First heifers should be taught to milk beforehand. Heifers should be prepared for milking about 3 months before calving. Initially, they are taught 5 days to massage the udder. They do it this way: they put one hand on the back of the animal, the other easily touch the udder, stroke each half of it from one side and from the other side with palm movements from bottom to top. Finish the massage light kneading nipples. The duration of such a massage is 2-3 minutes a day.
In the following days, massage is enhanced. Each half is massaged separately. Front lobes of 1.5 minutes, the rear - 1 minute each. Now the massage takes 5 minutes.
The structure of the udder of the cow
20-25 days before calving stop the massage.
After the calf was born, if the calving passed safely, after 40–60 minutes the cow should be milked and the calf drunk.
After calving, the udder of a cow for 5 days is swollen, tense. Therefore, it is necessary to give milk often - usually 4–5, or even 6 times a day. The more often pass, the faster the udder will return to normal. In these 3-5 days, the cow should be fed moderately: there is plenty of hay, and a bran talker - no more than 1 kg per day. Only on the 3-4th day, the amount of bran can be increased to 1.5-2 kg. By the 10th day, the animals are fed at the norm, according to live weight and milk yield.
The first 1-2 months of lactation are considered to be a period of kneading Therefore, during this period, cows need to add 0.5–1 kg of concentrates, and in winter also 6–8 kg of succulent feed to obtain an increase in milk yield.
It must be remembered that the first heifers continue to grow and develop until the third and fourth calves, so they are fed so that there is enough nutrients not only for the formation of milk, but also for further growth.
If a cow has been milked 4–5 times in the first days, then later it will be used for three or even double milking. It is necessary to switch to a three-time milking carefully, gradually changing the intervals between milkings, otherwise you can lose part of the milk yield. If during the transition from four to three times a milking the amount of milk decreased, then it is necessary to switch to a four-time milking again and try to change the milking time by shifting it by half an hour - an hour.
The milking time affects the fat content of milk: the most milk is in morning milking, and the fat content is the lowest. Milk is the most fat in lunchtime. Evening milk is fatter than morning milk, but not fatter than dinner.
When milking a cow in the first streams of milk, its fat content barely reaches 1%. In subsequent portions, the fat content increases, and in milk, obtained by donating, fat up to 10% or more.
• The fat content of milk depends primarily on the natural inclinations of the cow. In winter, milk is fatter than in summer. Fatty milk and by the end of lactation. Milk fat content is increased by some feeds: legumes, cake, meal, wheat bran, barley corn, oatmeal, fodder and semi-sugar beets, special feed.
• Reducing the rate of hay, especially its absence in the diet, dramatically reduces the fat content of milk. Adversely affects the fat content of milk feeding low-quality hay, from meadows, where acidified soil, from the marshes. Less fatty milk is obtained by feeding the cabbage leaf and sour feed.
Milking cows necessary at a strictly defined time. Disruption of the daily routine is often the reason for the decline in milk yields. With three times milking, the daily intervals between milkings should be at least 7 hours, and the night break should be no more than 10 hours. In this mode, cows are milked at 6, 13 and 20 hours. Cows with milk yield up to 3500 kg per lactation can be milked 2 times a day - at 6 and 18 hours. There is a fairly simple way to determine the possibility of switching to double milking - if a cow gives half of the daily milk yield (or 1 kg less) in the morning milking, it can be converted to double milking. It is better to teach a cow to double milking from the first calving.
• Before starting the milking, the stall is cleaned of manure, the tail of the cow is tied to the leg.
• Wash hands with elbows with soap and water, put on a clean robe (it is more convenient from dark fabric), tie a head with a kerchief or put on a cap.
• Wash the udder with warm water, this stimulates the milk reflex reflex. In addition, the number of germs in milk expired is reduced by about four times.
• Wipe the udder with a towel and simultaneously massage it, which also enhances the milk flow reflex and the formation of milk. Wiping the udder eliminates the ingress of microbes into the milk. Constant massage of the udder before milking for 20 seconds contributes to an increase in the milk productivity of cows up to 7%.
Massage is carried out as follows: with both hands, wrap the right half of the udder and stroke it from the bottom up, and then from above
Udder massage: a - the right half of the udder, b - the left half of the udder, c - final massage techniques - pushing the udder
way down. The nipples are also massaged, squeezing them 2-3 times without giving out milk and pushing all quarters of the udder at the base of the nipples upwards. When an edematous and tense udder is massaged, it cannot be massaged - only it is easy to stroke and push the lobes up.
They hand over the first streams of milk into a separate mug covered with dark nylon cloth. This allows you to determine the state of the lobes of the breast. Detection of streaks or clots, white flakes, grains, curd mass, whey excretion, etc. in milk indicates a possible udder disease.
• It is impossible to siphon the first milk streams on the floor, as the stall is polluted and conditions for microbial contamination of the udder are created. Each milliliter of the first milk streams contains up to 3.6 million microbes.
• If the first streams are sown in separate dishes, the number of microorganisms in milk decreases by 7–8 times. This improves the quality of milk.
• The whole process of preparing a cow for milking should take no more than 40–60 seconds.
Milk is fed into clean buckets. It is impossible to use galvanized buckets as a bottom plate.
• The udder nipple is locked into a fist as close as possible to the base with the index finger.
Milking a cow "fist": a - fingers are loosened, milk enters the nipple cavity, b - the thumb and index fingers overlap the udder tank and nipple cavity, the reverse flow of milk from the nipple to the udder is impossible, c - the other fingers alternately (from top to bottom) squeeze the nipple and produce milk
• Then squeeze the nipple with the index and thumb, preventing the backflow of milk from the nipple into the udder.
• After this, the nipple is successively squeezed with the middle, ringless fingers and little finger. At the same time, the hand itself must remain motionless.
• After the milk has exited, the fist is uncoupled, without tearing it from the nipple, the milk again flows from the udder into the nipple, the fingers are pressed alternately into the fist again.
Compression of the nipple should be carried out quickly, so that the milk is released from the nipple almost continuous stream. This is achieved if 80–100 compressions are made per minute.
With a smaller amount of compression milk is retained in the udder, which can lead to its disease. Fast milking is also necessary because the milk yield from the cow lasts 4–6 minutes. During this time, you need to have time to milk it in order to use the milk allowance. But with manual milking at a yield of 20–25 kg, it is almost impossible to milk a cow in 6 minutes. And yet to delay, when the cow has already prepared for milking, released the milk, in any case it is impossible.
After dispensing the main amount of milk, a final massage is performed. To do this, grab the right half of the udder with both hands as high as possible to its base and, squeezing and unclenching the udder, gradually move the arms from top to bottom. This procedure is repeated 3–4 times and the incoming milk is given out. Likewise with the left half of the udder.
Finally, each quarter is separately massaged from top to bottom and the milk collected is dispensed, after milking, the nipples are wiped and smeared with an antiseptic emulsion, petroleum jelly, butter, etc. This is done to make the nipple skin elastic and to prevent cracking of the nipples.
Milking a cow is most conveniently sitting on a stool on the right side of the animal.
Considering that milking cows is a very laborious process and requires certain skills and skills, the industry has mastered the production of several types of aggregates intended for milking cows on home farms.
The most common was the milking machine AID-1. The use of the installation and care of it are not particularly difficult. From the owners need only one thing - to comply with the rules, rather detailed in the instructions.
Milking unit AID-1
However, not all cows are suitable for machine milking. Most suitable for milking cows with bowl-shaped and rounded udder shapes with evenly developed quarters. The nipples should be cylindrical or somewhat conical in shape, 5–9 cm long, 2–3 cm in diameter, on which the milking machines are well kept.
When selecting a cow for machine milking, it is necessary to pay attention to the distance between the ends of the nipples. It should be between 15–18 cm between the front nipples, 6–10 cm between the rear ones and 8–12 cm between the front and rear ones.
An important indicator of the suitability of cows for machine milking is the rate of issue - it should be 1 kg / min. The completeness of the issue is controlled by the quality of the milk obtained by manual feeding, it should be no more than 150–400 g. But you shouldn’t systematically milk the milk manually, as the cow will leave more and more milk every day for manual milking, and this can lead to self-start. It is necessary to carry out machine grinding. To do this, at the end of milking, when the nipple resilience decreases and the teat cups can crawl onto the nipple bases, you need to press the collector with one hand and pull the glass down and forward, and the other, as if squeezing, massaging the udder parts from top to bottom. With this addition, the milk is completely excreted.
How to choose a good cow
The choice of a good dairy cow is one of the not simple tasks not only for animal owners, but even for a zootechnical specialist, because the appearance of an animal does not always characterize its productive capabilities. But you can still give some general advice.
To begin with, it is worth knowing which breed the selected animal belongs to, and, of course, preference is given to specialized dairy breeds, because they are much superior to all other breeds in terms of the amount of milk produced per unit of live weight. If you need to get both milk and meat, then combined breeds of dairy-meat and meat-dairy cattle are suitable. However, it is most advisable to start animals of the breed that is bred in this zone on promising farms. This will largely ensure the production of offspring from high-value producers, which is very important in the further economic use of livestock.
When purchasing adult animals, you need to know the age of the cow, remembering that the milk production of cows increases with age to the 5th-7th calving, and then gradually decreases. First heifers, as a rule, give about 70-80% of the yield of full-aged cows.
In the absence of data on the age of the cow, they can be determined with a sufficient degree of accuracy. For example, the age in hotels can be determined by the number of horn rings. Horn rings are considered a consequence of the internal restructuring of the body under the influence of pregnancy, but if the nutrition of animals was full during this period, then the rings are slightly noticeable on the horn, and vice versa, if feeding is not enough, then the rings are seen very clearly. Proholethic cows do not appear in this period. The first ring can be seen at the age of 2.5-3.0 years. From this it follows that in order to determine the age of a cow, it is necessary to add its age to the 1st calving to the number of rings present on the horn.
With great accuracy, the age of cows and young cattle can be calculated in the teeth. This definition is based on a strict sequence of changing milk teeth to permanent ones, and on erasing permanent incisors and changing the friction shape of the tooth surface. Determining the age of livestock on the form of an erasable surface requires a good skill, for this reason it is difficult for livestock owners, but in principle it’s not difficult to change the order of changing milk teeth to permanent ones.
Baby teeth are noticeably different in size from permanent ones. They are rather thin and narrow, permanent teeth, on the contrary, are long and wide.
The timing of the change of teeth in cattle are:
- Hooks: 15-19 months.
- Average internal: 18-28 months.
- Average external: 24-35 months.
- Edges: 31-40 months.
Of course, the aforementioned age determination methods are needed when there are no records of the age and origin of the animal.
Data on the origin is also important when choosing a cow. Naturally, from a more productive mother is more likely to grow more valuable offspring. For this reason, good milk production indicators for mothers, sisters, as well as father’s half sisters (if any) can to some extent guarantee a successful choice. Numerous data from scientific studies suggest that milk production in cattle is inherited by about 30–40%, and the fat content in milk is 70–80%.
When choosing a cow, much attention is paid to external forms: exterior and constitution. The cow should be quite harmoniously folded.
The stature of animals can be judged on their useful performance. So, for cows of the dairy direction the special respiratory type is characteristic. The ribs of these animals have an oblique orientation, which helps to have a larger receptacle for internal organs. It is considered a good indicator when the distance between the last two ribs is 3-4 fingers (5-6 cm).
A good dairy cow has a rather light head, thin skin, elastic with a large number of small folds on the neck, hair is small and shiny in size. The legs are very strong, the back is set wide. The animal should not be tall, however, and not unnecessarily low, because in such cases milking will be difficult.
The saber and hind limb appearance, just like the size of the front limbs, is considered to be significant shortcomings. Sagging of the back, interception behind the shoulder blades, narrowness and many other undesirable signs indicate poor heredity or unsatisfactory rearing of this animal and, of course, have a negative effect on its productivity and reproductive abilities.
A cow should be easy to milk, otherwise it is not convenient to maintain. After milking, a good glandular udder very much subsides, forming a large folding, which is clearly visible from the back of the cow. The larger the space that takes the udder between the hind limbs (in practice it is called the "milk mirror"), the more voluminous the udder, and therefore more productive. Udder skin should be thin, mobile, with small and sparse opaque hair.
Pay attention also to the development of milk veins. Dairy veins are placed on the belly on both sides of the midline from the front of the udder to the place of their entry into the chest cavity. The thickness of the veins, as well as the size of the hole at the site of entry of the veins into the chest (the so-called "dairy wells") indirectly indicate the intensity of the breast. It is known, for example, that about 400–600 l of blood passes through the udder of cows to form 1 kg of milk, for this reason this characteristic should be taken into account in practice.
An important role in the selection of animals is their temperament. For keeping at home, animals with a calm disposition or, as they are often called, of a good-natured type, are most suitable.
And, finally, the most important indicator that determines the real value of a dairy cow is its milk yield - the quantity and quality of milk produced per day, per year. It is quite essential to take into account reproductive qualities: the ability to calve every year and bring healthy offspring.
The best breeds of dairy
Dairy cows are leaders in efficiency and productivity among all animals that produce milk.. Unlike meat cows and other animals, dairy cows give the largest amount of milk per lactation per unit of live weight.
Black-and-white breed of cows - the most common breed in Russia. The share of black-and-white cows accounts for about 53% of the total number of Russian dairy cattle. For cows of this breed is characterized by a bowl-shaped, asymmetrical, large udder with close rear nipples (udder index - 43-45). The intensity of the flow is approximately 1.2-1.4 kg / min. Рост животных в холке – 130-132 см, а вес – 470-1000 кг (быки крупнее телок). Среднегодовые удои у племенных коров зависят от кормов, используемых при выращивании, и равняются – 5500-8500 кг (жирность – 3,4-4,15%, доля белка – 3,0-3,4%).
Голштинская порода коров выведена в Северной Америке (дата официальной регистрации – 1983 г). Представители породы черно-пестрой масти, ранее допускалась и красно-пестрая, но сегодня она уже выделена в отдельную породу. Для голштинской породы характерны отметины неправильной формы, располагающиеся, как правило, в нижней части тела. The growth of animals about 140-145 cm at the withers. Live weight depends on the floor - 1000-1250 kg. The vast majority of cows of this breed have a cup-shaped udder. For one milk yield, cows give 30 kg or more of milk. with a recoil rate of 2.5 kg / min. Milk fat is usually 3.5-3.96%, the proportion of protein is not more than 3.6%. The Holstein breed of cows is widely distributed in the USA, Canada and Israel.
Ayrshire cows originates in Scotland (18th century). Cows of this breed are mostly red and white color. They have a typical “milky” exterior: an elongated body, an average head in size, a thin neck, a sturdy construction, properly set limbs, a developed cup-shaped udder (index 46-48). The teats on the udder are wide apart. The average weight of cows is about 480 kg, bulls - 800 kg. The average lactation rate is 2.0 kg / min. The average annual milk yield of Ayshir cows is high and amounts to 6,000–7,000 kg (3.8–4.3% fat, –3.4–3.8% protein). Ayrshire cows are common in most European countries, in the USA, Russia and Canada.
Comparative average characteristics of various dairy breeds of cows
We prepare not only ourselves, but also prepare the cow for the milking process
Before you begin the process of milking a cow, it is very important to take care of hygiene.
The first step is to clean the stall - fresh manure must be cleaned, instead, fresh and necessarily dry straw is laid (sawing is also possible).
Secondly, it is important that the shed is ventilated before this. In the summer, when there are a lot of different insects, it is very important before milking and during it to close the door to the barn. This will slightly reduce the activity of the flies, and the cow will not fan its tail so intensively.
Tailing of the tail also helps, although the animal will not get rid of nervous tension.
Young and temperamental cows are best tied, because they can knock out a bucket with the need and pour milk on the ground, at best - throw garbage in it. But still, the cow gets used to this process quickly, and over time it will get used at the same time to become comfortable for milking and to behave obediently throughout this process.
Experienced milkmaids advise very gently to deal with an animal, trying to maintain “friendly” relations with it.
In order to relieve the cow from stress, it is recommended to stroke her before starting milking, nickname and pamper him with some delicacy. The fact is that a cow is able to memorize its owner very wellbecause it recognizes people by smell, and respond to her kindness.
Even absurd things happen when a cow gives milk to only one person to whom she is accustomed.
Do not forget wash your hands before milking, put on a clean bathrobe or at least an apron. Also, you need to thoroughly wash the udder, removing all accumulated dirt from it.
For washing the udder it is better to use warm water so as not to irritate the cow. After, the udder is wiped dry.
To stimulate cow's milk yield, it is important udder pre-massage. It should include light rubbing and patting, and not only on the nipples, but throughout the udder. Due to this, your milk cow will form a lactation reflex, the milk flow to the nipples will increase significantly.
Features of the milking process: the main techniques and practical advice
It is most convenient to milk a cow sitting on a low bench, since the more milk a cow gives, the longer the milking process will be.
To collect milk you need to take some capacity - an enamelled bucket or a special hearthack. Please note that after each milking, the vessel used for milk will need to be washed and dried. After the cow has been milked, the milk will need to be covered either with a lid or with gauze so that no rubbish gets into it.
You can grab the nipples during milking in two ways - either with just two fingers, or with a fist. Although for many, milking with fingers is a more convenient way (especially if the cow's nipples are small), but experts believe that such milking can lead to various problems with udder.
For this reason, when milking the nipples need to wrap all the fingers, that is, with a fist. In order not to rub the skin of your hands and the skin of the nipples of a cow, before milking, rub your hands and brush them with oil.
Description of cow milking
A cow needs to be milked at the same time with both hands. The first issued two front nipples, and after them already two rear. The bucket is placed on the floor under the udder, it can also be clamped with its feet, so that it does not accidentally turn over or it is not knocked out by a cow.
- Cover the nipples with both hands and press them with all your fingers. The brush remains stationary, but we pull our fingers slightly to the bottom, as if we are dragging off the nipple.
With the nipple should run a trickle of milk, hitting it in the dyke, slightly unclench the fingers and grasp the nipple again, repeat the described action. The main thing is not to pull the nipples very hard and sharply.
Usually the first two streams of milk are decanted in a separate bowl. According to the condition of the produced milk, it is determined whether the animal has diseases.
Also, dirt comes out of the first milk from the nipples.
It is especially important to make a massage before the completion of milking, then the milk will flow fatter.
How often should milking be done: get acquainted with different options and opinions
Most often milking a cow is carried out three times a day.
However, some farms in which animals are grazed around the clock and do not use any additional feed, except grass, for feeding cows with one-time milking.
But this is done solely for economic reasons, and also due to the fact that in such conditions, cows usually produce a small amount of milk.
But still, if a cow is able to produce a large amount of milk, then a one-time milking will by no means suit her. But in the future, opinions and milkmaids, and other professionals diverge very much.
Some think that milking three times a day increases milk yield, others hold the opinion that the number of milkings does not affect the amount of milk produced.
Probably, it would be more correct to say that if the cow is first milked three times a day, and then switched to twice a day, then in such a case the milk drops will be more likely.
Therefore, this issue should be approached on the basis of its own capabilities. If it is not difficult for you and you will have enough time to milk your pet three times a day, do it three times.
If in the daytime you are too busy, and it is more convenient for you to carry out milking only in the morning and in the evening - you will have to give preference to two times milking.
It is also interesting to read about pig meat breeds.
Is it important to take into account the milking time of a cow and how does this affect the amount of milk?
The time for milking should always be about the same.
First, with the help of this you discipline your cow, and secondly, adjust the processes of milk accumulation in the udder.
The fact is that the more milk it accumulates in it, the further it is produced slowly. But after milking and massaging during her massage, the mammary glands of the cow are activated, and the milk again begins to be actively produced.
If you decide to milk your pet three times a day, then intervals between two milkings should be approximately 8 hours. That is, milking should begin at about 6:00 am, at 12:00 pm and at 7:00 pm in the evening.
But at twice this period of time it is advisable to increase to 12 hours. Thus, if the cow was milked in the morning at 6:00, in the evening this process should be started at 18:00. But nevertheless, it is important to observe not the interval between milkings, but to adhere to approximately the same time.
Even if the specified intervals are difficult to maintain, milking can be done either an hour earlier than the usual time, or an hour later. That is, if you usually milk a cow three times a day, then the minimum interval between milkings may be a period of 7 hours, and the maximum - 9.
Many also combine milking time with cow feeding. In fact, it is very convenient, because you do not have to go to the barn very often, first to feed and then to milk the cow.
What is dangerous leukemia and how to understand its symptoms?
Infection with leukemia Your cow can in many ways. Very often this happens when veterinarians carry out various works related to the blood collection from an animal. But besides blood, the causative agents of leukemia can also be found in sperm, milk, and also amniotic fluid (that is, the disease is transmitted from mother to calf).
Sick animals are very important to limit in contact with the whole herd., because the described disease is even transmitted through blood-sucking insects. Another negative aspect of the disease is that it is almost impossible to determine the presence of the disease in the first stage.
Yes, and there are no clearly visible symptoms on the second, the disease is determined by the hematological changes that occur in the peripheral circulatory system.
Since the causative agents of leukemia are found in milk, it cannot be taken fresh, so it should be boiled well before it.
Unfortunately but leukemia cannot be treated. The only necessary preventive measure is the annual two-time blood test of animals for the presence of infection.
Thus, if necessary, you can timely learn about the disease and apply the necessary measures of isolation or destruction of livestock.
Mastitis: symptoms, prevention and treatment of the disease in cows?
This disease can be identified almost immediately by the highly inflamed mammary glands of a cow. Most often pay attention to him when milking.
The causes of mastitis There may be the following factors:
- Unsanitary conditions of keeping, when the udder does not wash well or does not clean at all before milking, in the absence of regular cleaning in the pen with a cow.
- During dry summer periods when milk stagnates in the udder. Very often during the dry period of time, mastitis manifests itself due to the fact that it was not treated before.
- With catarrhal diseases of the animal, when it has a high temperature for long periods of time.
- With improper milking.
Thus, the prevention of mastitis may well be a full feeding, as well as compliance with all necessary sanitary standards for keeping cows.
When mastitis, in no case can milking be used with a special automated apparatus.
You can determine mastitis by the clots that appear in the milk, pus, and sometimes even bloody marks. However, this disease also has a hidden form, when its presence in an animal is determined only by the basis of special checks.
For example, you can add the drug Mastidine in a few drops of milk. If there is a disease, the milk will become similar to jelly and the treatment of the cow should be started immediately.
The most effective use of antibiotics, although there are many traditional means of treatment.
Since mastitis can cause different types of bacteria, but the drug must also be administered individually. To determine which antibiotic will be effective, it is necessary give your cow's milk for analysis in a special veterinary laboratory.
Experts are sure to advise you that the animal can really cure. It is possible to treat a cow without a veterinarian, only by receiving detailed instructions from him.
Ways and secrets to improve milk yields
- The amount of milk produced during milking directly depends on how and what the cow eats. It is especially important to pay attention to this factor during periods of dry skin and in the first three months after calving.
It is very important that the diet compiled for an animal gives it a lot of energy that can be easily absorbed by the body from carbon, vitamin and mineral substances, fats and proteins.
Thus, in addition to high-quality feed during these periods, it is important to give the cows various mineral and vitamin supplements.
Milk quality: discussing positive and negative influencing factors?
The composition and properties of milk can change quite often, and it will not always indicate something bad.
For example, factors of such differences and changes can be attributed:
- Breed of a cow, as well as her age. There are many dairy breeds that give large amounts of full-fat milk. With age, milk yield and quality indicators decrease.
- The lactation period in which the animal is located.
- Features of the diet of the cow, as well as its maintenance.
- The level of productivity.
- Features and regularity of milking.
So, for the lactation period, that is, for 300 days, the milk of the same cow can change its properties three times. In particular, right after calving, we receive not milk, but colostrum, which leaves the udder for the first 5-7 days.
For the longest period, we get regular milk, which 10-15 days before calving is replaced by old-grown, bitter taste.
Another very important characteristic of cow's milk is its fat content. Today, experts call the most important criterion for the appearance of high fat content in milk, the amount of protein that a cow receives from food.
Also, fat content increases with the age of the cow, although after 6 years it gradually begins to decrease.
Also, the chemical analysis of the composition of milk often determines the content of milk sugar. The taste of milk directly depends on this component. However, it is impossible to influence its change, since milk sugar is always at the same level Regardless of the number of years of lactation.
With regard to the diet of the cow, the more you will give her feed containing proteins, the fatter milk will be. Proteins, that is proteins, will also get into the composition of milk. Such feeding can increase and milk yield, raising them by 10%.
Features of milking cattle
Milking is the process of obtaining milk from farm animals (cows, goats, sheep, mares, etc.).
In a lactating cow, milk is formed in the udder in the intervals between milkings and is retained in it due to the capillarity of the mammary gland, the special structure of the ducts and the presence of sphincters (squeezing muscles) in the nipples. Milking is carried out thanks to the complex reflexes of lactation. Under the influence of irritation of the nerve endings of the mammary gland during milking, nipple sphincters relax, smooth muscles of the udder are reduced, and milk is removed from cisterns and large ducts. A few seconds later, under the influence of the hormone oxytocin, the stellate cells around the alveoli contract, the alveoli contract and the milk from them passes into the ducts and cisterns. However, even after careful milking, some amount (10-15%) of milk (residual milk) with a fat content of 9-12% remains in the udder.
In lactating cows over time, conditioned reflexes of milk yield to the environment are formed. The noise of the milking machine engine, the appearance of milkmaids and other conditioned stimuli cause compression of the alveoli and secretion of the hormone from the pituitary gland, as in the usual process of milking unusual stimuli (sharp noise, change in the familiar environment, etc.) can inhibit the milk recoil reflex. Therefore, when milking it is important to keep quiet, to maintain the established order.
The multiplicity of milking is set so that in the intervals between milkings the udder is filled with milk and milk formation does not slow down. Usually cows are milked 2-3 times a day, highly productive and fresh ones 3-4 times a day. Before starting, the number of milkings is gradually reduced.
Produce two and three times milking of cows during the day. With three times milking, in some cases, 10% more milk is produced than with double milking. But this is typical for cows with a small udder capacity. In cows with a large udder capacity, milk yield in such cases does not increase. When reducing the number of milkings from three to two, labor costs are reduced by 25-30%.
Compliance with the rules of milking cows helps to maximize milk yield. The milking process consists of a main process and auxiliary operations. In the main process of issuing milk from the udder of cows by the apparatus, the operator does not directly participate. Auxiliary operations are divided into preparatory and final, which are performed by the operator on manual installations.
Подготовительных операций шесть: переход оператора с доильным аппаратом к очередной корове, обмывание вымени теплой водой 40-45 °С, вытирание его полотенцем, массаж вымени, сдаивание первых струек молока и надевание доильных стаканов на соски. Заключительных операций также шесть: переход оператора к корове, машинное додаивание, отключение и снятие доильных стаканов с сосков, контроль состояния вымени, слив молока.
Особенно благотворно влияет на полноту выдаивания и содержание жира в молоке массаж вымени, при котором повышается удой на 8-12 % и содержание жира в молоке до 1 %. So, in the first portions of milk contains 0.5-0.7% fat, and in the last -8-12%.
The health status of a cow largely determines its productivity. For example, with tuberculosis, the yield of cows is reduced by 20-35 compared with healthy animals, with brucellosis - by 40-60%. Mastitis, diseases of the extremities, diseases of reproduction, and metabolism reduce the yield to 20-50%.
How to increase the milk yield of cows in the winter
To make your cows milked well and give a lot of milk, you can use various tricks. Read in our article helpful tips that will answer the question of how to increase the yield of cows in the winter.
Average milk production in winter
Seasonality when calculating milk yield is very important. The amount of milk produced in different breeds is not the same and depends on a number of factors. These include cow age, season, calving time, feed composition, housing conditions and even milking. One dairy cow in the winter day can produce about 15 liters of milk per day.
On average, from one animal in winter you can get 15–20 liters per day, and the better care for a cow, the richer the nutritional content, the fatter milk. Milk fat is standard and is about 4%. To increase winter milk production, ration is enriched with nutritious foods. Animals should drink more, eat liquid food, sugar beets and root vegetables.
Tips for increasing your milk yield
In temperate climates, milk yield is good at any time of the year. Low temperature, frost greatly reduces milk yield. That is why cows in the northern regions of Russia produce less milk in winter than in summer. Next, we will tell you in more detail what to do so that milk yield will suit you and bring you more income.
First of all, feed the cows regularly, according to the schedule, focusing on the specificity of the breed. Recordists feed more densely, because their bodies consume twice as many resources as the bodies of ordinary cows. The second important point - breast massage or exercise to stimulate secretion. Udder massage is necessary so that the milk leaves better and there is no stagnation.
The next rule is regular milk delivery. The stricter the time of the milking process, the better the results. Stelny cows are prepared for calving, ceasing to milk and "starting" a month before giving birth. Before the “launch”, the milk yield from such a cow is small, but there is no sense in such milk either. It is very fat and unsuitable for human consumption.
But milk yield from fresh cows can be very good.
The better organization of care for the female, the greater the yield from one female
Animal nutrition is based on a combination of healthy and nutrients and vitamins, depending on the time of year.
To increase the volume of milk should be balanced nutrition, provide them with plenty of water and liquid food.
The yield of the female depends on the food provided, which includes everything necessary for the healthy development of the body, minerals and vitamins. Feed animals regularly in the allotted time. Provide them with plenty of clean water. And equip housing for females so that it was warm, clean and dry. Meat or dairy cows need warmth. And it develops better in warm rooms, when not wasting energy on heating.
The female's udder is constantly massaged before milk production and in the process itself. An animal is prone to mastitis, if it is an animal sick, you can not count on a large amount of milk.
If you milk a cow often, it will also increase its milkiness. With regular milking, you will also increase the volume of milk per day, which reaches seventeen liters per day.
The amount of milk that is obtained from one cow depends on the temperature and nutrition. In the cold season, the cow gives little milk, but if you compensate for the cold with proper care, you will avoid it.
Depending on the breed of your cow, provide her with a regular balanced diet.
If your cow gives more than ten liters of milk per day, then provide her with a more nutritious and nourishing feed. It is equally important to massage the cow's udder and carry out milk production on a schedule several times a day. The regularity of milking will increase the yield.
One month before giving birth, stop milking the female. After calving, females will give milk of excellent quality and large volume, so that they fully compensate for the stagnation period.
If in the winter to provide an animal with proper care and vitaminized nutrition, in winter it will give more than ten liters of milk per day.
Place the cow in a warm room, otherwise the yield from one female will be reduced by twenty percent. In winter, a cow spends a lot of effort to keep her body warm, so she loses weight and the volume of milk decreases.
- In the heat and winter, cows need succulent feed with a high content of vitamins.
- Change the diet depending on whether the cow is pregnant or gave birth.
- The highest milk yield of a cow is after winter delivery, therefore at this time it is fed with saturated feed.
- A month before delivery, you also need to increase the nutritional value of the feed.
- Massage the udder regularly.
- After fertilization, increase the amount of feed.
- In winter, cows must be allowed to walk.
The duration of daylight affects the amount of milk yield. If you increase the illumination of the home of females, their average level of milkiness will exceed ten liters. Raising the volume of milk by ten percent allows the content of females in the lit barn for eighteen hours. The brightness of the light should not exceed twenty units.
The effect of light on an animal activates the release of hormones, including insulin, which affects the amount of milk.
This does not mean that you should not turn off the lights for days.
My experience in obtaining high milk yields.
Home »Milking history» My experience in obtaining high milk yields.
My experience in obtaining high milk yields.
For almost a quarter of a century, I have been working as a milkmaid on the kolkhoz “The Foundation of Socialism”, Shilovsky District, Ryazan Region. Twice was a member of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition. In 1938 I milked 5303 kg of milk assigned to me from each cow, for which I was awarded the Main Exposition Small Gold Medal. During the war, when great difficulties arose in foraging, in my group of cows the milk yield was not less than 4700 kg. After the war, while improving the feed base, milk yield increased to 6003 kg of milk.
Livestock - a difficult matter. It must be studied deeply, otherwise one cannot move forward. Over the years of work on the farm, I developed my own methods and gained experience. Particular attention is paid to the feeding and maintenance of animals. Eight cows are assigned to me, for them I have chosen a permanent place in the barnyard.
To feed a lot of milk, it is necessary, in addition to good feeding and maintenance, to achieve timely annual brood of all cows, not to allow barley and overload. It should be noted that for all the time of work as a milkmaid, it was not the case that any cow in my group remained pulpier.
Taking care of high milk yield begins long before calving the cow. I attach great importance to the timely launch of pregnant animals, their preparation for brood. Startup time set for each cow. More dairy cows, like Kind and Verka (the first gave 5000 kg of milk for the first lactation, and over 6000 kg for the third), start six months before calving, even if they give 8-12 kg of milk per day at this time I run separate cows in two months. The bed animal requires more careful care and good feeding, as the feed is additionally spent on the development of the calf, as well as to accumulate a supply of nutrients for milk production in the first days after calving. Running cows spend so that he passed without a disease udder. To do this, 10–12 days before launch, I exclude from the diet silage and root crops, as well as reduce the amount of concentrated feed and the amount of water. At the same time, I gradually decrease the number of milkings to two, and then to once a day. After starting on the 6th-8th day, I begin again to introduce into the diet juicy and concentrated feeds at a normal rate.
I regularly clean pregnant cows, every day, except for rainy days, let them out for a walk for 2 hours. Before calving, for 4-5 days I reduce the ration, exclude concentrated feed, potatoes and silage, and in the summer I reduce feed by grass by half. In the first week after calving, I give the cows plenty of hay (and in the summer I increase the green dressing) and from 1 to 3 kg of concentrated feed. I increase the diet gradually and bring it back to normal. If the cow feels good, I begin to distribute it. I do it like this. I give an increase above the established norm of feeding — 1–2 kg of concentrated feed or 4–5 kg of potatoes — and I follow the increase in milk yield. If the milk yield increases, then in 5 days I still increase the feed. I do this until the cow stops increasing the yield.
Great importance when stripping has a milking technique. Milking requires high skill. I have checked in practice that the sooner a cow is milked, the better it gives milk. Experience shows that cows can give milk evenly throughout the year. I know that most milkmaids get milk up to 70% in the summer, and mine goes differently: 50% each - in the summer and winter periods. In this case, the main role is played by proper feeding, timing of starting, mating and calving. When feeding, I take into account the peculiarities of each cow: which one should be salted and which one should be moistened. I adhere to this rule: to give less food, but more often.
I get high milk yield, feeding on average each cow a year: hay - 1800 kg, spring straw - 300, silage - 5000, fodder beet - 4500, cabbage — 150, oatmeal - 55, oil cake - 8G0 and mixed fodder - 100 kg. In a daily ration I import 40-50 g of salt. Feed is released daily in weight and standards for groups of cows assigned to milkmaids. I distribute the resulting feed to each cow. The feeding rates, according to the live weight of the cows, their daily milk yield, etc., are made by the livestock technician T. Grishina with my participation. Rations are changed every 10-15 days. For example, a Good Cow with a live weight of 500 kg and a daily milk yield of 30–32 kg of milk in the second month of lactation were fed per day: meadow hay — 12 kg, silage — 40, fodder beet — 15, cake and mixed feed — 6 kg and salt — 60 d. The feeding order is as follows: first I give concentrated feed, then juicy and then rough. Before this feed carefully prepared. My root crops, I give the cakes in shredded form, the cotton ones — steamed. Meal feed fed slightly moistened. Spring straw is usually ground and sprouted with finely cut root vegetables, salt or concentrated feed before distribution. It should be said that coarse feed moistened with salt water, cows, as a rule, eat completely. When feeding, I take into account the individual characteristics of each animal.
In the summer, we use herding around the clock. For the proper use of grazing they smashed them into pens. The pasture where the animals of my group graze is divided into five pens. On each of them, cows graze 4–5 days and return to the same site in 20–25 days. But high pasture cows alone are not enough. Therefore, before each milking, we feed them with freshly cut grass. Freshly mowed grass when fed add some salt. We practice and salting the grass in the pasture.
In the spring, before they begin to graze, pastures are cleared of debris, etc., they cut off the bumps, harrow and sow grasses. Grazing weed from weeds and poisonous herbs. In the first days before the pasture to the pasture, we feed the cows in the barnyard and drive them out to grazing not immediately for the whole day, but gradually teach them to young grass. When the grass grows and the animals get used to green fodder, we translate them completely to grazing, and the grazing is done around the clock.
The farm has a daily routine approved by the collective farm board, followed by all livestock workers. The time and sequence of work for the stabling period are as follows: morning milking of cows - from 5 to 6 hours 30 minutes, distribution of feed and feeding - from 6 hours 30 minutes to 7 hours 30 minutes, cleaning of cows, cleaning the room - from 7 hours 30 minutes to 8 hours 30 minutes, feeding cows, preparing feed for the next cottage - from 8 hours 30 minutes to 10 hours, a break - from 10 to 12 hours, day-milking - from 12 to 13 hours 30 minutes, feeding, cleaning the room - from 13 hours 30 minutes to 15 hours, a break - from 15 to 17 hours, cleaning the room, changing the litter, the distribution of feed - from 17 to 19 hours, ve ernyaya milking - from 19 to 20 hours 30 minutes and then to 21 hours distribution of feed. At 12 o'clock in the night duty cattle gives cows hay.
Thus, all types of work are performed at a specific time. Compliance with this schedule has a great impact on the productivity of animals. One has only to retreat from the routine, as animals begin to worry and reduce milk yield.
Great importance is the right watering. Cows should not be watered once or twice a day. In the stalls, I installed tubs that always have clean water. Cows drink water indefinitely. Such watering increases milk yield by 10-15%.
Many milkmaids ask how best to milk cows? I do cows with fist, vigorously. Before starting milking, I do a light massage of the udder, and in the middle and at the end I carefully massage it. It helps to milk all the milk.
How to increase the yield of a cow?
We must not forget that the last portions of milk are the most fat. Before milking I clean the cow, wash the udder with warm water and wipe it dry with a clean towel. I watch carefully for the udder of each cow, I strive to keep it always soft and elastic. There are cases when milk starts to flow out abundantly and the udder begins to harden. In such cases, I do a deep massage and milk that has accumulated in the udder is completely clean.
To get 6,000 kg of milk and more from a cow per year, you need to put a lot of work in, you need to know well the characteristics and habits of each cow. All this is not given immediately, it takes careful and long work to study the herd and achieve its high productivity.
In enhancing the milk production of the herd, exchange of milkmaid experience is of great importance. I often meet with the milkmaids of other collective farms and share experiences with them, telling them about my work in caring for the livestock, feeding and maintaining it. I talk about some of the details of this work, as well as "about the little things" that are of considerable importance in increasing the yield. Even such a seemingly small matter as cleaning helps to increase the yield. In winter, I clean the cows two and sometimes three times a day, bathe them in the summer. When animals are kept clean, they have a better metabolism in their bodies, an increased appetite, and they are calmer and more likely to eat food more readily. Clean skin in combination with maintaining order in the stalls is the key to protecting animals from diseases.
The socialist competition is the driving force in the struggle for high yields. All milkmaids compete in our collective farm, and many of them participate in regional socialist competition. The party organization of the collective farm monthly sums up the results of our work, which are discussed at the production meetings of milkmaids and cattlemen. At these meetings, we identify shortcomings in the work, outline ways to eliminate them. The party organization and the kolkhoz government are day to day interested in the needs of the milkmaids and provide us with the necessary assistance.
Milkmaids made every effort to complete the wintering of livestock in an exemplary manner and bring it up in spring to graze in good condition, increase its population and raise its productivity even higher. For the achievement of these indicators, we are competing with the neighboring Kirov collective farm. I do not calm down on the achieved results of my work, I try to improve them and help other milkmaids of collective farms and the state farm of the region to master the skill of chasing cows. In 1952 I was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. I had the opportunity to attend the opening of the 1954 All-Union Agricultural Exhibition. I took part in a mini-rally, went around the pavilions, fields and gardens of the exhibition and saw everywhere what great opportunities we have for further growth of socialist agriculture.
I was a member of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition of the pre-war years. Since then, our people have stepped far forward in the development of agricultural production. Many of my students have become masters of getting high yields. Komsomolka A. Orlova achieved high yields. She was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. Currently, in terms of performance, she is already ahead of me.
Another young milkmaid, Hero of Socialist Labor A. Astakhov, gives over 5000 kg of milk from a cow. Milkmaids Pytkova, Chistyakov, Ermakova, Tsirkov, Guschina received five thousand milk yield.
In our collective farm there are hereditary livestock breeders, such as the family of a collective farmer S. F. Kornechikhin, consisting of 11 people. At the regional meeting of the milkmaids, the celebration of this family was held in a solemn atmosphere. S.F. Kornechikhik has been working faultlessly as a herdsman-cattle for 20 years, his wife and three daughters working as milkmaids on a dairy farm. Одна из них, Мария, была участницей Всесоюзной
сельскохозяйственной выставки 1954 г. Четвертая дочь Прасковья до войны работала дояркой, а позже, окончив сельскохозяйственный техникум, стала зоотехником и заведует в нашем колхозе двумя фермами — овцеводческой и птицеведческой.
Сыновья и внуки С. Ф. Корнечихина также заняты в животноводстве. Так, сын Иван работает конюхом, Василий — ветеринарным фельдшером, внуки — Николай, Иван и Александр — пастухами-скотниками, а внучка Мария — дояркой.
Обком партии и облисполком постановили занести семью Корнечихиных в областную Книгу почета.
In the past financial year, I averaged 6116 kg of milk from each cow, with a plan of 3500 kg and a commitment of 6000 kg of milk. Its labor successes cemented. From October 1, 1954 to March 1, 1955, I averaged an average of 2,261 kg of milk each. In the current financial year, I pledged to receive an average of 6,200 kg of milk from each cow. I apply all the strength and knowledge to fulfill the commitment.
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Increase milk production
It is not that easy to increase milk yield in a cow, but also to say that this is difficult is also not true.
Initially, you need to know how much you give the forage (crushed). Usually 300 grams per liter is considered + as rough food is fed - this is hay, straw, and root vegetables. To increase milk yield, one must pay attention to the quality of the main feed, and it affects the productivity of the cow.
If the private farmstead, as a rule, is fed with one hay, then it must be of high quality and have a green color, a fragrant smell. Also one of the most important moments is that the grass that we have hay must be in the budding stage during haymaking. Because at this time in the grass are the most protein (protein), which in turn affects milk.
One of the cheapest food is water, and the more a cow drinks the water, the more milk you can get from a cow. It is desirable that the cow always had access to water. It is also necessary to change the water more often, and for it to be 18-20 ° C - this is the optimum temperature, which will provide us with a high consumption of water.
Not all use feed, although they can be made independently at home. Combined feed is a mixture of raw grain products with high content of protein, vitamins and microelements for feeding animals. But usually farms use crushed grain (barley). In crushed grain, sunflower cake should be added so that it is 400 to 800 grams in the animal's daily ration, beet pulp is 2-3 kg (raw), and if dry, then 300-400 grams and it is necessary to use additives with micro and macro elements. Feed must be given at the rate of 300-400 grams per 1 liter of milk produced. If you follow all these rules, then we must increase the milk yield by at least 20%. If, nevertheless, no increase is observed, then it is necessary to pay attention to the physiological state of the cow, if the cow is pregnant and the second half of pregnancy, then there may be no milk increase, since the cow works for the calf.
How to increase milk yield in cows
And for 60-45 days milking a cow to calving is prohibited! Also during this period it is not allowed to give the cow fodder (shredded meat) and salt, we feed only the main feed (hay). 14 days before calving, we gradually begin to feed the shredded meat, starting from 500-600 grams per day and bring up to 2 kg per day, while paying attention to the udder of the cow. If the udder is swollen, then shredded should not be given.
After calving, the cow should be milked every 4 hours, and when the cow is fed, you can give up to 400 grams of crushed meat per milk per liter of milk.