can be used) to create the required microclimate. At a temperature of + 30 ° C and high humidity, children will appear at the cut-off site, and after 2-3 months they will reach about 1 cm, acquire rudiments of roots and start small processes. If the cutting of the ground leaves was done in the first months of summer, then the tuber with the children can be planted in the soil and covered with sawdust (or peat).
If time is missed, the tubers are turned upside down, placed in a container with soil, placed in a cold (refrigerator, basement), and when spring comes, they are planted on the site.
After the hyacinths have faded, what to do next? With the onset of August, these tubers are dug up (by the time they are already covered with babies), they separate the babies. By the beginning of September, the young generation of hyacinths is buried in the soil, covered with 10 cm of a layer of mulch (sawdust, spruce, foliage, peat). At the end of the first wintering, the mulch layer is removed, but left in place after the second winter. In the third year, these hyacinths give color and delight you with a wonderful aroma.
Cutting Donets as a method of breeding hyacinth
In this procedure, the Donets is not removed, as in the first case, but is incised in a crisscross pattern. On large tubers, a pair of crosses is made, on those that are smaller, one. The damaged areas are treated with powdered activated carbon, then the bulbs are placed in a warm room for 24 hours (+ 20..22 ° C) so that the “crosses” will open. All further actions are similar to the above recommendations. With this method of stimulation of the tuber it is possible to get about 10-16 large young onions.
In order for these heralds of spring to please you with long flowering, pomp of brushes and amazing aroma, you need to make an effort. Now you know how to grow hyacinths, planting and care in the open field for which, although they are difficult, they undoubtedly are wasted time and effort.
The first flowers (photo Love White, Krasnodar)
What land is needed for hyacinth
Before you start planting, it is important to choose the right soil. The most suitable for the bulbous plant will be loose soil, which easily passes water. An ideal variant is obtained if such land is additionally enriched with mineral fertilizers. For this, both purchased packed product and ordinary humus, which is brought into the soil to a depth of 30 to 40 cm, are suitable. The only thing to be noticed in this case is that the soil for hyacinths should be prepared in advance with mineral fertilizers, ideally , a couple of months before landing.
Hyacinth loves the sun or shade?
It is possible to grow up an unpretentious plant both on sites opened for sunshine, and in slightly pritenenny places. It is not necessary to plant the bulbs under the bushes or close to the trees, the root system of the latter can drown out the growth of flowers. The most important thing is to protect bulb plants from drafts and constant gusts of wind. It is worth paying attention to the possibility of water stagnation at the landing site. Like any bulbous plants, hyacinth does not like excess moisture, constantly wet bulb can simply rot. Therefore, if in doubt, it is better to plant flowers on a small hill or on a slope, in which case the water will precisely seep below the planting level and abundant weather will not harm them.
When to plant hyacinths in the ground
Learning in advance how to plant a hyacinth in the ground, you can avoid the typical mistakes of novice gardeners. So, the main directions in landing:
- soil preparation begins 2 months before planting, that is, in the month of August, the land is fertilized with mineral substances, ponderous, loosening from time to time,
- planting time and how to plant hyacinths in the fall in open ground - in September - early October (before the soil freezes) start planting bulbs directly. If you start planting ahead of time, the bulb will grow and simply ... freeze. The period of flowering hyacinths in the open ground: April - March, they will not be able to slip through a snowdrift. So, having made a dimple in the ground (15 cm will be enough) with a garden spatula, you can start planting. The flowers themselves must keep a distance in the flowerbed between them at least 20 cm,
- care for the bulb. Here the most important thing to remember after landing is to ensure that the onions do not freeze over the winter. Sawdust, fallen leaves, dry peat and other mulching materials of both organic and inorganic origin will help to prevent this.
Attention! If the soil is not previously fertilized, it is recommended to sprinkle the bottom of the hole with sand mixed with peat or rotted compost.
Hyacinth care in the garden
When planting is completed, the bulbs can be forgotten before growth begins. It was when there was a young boring, and begin feeding and watering the plants. Ammonium nitrate and superphosphate are quite suitable for the first feeding. You can simply spill the substance in the indicated dose on the package, and then, loosening the ground with garden sap, pour the soil.
How to water hyacinths in the garden
After planting, the question may immediately arise: how often water the hyacinth? At home, everything is clear: it is enough just to ensure that the soil does not dry out and water the pot from time to time to the top with settled water at room temperature. In the garden, the process, frequency and temperature of water for irrigation regulate precipitation. Если дождя не намечается, остается лишь не допускать полного высушивания земли, особенно в период цветения, иначе луковица от недостатка влаги может просто сбросить соцветия и растение, которое могло радовать глаз еще длительное время, впадет в спячку до следующего года.
Когда растение уже полностью отцвело и в земле остается лишь луковичка, специально поливать ее не нужно вовсе, она должна пролежать в состоянии покоя до пересадки.
Если одно из растений решено перенести с дачного участка на любимый подоконник – выкопанную луковицу лучше предварительно поместить в стакан с водой. She certainly shouldn’t swim there, it’s worth picking up a glass by size, germinating a hyacinth goes the same way as a normal onion at home. When the green bore appeared, the flower can already be planted in a full pot with earth. Of course, it is better if it is specially selected purchase soil.
How to care for hyacinths in the garden
Do not forget about mineral fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium sulphate), which are best used at the beginning of the formation of hyacinth buds. This can be done either by scattering the substance (in a dry form), or during the irrigation process, diluted in water. Already in the flowering period, so-called micronutrients will be suitable for fertilizing, such as: boric acid and zinc sulfate, for example.
How to plant hyacinths in the spring in the garden
Despite the fact that the hyacinth is considered to be primrose, its charming flowering can be admired later. To do this, the bulbs in the open ground planted in the spring. If this season is chosen for planting, then before starting the process, it is recommended to place the flower bulbs for an hour in the refrigerator, or rather, the freezer. This method of planting growers called stratification. Thus, fraudulent conditions are created to imitate the “winter cold”. The main thing is to do everything with the mind, do not frost the bulb for too long, otherwise it will freeze, and you can not wait for flowering. When planting hyacinths in the open ground in the spring prompts common sense and weather forecasters with a meteorological forecast. The soil must be warmed by the sunny spring rays, and the threat of frost is also unacceptable.
Ammonium nitrate and potassium will serve as fertilizer for the soil during the spring planting period. Of course, they should be used on the ground after the snow has completely melted.
To make the roots of the plant breathe, it is recommended to loosen the garden tools from time to time after spring planting.
When the beauties of the hyacinth have faded, its bulb will again require attention and care. During this period, the soil will again need to be treated with superphosphate and potassium sulfate. The faded flower itself can be cut higher, allowing the plant to wither in a natural way. It is not recommended to leave the bulbs every year in the same place, the earth and the flower should rest from each other for 3 years. The fact is that the soil can accumulate pests and various pathogens, and the handsome bulbous is sensitive enough to them.
For the year, each onion planted gives 3-4 shoots, because to breed the beautiful spring primroses is not difficult! With proper care, the bulb will again and again delight with flowering and aroma.
How to choose a place for planting hyacinth
Hyacinth is a heat-loving plant that grows in countries with a warm climate. Hot summers and the absence of sub-zero temperatures are ideal conditions for growing a plant. Therefore, for planting hyacinth (its bulbs) should take care that the place was sunny, and was also closed from the cold gusts of wind.A feature of hyacinth is the lack of a dense skin of the bulb that protects it. Therefore, such plants do not tolerate high soil moisture. Consequently, the plot you have chosen should be ideally even, not have holes, depressions in which water can accumulate. The soil itself must be breathable. If underground waters are located close to the surface, then hyacinth bulbs should be planted using drainage, as well as a high bulk ridge.
Preparation of soil for planting
The question of how to properly care for hyacinth, worried about many experienced gardeners. You need to start with the preparation of the soil for planting. The best option for the plant will be planting it in sandy, light, slightly alkaline, neutral, rich in organic matter and nutrients in the ground. Heavy clay soil can be used only after a general improvement in its structure, which is achieved with the help of sand, as well as mineral and organic fertilizers.The main condition - the preparation of beds should be carried out in advance, namely - no later than a few weeks before planting. This will allow the soil to settle and thicken. The soil itself should be dug up to a depth of 40 cm. Compost, humus, potash salt and superphosphate are added to it.
In order to improve the physical properties of the soil, chalk, dolomite powder, lime and sand are added to them. After this, the beds can be covered with a black film in order to drown out the germination of weeds.
Terms and scheme of planting hyacinth
For hyacinths, outdoor planting and maintenance is quite simple. If you are in the middle lane, the hyacinth should be planted in the month of September, but in the south, the planting should be done in early October when the soil temperature drops to 10 ° C. If you plant the hyacinths early, they will not only take root, but also germinate, because of what they freeze in winter.
Late disembarkation is considered dangerous, since the bulbs cannot germinate and take root, which also leads to the suffering of the plant during the winter cold.Hyacinth can be planted according to a certain scheme: a larger bulb is planted at a distance of 25 cm from the shallow one, leaving about 10 cm. The hole in depth should reach 16 cm, since this is a triple height of the bulb, if you count from its bottom. You can plant in the fall - the main period when planted hyacinths.
Planting in the fall
Hyacinths should be planted in early autumn (approximately in October or September). Gardeners recommend not choosing too large bulbs for planting. It is better to take the middle (flower beds), which will be able to adapt their flower stalks for unstable weather. The bulbs should be sorted out, selected soft, diseased, damaged.
The depth to which the hyacinth bulb should be planted is 17 cm, if your bulbs reach 6 cm in diameter. The distance between the bulbs should be 15 cm, and between the holes - 20 cm. If the bulbs are smaller, they are planted at a shallower depth. The flower grows well in open soil. To do this, they create a so-called "sand vest" - a layer of river sand 4 cm thick is poured into the bottom of the furrow, the onion is slightly pressed into it and filled up again with sand and then with earth. This method will not allow water to stagnate in the ground and prevent bulbs from rotting. After you have planted the bulbs, the area should be carefully watered.
Top dressing and care of the soilHyacinth flower needs at least three dressings. They should be made in dry or dissolved form. If you choose the second method, then you do not need to take too much fertilizer, and the soil should be thoroughly moistened before adding top dressing. The first feeding is carried out at the very beginning of flower growth. In this case, experienced gardeners use a ready-made mixture, which consists of nitrate and superphosphate. The second fertilization occurs in the period of budding. The third is after the plant has stopped blooming. A mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate is used.
When you need to replace the hyacinths
In the first times hyacinth blooms very brightly and magnificently. But each bloom reduces the percentage of plant splendor. Therefore, in order to maintain a hyacinth in excellent condition after the flower has blossomed, it is necessary to engage in its mandatory transplant. Hyacinth is one of those plants that love to change their habitat. For the prevention of diseases during transplantation, the plant bulb can be treated with special chemicals.For a successful transplant, you need to wait until the end of the rest period (from two to three months), when the hyacinth is fully restored after flowering. During this period, the plant is additionally fertilized in order to strengthen it. Top dressing is made twice in three weeks. Take care not to overfeed the flower. Fertilizers during the transplanting period must be selected with a nitrogen content - this has a positive effect on the general condition of the plant.
After the dormant period has passed, the bulbs can be dug up. But this should be done after the leaves turn yellow. So it will be easier for you to understand how deeply the plant has sprouted. The yellow shoots are cut, the bulbs are picked, dried and deposited until the autumn period, when they begin to plant in the soil.
Plant the bulbs in a separate container with soil, as the hyacinth may need shade. You can build a special frame that will protect the plant from the sun's rays.
Digging hyacinth bulbs, care after flowering
Another crucial point is the proper storage of hyacinths after the plant has faded. If it is a late digging and improper care, the plant will subsequently grow poorly.
The period of cold weather is the period when digging up hyacinths is the time. Different stages require different temperatures, sequences. The storage process will take 95 days. Care of the hyacinth after it has been dug out should be carried out properly: the plant is dried, ventilated and stored in a dark room for seven days at a temperature of 20 ° C. Cleared, they are sorted by boxes. Boxes should be signed. Storage takes place in two stages:
- Hyacinth bulbs are stored at 25 ° C for at least two months,
- Before planting, the bulbs should be stored at 170 ° C. It is also necessary to follow the level of humidity.
The bulbs that have faded in the open ground need to be planted in pots and put in a cool place. It is only about adult bulbs. Children must be homegrown in the open ground for several years, so that they can reach the size of an adult bulb and begin to bloom.