Plum is one of the fastest and highest-yielding among the stone fruit crops. It can be successfully grown in regions that are characterized by harsh weather in the winter. For winter hardiness, it is second only to cherry. Depending on the variety and cultivation area, the yield of plums can be very high - more than 200 kg of fruit from a tree. But for this you need to comply with high agricultural practices.
FRUIT AND LEAVE MELT DRAINS
Many factors influence the quality and quantity of the crop, but one of the main factors is the physiological condition of the plants, their resistance to pests and diseases. It is also important to what extent the trees are additionally protected from attacks of harmful organisms. Annually, black plum sawfly, eurytom, or plum thistleworm cause significant damage to the plum culture - pests from the hymenoptera order, as well as plum and oriental moths from the lepidoptera order. You can limit the number of phytophages, if you control their livelihoods in critical for them periods of development. To do this, you need to know how pests multiply. born, grow and feed. and when they are most vulnerable.
All organisms parasitizing on plums are divided into three groups: 1 - leaf pests. 2 - pests of fruits. 3 - pests of wood (trunks and branches]. The first group includes species
with sucking mouth apparatus (mites, aphids) and leaf-eating phytophagous plants (moths, leafworms, peppered moths, silkworms, haws, goldfinder, American white butterfly, or ABB). In one generation, rosany develops during the growing season. variegated and battle-ryshnikovaya moths. For two or three generations during the growing season they produce crooked currant, crooked willow, netted, omnivorous, and other types of leafworms. Among the moths, the plum is harmed by the winter, the moth-worn fruit. fluffy, molebed and other species of this family.
To the pests of the second group are the pinworm moths - plum, oriental (it also damages sprouts in addition), sawflies, plum moths. goose and Maybirds (adult insects supplement their “menu” with leaves). The most common phytophage from the second group is the black plum sawfly. In plum plantations, heavily populated by the sawfly, up to 95% of the ovary crumbles. Under infected trees in tree trunks lies a large number of fallen fruit with black outlets on each. The larvae made them, going to coconut into the soil after the completion of their development cycle.
Plum moth and plum moth, multiplying uncontrollably in the plum plantations, by injuries occupy the “honorable” second place after the sawfly. If the development of the larval stage of the carcass is taking place in the bone, then the larvae of the plum moth feed in the pulp of the fetus. During this period, they pave the way around the stone to the stem, gnawing at the same time the vascular system in the plant tissues and disrupting the circulation of nutrients. Fruits damaged by the thistle and moth moth prematurely turn purple and fall.
The area of the eastern moth was formed, the species is massively distributed in all areas of growing peach and plum. In the fight against the eastern moth. In addition to spraying with chemicals, mechanical methods are effective - if you cut and burn damaged, wilted shoots of all fruit crops (especially peach) in time, it will limit the number of the pest.
Shchitovka and false shields are included in the third group of phytophages. They suck the sap from the leaves and bark of the branches, which leads to shrinkage and death of young trees. As a result of the toxic effect of the saliva of the Californian shchitovik, longitudinal and transverse cracks appear on the trunk and branches. When feeding on, the acacia underbrush protects out a large amount of honey dew, on which soot fungi develop, contaminating the leaves and branches.
The California scale and the American white butterfly are quarantine pests - if they appear in fruit plantations, it is necessary to take protective measures regardless of the number of individuals.
WHEN BEGIN TO SPRAY DRAIN OR THINK EVERYTHING!
To carry out all the necessary protective spraying on time, it is necessary to rely on the indicators of the economic harmfulness of pests (Table 1). The number of pests is determined visually, shaking them from the trees, as well as installing and periodically cleaning the pheromone traps. Before each spraying, which is carried out during the growing season, first examine the extent of tree damage by pests and decide whether it is advisable to treat plants with chemical preparations.
The number of fruit sawfly is determined in phenophase white bud, while the air temperature does not exceed 10 ° C. To do this, in the morning, when adult insects are inactive, shake the branches of trees and count the fallen individuals. A more effective method of controlling the development of this pest is white glue traps. If the number of adults in the trap exceeds the threshold (Table 1), then treatment is necessary. After treatments of plum with Aktara 25% c. G. or Konfidor Maxi (table 2). which is carried out against adult sawfly before plum blossom, repeated processing (against larvae after flowering) is no longer necessary, since these drugs have a long duration (21 days).
It is sometimes difficult for the owners of summer cottages and household plots to decide on the expediency of treatments against the plum moth - they simply do not have enough data for this. First, to predict the number of pests in the current season, you need to know how many insects were in the previous one. Secondly, the number of moth butterflies during the growing season is determined using pheromone traps. They allow you to control the density of the population of the species and signal the need for protective measures if the quantitative composition of butterflies exceeds the economic threshold of harmfulness (EPO).
If pheromone traps are not freely available, you can rely on the first indicator - the degree of harmfulness of the species in the previous year. If 2% of the crop was damaged, then anti-moth treatment is necessary in the current year. To spray was effective. it is important to establish the timing of treatments. Phenophases of fruit trees, meteorological indicators and direct observation of pests are the basis for their determination.
The term of spraying against the plum moth is determined by the sum of effective temperatures of 200 ° C (threshold of 10 ° C), at which the first generation caterpillars begin to hatch. Apart from Match, Lyufox and biological preparations (Table 2), pyrethroids such as Detsis Profi, Karate Zeon, Arrivo, Fastak, which are allowed for sale to the population, are also effective against this pest. Their use is a limiting factor - the air temperature should not rise above values of 20 ° C. At higher temperatures, ultraviolet rays destroy the active ingredient of the preparations and reduce their effectiveness.Insecticides from the pyrethroid group should be used during the emergence of codling moth larvae, in the morning or evening.
According to the experiments of scientists of the Institute of Horticulture, preparations of the new group - regulators of the growth and development of insects (Match. Lyufoks) are very effective against lepidopterans, and their action does not depend on weather conditions. The duration of the toxic action of the Match and other insecticides of this group is 28-35 days after their use. The match is effective against caterpillars moths, leaf wrenches, moths, ticks. The action of the drug is manifested in the inhibition of chitin synthesis in caterpillars during the transition from one age to another, as a result, treated individuals cannot complete this process and die.
The spectrum of action of the drug is expanded due to the ovicidal effect - when females lay eggs on the previously treated surface of leaves or bark of trees, the caterpillars do not hatch from them. Match, 5% c. and Lufoks 105 EC, c. It should be used on plum varieties of different ripening terms at the end of May — I decade of June, during the peak of the summer of butterflies, of the mass egg-laying and hatching of caterpillars. Plum plants of medium and late ripening varieties are again sprayed (with one of the above insecticides) 28-35 days after the first treatment. Late varieties of plums against plum moth sprayed three times during the growing season.
Among the diseases affecting the plum, spreading klyasterosporiosis (perforated spotting), fruit rot, red spotting (polystigmosis), cytosporosis, rust, gumosis (gum treatment), pockets of plums, shark or smallpox plums (viral disease) are common. In all regions of plum cultivation, the monocleptorium dominates. Polystygosis affects trees mainly in the southern regions. The remaining pathogens of plum are found everywhere, to one degree or another.
For stable and high-quality fruits, scientists recommend an integrated protection system (AES) of plums, developed at the Institute of Horticulture. It is aimed at combating both pests and diseases, and takes into account the characteristics of their development and distribution. According to the CPF, highly effective preparations are used in the protection of the garden.
ECO-METHODS FOR COMBATING PILES WITH PLUMES
For lovers of environmentally friendly products there is a simple method of protecting fruits with microbiological insecticides. Against the plum moth and other species of Lepidoptera, bitoxibicillin (BTB), lepidocid, gaupsin are effective. The production of these environmentally friendly and highly effective drugs is seriously involved in the Odessa Engineering Technological Institute “Biotechnics”, the Institute for Plant Protection (Kiev), as well as in some regional plant protection stations. The drugs are available in liquid form, with a consumption rate of 100 ml per 10 liters of water. Two treatments are performed against each generation, with an interval of 8-10 days.
If possible, you should abandon the use of chemicals against the plum moth or reduce their number and consumption rate (the so-called economically acceptable reduction), since insecticides used in the summer period destroy beneficial insects that can keep tick mites on before the threshold level.
Herbal preparations with insecticidal properties are used to reduce the consumption of chemical insecticides. Against aphids, moth effective chilli pepper. (1 kg of fresh or 0.5 kg of dry pods pour 10 liters of water, incubate for two days, boil for 1 hour, cool and infuse for two hours). Cooked broth is stored in a dark place in well sealed containers. Before flowering use 0.2
l concentrate, after flowering - 0.1 l per 10 l of water. As an insecticide also use a decoction of wormwood. To do this, during the flowering period, the leaves and the upper parts of the plant are collected, then half a bucket of fresh or 700-800 g of dried mass is poured with 10 liters of water, left for 24 hours, boiled for 30 minutes, cooled and 10 liters of water are added.
ADDITIONAL MEASURES FOR FIGHTING PILES WITH PLUM
When carrying out protective measures on fruitful plum or other crops, it is advisable to use pesticides and mineral fertilizers together. Bak mixtures of insecticides, fungicides and fertilizers at the same time are effective against insects, pathogens, have a wide range of protective action, prevent the emergence of resistant populations of harmful organisms, create favorable conditions for the development of plants.
Combined insecticofungicides with mineral fertilizers (nitroammophoska, urea or ammonium nitrate) are highly effective. When using mineral fertilizers with a consumption rate of 30-50 g per 10 l of water, the technological quality of the working solution is improved - suspensions and emulsions are more stable, wet the sheet surface better and “stick” well, keeping it. By adding fertilizer to the working solution, you can reduce the consumption rate of insecticides by 20-30%.
In addition to protective measures, it is important to maintain agricultural technology at a high level. Caring for fruit trees includes watering and fertilizing. Plants need an additional portion of moisture in the summer, in the heat, in late autumn, they also need water-charging irrigation. Top-dressing with fertilizers (root and non-root) improves the physiological condition of trees and increases their resistance to adverse environmental conditions.
In addition to biological, chemical, mechanical and agrotechnical methods of protection, an important place in the IES is also immunological. When cultivating plum varieties that are resistant or tolerant to one or more types of pests, it is possible to reduce the number of protective sprays and at the same time get good yields of high-quality fruits.
Plum groundstone damage to the fruits of varieties Hungarian Azhanskaya, Stakhanovka, Hungarian Koziyevskaya, Katerina, Velyka Son, Pombrion, Perdrigon dark-skinned, less - Renklod green, Hungarian opishnyanskaya. Victoria, weakly - Peach, Early, Edinburgh, Italian Hungarian, Prince, Anna Shpet.
The varieties of plum Renklod Kiev, Ugorka Azhanskaya, Anna Shpet are relatively resistant to the type of asteriasis.
The most vulnerable to sharke plums varieties Hungarian ordinary, Empres, Hungarian Italian, Renklod collective farm. Chachansky Rodna, Hungarian Vangenheim are relatively stable. Kirke, Valor, Oneida, Early Blue, Hermann, Renklod Ulen, Anna Shpet, Hungarian Ajan. Tolerant varieties Rutgersteter, Renklod Altana. Renklod Kiev, Opal, Stanley, Sanktuss Gibertus, Chachanskaya naiboliya, Chachanskaya lepotoka, Chachanskaya early, Ganita, Top, Voloshka, Oda, Sinichka.
STRUGGLE AGAINST AND DISEASES OF DRAIN - A MEMORY
HawthornOne of the pests of plums, which is a fairly large butterfly with white wings. An individual who has not yet hatched can be recognized without difficulty. The body of the caterpillar of the hawthorn is colored mostly gray and covered with many large hairs. The back is replete with three black and two brown stripes. Caterpillars hibernate in dry foliage, and in early spring they start eating swollen young buds. As a result, they are destroyed completely, and the plant does not bloom.
Control measures. There are many ways to destroy the hawthorn, but the simplest of all is the collection of nests arranged for wintering and their subsequent destruction. Another effective way of fighting is birds, which are best lured to your site. In the early morning in the summer, you can lay a film under the plum and shake the tree well. Since the caterpillars have not yet fully become active, they will simply crumble from the branches. They need to be immediately put together and burned.
As soon as the plum began to bloom, it should be sprayed with one of the insecticides: Nitrafen, Metaphos or Actellic.
This pest is widely distributed in gardens with non-chernozem grounds. The female of the winter moth is a large insect with a swollen abdomen, long legs and underdeveloped wings, as if atrophied. She can not fly, but quickly runs along the branches in search of a place for her laying. Males can fly. They have brown wings with a grayish tint and wavy transverse veins. The winter moth caterpillar reaches 3 cm in length, it has five pairs of legs and a brown head. A dark stripe runs along the back along the whole body, and on the sides there are three white strips. The name of the pest came precisely from the movement of the caterpillar spans: it tightens the end of the calf to the head, and then repels and crawls.Wintering of deposited yellow eggs with an orange tint occurs in cracks in the bark close to the kidneys. In early spring, the caterpillars hatch and bite into the kidneys, eating them from the inside. After that, they devour the buds, flowers and leaves, entangling them with cobwebs. In June, pupation of caterpillars occurs in the soil near a tree trunk. In the autumn, when the plum leaves fall, butterflies appear. Females lay eggs for the winter under the bark. They can be arranged in groups or individually.
Control measures. In the autumn, before the butterflies appear, you need to impose special trap belts made of corrugated paper. Pests are destroyed along with belts. Also, after bud break, trees can be treated with infusions of special herbs. When the weather is warm outside, the treatment of trees with Bitoxibacillin and Lepidocide helps in the period of budding
Ticks are an absolutely unknown caste of organisms for many gardeners and gardeners. They do not belong to the class of insects, therefore, choosing plant protection products, be sure to consider this fact. Ticks are one of the most ancient representatives of microorganisms ever living on Earth. To date, there are more than 50,000 species.
Red fruit miteIt is a microorganism with a size of 0.5 mm of a red-brown color. A female tick can lay up to one hundred eggs in its lifetime. During the summer period, the red tick can produce up to eight generations of offspring. Summer egg laying takes place along the veins of the leaf from its reverse side. В конце осени самки откладывают яйца на молодых побегах. Зиму яйца переносят на поверхности коры. После зимовки перед цветением слив из яиц вылупляются личинки, которые, проходя стадию нимфы, становятся взрослыми особями. Спустя неделю клещи уже готовы к размножению.
Красные плодовые клещи высасывают соки из листьев, после чего те засыхают и отпадают. Плоды сморщиваются и не вырастают до нужных размеров. If the infection has become very large-scale, then you can lose up to 30% of the total yield of plums.
Control measures. To combat these arthropods, pyrethroid preparations are not suitable. At the time of larvae hatching, the following insectoacaricides are used: "Fufanon", "Danadim", "Fitoverm" and others. When the mass infection has reached a critical point, then it is necessary to use highly targeted drugs: "Sunmite", "Neoron", "Nissoran", "Apollo" and others.
Common Spider MiteThis is a polymorphic parasite that can damage a plant in closed and open ground. In size it can reach 0.6 mm. In summer, the color of the pest is greenish-yellow; by spring it becomes red-orange. Its nutrition and reproduction occurs on the underside of the leaves under a veil of thin cobwebs. On it is his movement, there he is hiding.
When the defeat of the spider mite becomes massive, the web can be pulled even between the nearby branches of the plum tree. They can even be completely covered with cobwebs. At the tips of the shoots and leaves an accumulation of a moving mass of pests is formed. The activity of spider mites can be detected by small black points of the fecal mass.
In the first periods, damage occurs to all the leaves, after the bulk of the pests rise to the upper tier and damage not only the leaves, but also flowers with fruits.
Methods of struggle. During the growing season, the plum must be sprayed with "Aktellik", "Altyn", "Antikleschom" and other similar preparations. If you are late with the treatment, the females will have time to lay new eggs and increase their numbers. Treatments of any type should be carried out immediately after the detection of spider mite populations. The tick web has a water repellent property. The later the treatment will be carried out, it will be more difficult to achieve positive results even with high doses of the drug.
Acacia spatulaThis insect injures plum trees especially hard. The body of an adult female has a reddish-brown color. Its length is 6 mm and its width is 5 mm. The little body is rounded oval, along the edges it is gentle. Males have a thinner and oblong body. Their head is black with six eyes, the antennae and legs are yellow, the belly and chest are brown and covered with white powdered wax. On the abdomen are two long threads.
Trees are greatly weakened after the attack of the acacia false guard because it sucks out all the nutrients and dissolves the plant tissue with its toxic saliva. Subsequently, the bark of the tree is destroyed and dies down to the wood. Plums eaten by shading, lose not only the attractiveness of appearance, but also the taste. Young trees, to which no measures are being taken to eliminate the pest, die within two years.
Control measures. Check the seedlings when planting, because the acacia false guard is distributed along with the seedlings and inoculum materials. Clean trunks from dead bark and remove dry branches. If the case is too neglected, then the tree should be uprooted and burned. The pest control of plums by spraying is carried out in a dormant period until the bud break. Processing should be carried out with contact-acting insecticides and preparations based on mineral oil.
Listovertka rosanyThese are small butterflies with a wingspan of up to 25 mm. The caterpillars of the grassworms eat the foliage, as a result of which it collapses, becoming unnatural. Caterpillars grow to 20 mm, and their color can vary from green to brown.
Control measures. It is necessary to begin the destruction of the leaflets before the plum blossoms. If wintering caterpillars predominantly live on trees, then spraying of insecticides should be carried out in the budding phase. If the shepherds overwinter at the egg stage, the treatment should be carried out in spring at a temperature not lower than 10 ° C. It's easier to get on the tracks, because in cold weather, they hide under the cobwebs or twisted leaves.
If the caterpillars have already fallen into flower buds and twisted leaves, then it’s time to introduce pyrethroids, for example, Ivanhoe, AltAlf, Accord, Alfatsin, Alfashans, Tsi-Alpha, Fatrin, Fastak. The following drugs can also be used: Karate Zeon, Altyn, Lambda-S, Kungfu, Break, Sensei, Gladiator, Karachar, Samum, Lyambdeks.
These are exclusively herbivorous insects, which breed at times and in great quantities. Sawmills destroy many crops and man-grown trees, including plums.
Plum black sawflyAdult insect is pearly black in color up to 0.5 cm in length with yellow limbs and transparent wings. The larvae of the black sawfly are greenish-white with a brown head and twenty legs. They carry the winter in the soil to a depth of 10 cm. In the spring they pupate. Adult individuals appear a week before plum blossom, and at first they lay eggs in buds. One female can inhabit up to 30 buds. The larvae hatch during the formation of fruit ovaries. They eat them away and damage the seeds. Each larva can damage up to six fruits per month. Wintering the larvae go to the ground near the tree.
Most damage can be observed during wet warm periods. Eaten by the larvae fruits begin to crumble in the late spring - early summer. If the number of pests reaches a critical point, then the plums can lose up to 95% of their yield. Another sign of plum damage by the black sawfly is a round hole in the fruit, through which dark brown discharges and dust with the characteristic smell of bedbugs can be seen.
Control measures. Black plum sawfly dies from the "Intavira" and "Iskra". It is enough to spray the crowns of trees in the proportion of one tablet per bucket of water. Damaged fruits should be shaken and destroyed along with the pests that are inside. In the autumn you need to dig up the soil under the tree.
Bone yellow sawflyThese are half-centimeter yellow pests. Adults live in spiderweb nesting places among tree foliage. Pupation occurs in the ground under a tree. They are as dangerous as their black tribesmen. Statistics says that one yellow sawfire is able to spoil up to six fruits in its life. A massive attack of these pests can destroy up to 80% of the crop of plums. Moreover, only the best trees are affected.
Control measures. Irrigation of trees should be carried out zonal in those places where the accumulation of insects is greatest. The best remedy for yellow plum sawfly is Metaphos. You can also use a ten percent "karbofos" and benzophosphate. The first pollination by insecticides against pests is carried out a couple of days before the start of flowering. Well cope with the task of "Rogor", "Gardona", "Tsidial." Repeated processing of plums from pests will be aimed at the destruction of the larvae when the petals have already crumbled. Means that are recommended to use - it "Tarzan", "Insegar", "Novaktion".
In the third treatment applied "Metaphos" or "Phosphamide". It is only necessary to calculate the treatment in such a way that the harvest is carried out no earlier than a month after the destruction of the insects.
Gypsy mothThis pest affects not only the plum, but also other fruit bearing cultures, being a multi-eating insect. Unlike other, less noticeable parasites, these caterpillars reach a length of eight centimeters. A distinctive feature is a kind of warts on the back of the pest. Gypsy moth nibbles leaves. Eggs are laid on the skeletal branches and walls of homestead structures.
Control measures. Carefully inspect the intended location of the tracks and remove the egg masonry with a knife. Before and after flowering, the plum must be treated with Inta-Vir.
The wormy fruits of plum trees unequivocally indicate that they are damaged by this pest. The adult plum moth is a butterfly, whose wrecking activity comes at the end of April. She usually lays eggs in the evening at + 16 ° C. Crawling caterpillars take root in the fruits that they become food and home. Such plums disappear even before their full ripening. Plums, eaten moth, covered with a small amount of gum.Methods of struggle. First of all, the fallen fruits are gathered, trap pods are applied and the soil is dug around the trees. Processing is done by "Aktar" and "Confidor". It is also worth highlighting such biological agents as Bitoxibacillin or Lepidotsid. You can also personally prepare a decoction of bitter wormwood.
This is a garden and garden pest that feeds on sap from plant tissues. Thus irreparable damage to the plant is done: its growth and development are inhibited, the flowers fall off, the quality of the fruits deteriorates. For this, aphid never fell in love with gardeners, who are constantly looking for the most effective methods of dealing with it.
Plum pollinated aphid
This pest affects almost the entire tree completely. After the lower part of the foliage has been damaged, it collapses and then dries quickly. As for fruits, they shrivel, rot and fall away. Tree branches are bent and the whole plant weakens. In addition, the bodily fluid secreted by aphids contributes to the emergence and development of soot fungus.Control measures. Before you begin to fight pests of plums, a number of preventive measures should be taken in the spring. First of all, it is necessary to remove all the young shoots formed around the roots. Also in March you need to spray the plum trees with Nitrafen. When buds are dissolved, they must be treated with tincture of tobacco, combined with a solution of laundry soap. The trunk itself and pristvolnye branches need to coat with insect glue.
Females of this insect reach a length of up to 2.5 mm and have an oval yellow-green body. On the sides and abdomen are clear dark stripes. The eyes of the insect are red-brown. The larvae have a paler color.
Control measures. During periods when the foliage has an average of 10 aphids, you can use Bitoxibacillin. Protecting plums from pests with this tool prevents the appearance of not only aphids, but also multi-tier scoops and stem moths. Excellent means - "Bi-58", "Karate", "Siren" and "Dursban".
Plum cobweedThis is a black pest with yellow paws. Larvae reach half centimeter length. The female lays her eggs inside the still unformed plum fruit. And in the plums that have already fallen, the wintering of the larvae occurs. The plum tree-eaters hit the trees so much that by the middle of summer there is a massive fall of the fruits.
Methods of struggle. Fallen fruits must be harvested and buried to a depth of at least half a meter. After the start of the pest's peak activity, the trees should be sprayed with the insecticide Insegar. This occurs a decade after the flowering of the plant.
May Western HruschThe larvae of this polymorphid pest infect the roots of young plum trees. Adult individuals are fairly large beetles, reaching up to three centimeters in size. Elytras are colored reddish brown with black edging. On the abdomen there is a conical ligidium, which is elongated and bent down. In large numbers, the Mayr Khrushchev is dangerous both in adult form and in the form of larvae. Young plants, damaged by the latter, wither, linger in growth and die. Adult individuals gnaw the leaves of plum trees.
Control measures. The easiest way to destroy the larvae of Khrushchev is their manual collection and further destruction. With the mass reproduction of the May beetles, you can shake off the film, spread out under the crown of a tree, and destroy. This should be done in the early morning, while the beetles are still in a sluggish state.
Pest preventive measures
The irrefutable fact that strong and healthy trees recover better from the harmful effects of pests than weakened ones. Hence the conclusion that one should not immediately take up "heavy artillery", exposing the plant to stress, but simply strengthen it. High agrotechnical properties contribute to the excellent growth and development of not only plum trees, but also other plants.
First, it is necessary to minimize the risk of infecting a plant before it is planted in the ground. For this, seedlings should be purchased only in proven nurseries and shops. It is important to acquire varieties that are most resistant to the detrimental effects of the pests prevailing in your area. Increases the resistance of plants to pests a certain composition and concentration of nutrients. Potash-phosphorus fertilizers are well suited, but an excess of nitrogenous substances, on the contrary, reduces the immunity of trees and reduces the shelf life of harvested fruits. Organic fertilizers also only improve the living conditions of the pests living in the soil.Tillage around trees in the spring, together with the simultaneous application of fertilizers contributes to their protection against various pests. Digging up the soil, you prevent creeping wintering parasites to the surface.
Pruning and the formation of tree crowns involves the removal of affected pests of shoots, leaves and branches with their subsequent removal. This is a very effective measure that rejuvenates the plant and gives it strength and health. Together with pruning, you can clear the layer of the old bark. Along with it, plum pests inhabiting them are also being destroyed.
But there is a reasonable question about the use of drugs against diseases. All of the above methods are clearly inferior in their effectiveness to chemical processing. In this case, do not be afraid to use prophylactic drugs intended against a certain type of pests.
Fungal disease, which affects almost all stone trees. Can be found on plum leaves, branches, flowers and buds. Manifested in the form of rounded brownish spots with a red rim. After a couple of weeks, the specks crumble and holes appear in their place. Hence the name - perforated spotting. The leaves dry and fall off. Affected plums have purple, slightly depressed, specks. Growing over time, they become convex. Swollen spots exude gum, the fruits become shallow and dry. The shoots appear round spots, which are elongated and cracks appear on them. The damaged buds turn black and the flowers fall. Spores are spread by wind, insects, raindrops. The yield is reduced by half, the tree weakens.
How to deal with congestion
- It is necessary in time to pick off and destroy the affected foliage, remove diseased shoots and branches.
- You can not thicken landing.
- Spray immediately after shedding flowers. Re-treatment - no later than 2 weeks after the first. For spraying, copper oxychloride is recommended (for 10 l - a bucket of water they take 30 grams of funds) or 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Fungal disease appears on the fruits and leaves of plums. Fruits do not grow and fall down or dry directly on the tree. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of reddish spots, which merge and cover the entire area of the leaf plate. Spores of the fungus are located on the bottom of the sheet. Affected foliage turns yellow and falls.
How to deal with coccomycosis
- Digging the soil near the tree.
- Destruction of infected foliage.
- Spraying plum three times a day: during the formation of buds, after shedding flowers, after harvesting, using 1% Bordeaux liquid, it is recommended to use copper chloroxide (40 grams of product per water bucket).
The bacteria in the soil weakens the plants and causes cancer. Growths appear on the roots, since microorganisms enter the plum root system through wounds and cause cell division. Trees growing on neutral or weakly alkaline soil are more likely to develop root cancer.
How to deal with root cancer
- For the cultivation of seedlings choose a place on the site, where for a long time did not grow crops, sick with cancer.
- When digging out seedlings, the growths are removed, the roots are dipped into a container containing copper sulphate solution (10 l - 30 g.) For 5 minutes.
- With severe damage, the plum seedlings are burned.
- For processing inventory for 5 liters of water, add 100 ml of 40% formalin.
Defeat fungus that can completely destroy the plant. To avoid this, it is recommended to plant only zoned tree varieties. In the spring, after cutting the branches, new cuts must be patched with garden pitch or oil paint. Reduces the risk of feeding and whitewashing the trunk.
It is characterized by viscous flowing droplets on the tree, similar to resin. The main way to avoid illness is to follow all the rules of agricultural technology. The tree must be cut from the old and affected branches. Treating wood with folk remedies and chemicals, as well as adhering to the basic rules of agricultural engineering, will help preserve the culture and reap a good harvest.
Incurable disease, vectors are mites and aphids. As preventive measures, use the timely elimination of marked pests. Damaged parts or wood must be destroyed completely.
Грибковое заболевание, при котором страдает листва дерева. Она становится коричневого оттенка, как будто ржавеет.
Fruit trees attract many insects that devour fruits and leaves, thereby deteriorating the crop and causing damage to the garden.
This insect has several varieties. Cherry slimy damages almost all fruit trees. The little body of the pest is brilliant, the legs are black, the wings are with dark veins. The size of the female individual is about 6 mm, the male is slightly smaller. Lay up to 70 eggs on the lower shell of the leaf. Infection is determined by the occurrence of brown tubercles on the top of the leaf.
After two weeks, a greenish larva appears, covered with mucus, which saves it from drying out. It eats the flesh of the leaves, and when ripe, falls to the ground and buries itself in the soil by 10 cm. Some turn into pupae, the others hibernate and leave it in the next spring. The next generation is born in August and causes even more harm to the plum. Eaten foliage falls, which has a negative effect on fruiting in general.
The yellow sawfly has a brown body and vitreous wings. The main harm to plants is caused by the larva of a yellowish-brown color. An adult female can lay up to 60 eggs, from which caterpillars will hatch in 10 days. They feed on ovaries, after which they crumble and fall.
Black plum sawfly has transparent wings with brown veins, black head and torso. A female can lay up to 30 eggs. At the stage of origin of the ovary light green caterpillars fall into the plum and eat it from the inside. The berries fall off, the caterpillars burrow into the ground for wintering or pupation.
Moth is of two types: ordinary and American. A common one is a butterfly with wings of a grayish tint, at the back edge of which there is a fringe. Flies out immediately after the tree blooms. A female insect lays up to 50 light green eggs, one per fruit.
First, the caterpillar appears off-white, then changes color to light red. It enters the fetus, covering the wormhole with cobwebs. If the berry is unripe, the larva spoils the bone. In mature it eats up the pulp, damaging the vascular system, and thereby stopping the access of beneficial substances to the plum. The fruits begin to rot and fall off. The place of penetration of the pest is given by a hardened drop of gum.
After a month of stay, the insect comes out and hides under the bark of a tree or in the soil. There the caterpillar overwinter or pupate. The American moth has dark brown wings with blue veins and brown spots in front and gray-brown at the back. The caterpillars of this insect eat out the wormholes inside the fruit, which eventually dries and falls, or becomes unsuitable for use in food.
Aphids create colonies at the bottom of tree foliage. When the plum blossom period is over, wingless founders hatch from eggs, from which several subsequent generations originate. Aphid multiplies very quickly and can produce twelve generations of individuals in one season. Eggs spend the winter at the base of the ovaries. This insect is considered the most dangerous for plum trees.
Affected leaves and berries fall. Sugar pest secretions cause the formation of saprophytic fungi, due to the activity of which the shape of the preserved berries is deformed and they rot. It is necessary to fight insects in the spring, until the total reproduction of the parasite has begun.
The crown plum has a black body with transparent wings and paws of yellow color. A week after the flowering of the tree, the female insect, piercing the ovary of the plant, lays one egg in the middle of the stone that does not yet have hardness. She can lay up to forty eggs, of which after about three weeks the larvae appear. They, penetrating into the core of the bone, wash it into powder. The affected fruits fall off along with the caterpillars inside, which remain there until spring.
Since the insect cannot get out of the stone, the crumbling plums must be collected, and the soil must be deeply dug up. If a large number of fruits are affected, it is worth treating the garden with insecticides at the time of the summer pests.
The goldfinder is a white-winged butterfly with a golden hair pad on its belly. The larva of this insect is greyish-black, with chains of poisonous red warts along the body. Years of insects occur in the middle of summer. Eggs are placed on the lower part of the foliage, branches and trunks, after 2 - 3 weeks, the larvae that feed on the pulp of the leaves. They hibernate in branches, shrouded in cobwebs.
Mesh leafworm - butterfly with wings of yellow-brown outflow with wavy dashed lines in front and rear gray or brownish-red. The larva is dark green with a brownish head. Females can lay up to 180 eggs. Winter spends this pest in the crevices of the bark. It feeds by buds, leaves, flowers and fruits, surrounding them with cobwebs. During the season, two generations of insect grow, which is found everywhere and spoils all pome and stone fruit.
Pink cicada is a small midge of a light yellow color, very jumping with two pairs of wings. The larvae are yellowish, have three pairs of legs and a pointed abdomen. They overwinter on the branches at the base of the shoots, and appearing in spring, feed on the juice of fresh foliage. By the middle of summer mature specimens appear from the larvae.
The leaves damaged by the cicadas are of marble color, and the lower parts are covered with whitish-yellow dots. They must be destroyed to prevent the spread of the pest.
The sniper is a tiny insect, the females of which have a convex-shaped red-brown body with black lines across the body. In males, the body is longitudinal, covered with a whitish bloom. Caterpillars are oval-shaped with three pairs of legs and antennae, at first pale yellow, and then red-brown. Having grown through the winter, adult caterpillars stick to fresh shoots, legs and antennae fall away. After a month, the female individuals expand threefold, and the males turn into small mosquitoes.
In June, males are committed, but females have something like a scab on their backs, where up to 2800 eggs can be placed, from which larvae will hatch in a month. They crawl and stick to the leaves, and at the beginning of autumn they return to the branches for wintering. Dried and infected parts of the plant to be cut and burned, and the tree itself immediately after blooming spray.
The moth plum is a moth of small size, with wings of elongated shape. The larvae are greenish, with a dark brown head, absorb the pulp of the leaves, making miner passages in them. They pupate in a voluminous cocoon in the middle of a mine, which is located on the upper base of the leaf. During the year, two insect generations ripen, in June and September.
Moth-baby - a tiny butterfly with thin, lined with fringe wings and covered with villus head. The larvae are amber-yellow, they use leaf parenchyma for food, forming snake-like manholes that expand into a large spot. Harm is applied from June to September.
The motley moth is a small moth with long multi-colored wings framed by a fringe. Caterpillars of small size, yellow-green, form brown mines at the bottom of the leaf. Damaged foliage is deformed and falls prematurely.
The scoop-gamma is a moth with muddy-gray front wings with a silver Y-shaped spot. Green caterpillars with light winding stripes on the back and yellow on the sides, have three pairs of abdominal paws and tall warts with tiny spines. In total, two insect generations are formed per season.
The years begin at the end of June, and the second time in August-September. Young larvae gnaw leaves, older individuals eat holes or foliage edges. After 15–20 days of feeding, pupation occurs in cocoons from the web on the eaten sheets. After 7-13 days, new-generation butterflies appear, and newly produced larvae are already wintering in the soil. Scoop-gamma is a very common pest and affects not only fruit trees, but also plants of other families.
Birch marshmallow or tail - broad-winged moth of a small brown color. On the front wings of the female there is a large orange spot, and in the male there is a tiny gray-yellow speck with a black edging. The rear wings have two yellow-red protrusions and a white rear edge. Larvae are plump, green, with a tiny brown head. There is a double yellow line along the body, and transverse light yellow stripes along the sides.
Years of insects take place in July-August, and the larvae wield on trees in May-June and harm all stone fruit, mainly plums. The tail is found everywhere, but its number is small, it does not cause significant harm.
The red-tailed or red-headed gardener is a rather voluminous butterfly, the females of which have several sinuous dark lines on the front yellowish-gray wings, while the posterior ones are gray with a black stripe and speck. The colors of males are ashy. The hairy larva of yellow, gray or dark brown color has four bunches of long hairs on the back and a pink tail. Overwinter in shells from a web in the middle of the showered foliage, on branches and in shtamba cracks.
At the end of May and the beginning of July moths appear, which at night are content with nectar. After the summer, the female lays 10 to 100 eggs on the branches. The larvae are covered with long hairs, with the help of which the wind transports them to neighboring plants. They feed on foliage and are found constantly on fruit trees.
Weevil overwinters in the soil, and comes out before the very flowering of plants, destroying young leaves, flowers and ovaries, or completely eating them. Eggs are laid inside the fetus, the caterpillars that appear gnaw through the bone and feed on the nucleus. A month later, some of them pupate and melt bugs in the fall, and the rest overwinter in the soil.
The wood is a large moth with a thick belly, with egg-laying at the end, and six round dark green spots on the back. The male is somewhat smaller and has a feathery antennae. On the wings of the insect are blue-green oval markings. Caterpillars are pale yellow with coal-black dots along the entire length of the body. Eggs are laid on the branches of the kidneys or in crevices. One female can postpone up to 1000 pieces. The emerged larvae penetrate into the bark and eat wood for two years, laying large curvature in the trunks. This pest causes great damage to the garden, provoking numerous death of trees.
Preparations for the treatment and prevention
Spraying plum trees for diseases and pests is best done immediately after spring work in the garden so that wintering larvae do not have time to be born. If you miss the time, you can not count on a good harvest.
It is easy to get rid of such a pest as aphid if you start using protective measures on time. First, you can try to use folk remedies: a strong tincture of tobacco, onion peel, wormwood or garlic with a small amount of soap. These are more preventative methods of protection, and for absolute extermination of the pest it is better to use the preparations Sherpa, Decis, Artelik, Inta-Vir three times a season: before flowering, after it and after the end of fruiting. For the destruction of eggs of aphids are effective "Nitrafen" and "Olekuprit."
You can fight against the weevil with the help of the Alt and Clean House belts, and karbofos, metaphos or Corsair, Actellic, which are sprayed before and after the color, will be suitable as chemical protection. From the fruit moth, bitter pepper tincture (500 grams of dry product per bucket of water) works well with 40 grams of soap. Spray need twice a month. Of the drugs are effective "Antia", "Nexion", "Methation". From the bark beetle, the tree is treated with chlorophos or metaphosis.
For the destruction of sawfly, insecticides such as karbofos, rogor, chlorophos, and kemiphos are used, and from bioadditives, Bitoxibacillin, Lepitocid, Gaupsin, Entobakterin. Tincture of tobacco and bitter wormwood have proven themselves in pest control. The appearance of worms in the fruit can be avoided if, at the first traces of the appearance of caterpillars, the processing of plums with the “Decis”, Iskra ”or“ Kinmiks ”chemical preparations begins. Sprinkling must be done three times, every 15 days.
It is necessary to get rid of wormy fruits as they are carriers of parasites. These insecticidal preparations are effective against virtually all pests of plum trees.
Apply them according to the instructions on the package. Fungal diseases are treated with fungicides: solutions of copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture, as well as the preparation Nitrafen.
When is it better to spray?
Spraying plum occurs in several stages, the trees must be processed in spring and autumn. Spring garden processing begins even before the movement of the juice, the plants are sprinkled from aphids and weevils. When the first leaves appear, sprinkling is carried out against the occurrence of diseases and pests. The procedure is done several times during and after flowering, as well as all similar activities are carried out in the autumn period. Ways to protect plum trees include:
- purification of dead bark,
- digging up the soil around trees in the fall,
- during the period of laying eggs the release of trichograms that feed them,
- the use of pheromone traps,
- systematic cutting of shoots
- constant collection of fallen fruits,
- use of insecticides in the processing of the garden,
- conducting whitewash plants
- disinfecting injuries with one percent copper sulphate solution,
- use of garden warrior for bark damage.
If you do not be lazy and follow the rules of agricultural engineering, you can grow a beautiful healthy plum orchard.
For details on how to handle plums from pests, see the following video.
Adding an article to a new collection
Plum pests cause huge damage to the crop, but can be almost invisible. That is why it is important to know their "face" and be able to effectively deal with them. We will tell you how to spray the plum from pests.
The greatest harm to plums is caused by insects that damage the fruit. But some of them feed on young sprouts and plum leaves and thus weaken the tree as much as it cannot bear fruit. How to recognize these voracious plum pests?
Plum sawfly is yellow and black. The development of this pest is closely related to flowering, formation and growth of ovaries. Plum sawf winter in the larvae stage in cocoons in the soil at a depth of 5-20 cm. In spring, the larvae pupate, and before flowering, adult individuals fly out - small yellow-brown flies with transparent wings (yellow sawflies) or black flies with brown veins (black sawflies) ). But the greatest harm is caused by their larvae, which mercilessly eat the ovaries.
Initially, plum sawflies concentrate on the varieties of plums that bloom early. Mass flight and laying of eggs by females occur during flowering at air temperatures above 10 ° C. Where the pest lays eggs, small convex specks of rusty color are visible. With a high number in one bud, there can be up to 7 eggs. The larvae hatch at the end of flowering and penetrate into the ovaries.
During the period of development, one larva damages up to 6 ovaries, which then fall off. Pests prefer trees that bloom profusely, have a thickened crown and are well protected from the wind. If the budding and flowering period is prolonged, plum sawfire destroys up to 90% of the crop of plums.
Plum (reed) aphid
The pest overwinters in the egg stage on shtambakh and branches of trees. In spring, during the budding period, light green larvae begin to hatch, which grow rapidly and become viviparous females. In case of mass reproduction, the aphid covers with a continuous layer all the leaves, shoots, and also stalks. The leaves do not curl, but on them appears a bluish bloom from the skins of insects.
Mass development of the pest is observed in June-July. Most of the aphids at the end of July flies from the plum to the reed and stay there until autumn. After this, the winged females fly over to the plum, where they lay eggs. Up to 10 generations of the pest develop in a year.
Plum love gall plum and red fruit mites, both insects are of red-brown color. The first pest forms growths (galls) at the base of the shoots. In these galls, the insect overwinters, and in spring (at a temperature of 15 ° C) begins to feed on young shoots of plum. During the summer, several generations of ticks are born.
Fruit tick larvae hatch before plum blossom and begin to feed on young leaves of the tree. Due to a lack of nutrients, the fruits do not tangle well and soon fall off. In summer, mite eggs are clearly visible on the back of the leaf plate.
This lover of stone fruit cultures is a small black bug (about 3 mm long). Морщинистый заболонник зимует под корой дерева, а весной и до конца июля личинки окукливаются. В мае вылетают жуки и питаются частями дерева. Они выгрызают углубления в стволе и ветках (чаще всего возле почек и у разветвления побегов).
Жук предпочитает слабые, поврежденные морозобоинами сливы, поэтому на здоровых плодовых деревьях селится редко. If the damaged branches are removed and burned in time, then the pest can be managed even before the departure of the cunning beetles.
Control and prevention measures
To destroy the wintering pest larvae, in the late autumn they carefully dig up the soil in tree trunks. Insects, being on the surface of the ground, with the onset of cold weather freeze.
In the spring and summer you need to monitor the extension of the buds. Pests that feed on ovaries accumulate on the branches before flowering. At this point, they can be destroyed by shaking off. A litter is spread under the plum and in cloudy weather or early in the morning the tree is shaken, collect the fallen insects and destroy them.
To attract useful insect entomophages to the garden, honey plants are planted on the plot: buckwheat, phacelia, clover, flowering shrubs.
For females, moths set up traps: on the branches of the plum are hanging cans with fermented compote, beer, kvass. At night, butterflies fly to the smell and drown in the liquid. In the morning they are removed, the traps are covered, and in the evening they are left open again.
Ticks are most effectively dealt with in spring when they leave wintering grounds. At this time they are sprayed with acaricides (for example, Fitoverm).
With pests, wintering in the bark of a tree, struggling with the help of cleansing the old layer of wood and whitewashing.
Processing plums from pests
Before the insects fly out, you can try to treat the plum with an infusion with a strong odor (for example, a concentrate of wormwood or coniferous plants). This will confuse the pests and induce them to seek another refuge, because these fragrant cultures are unattractive to them.
Against the plum aphid apply ash-soap infusion. 1 kg of ash pour 10 liters of boiling water, insist for two days, then add 100 g of soap, mix thoroughly and spray the trees (especially carefully on the back of the leaves) with an interval of 10-14 days.
For pest control, plum plants are sprayed with insecticides 3-4 times per season: before bud break, during leafing, before flowering, and before fruit begins to ripen. Such drugs as Fufanon, Karate, Karbofos, Aktara, Mospilan, Calypso have recommended themselves well.
And in the fall after harvesting, it does not hurt to process plums with 1% Bordeaux liquid. This fungicide will destroy the fungus dangerous for the plant.
Spraying plums from pests is desirable to carry out various insecticides so that insects do not get used to a particular active substance.
Hello, dear readers!
The animal world is built on the cruel principle: one eats the other.
Plants are also living creatures, rarely predators are found among them. But they themselves are food for numerous vegetarian lovers.
Plum is adored not only by people and birds who do not harm it.
The disaster of the tree, from birth - germination, it is insects, plum pests that parasitize on fruit.
Gardeners know how it is very disappointing when diseases or pests of plum are ruined, crops grown with love.
To avoid this, listen to the advice.
Characteristics of plum pests
Most harmful plums insects keep close to their “dining room”.
Hibernate on a tree or the soil beneath it is inhabited, in the spring they immediately attack the garden darling. She sometimes has to suffer from several types of uninvited guests.
She is unable to feed everyone, our urgent help is required. To cope with the invasion, “knowing the face” of voracious aliens is necessary.
Gallic plum mite
The pest is officially called the plum tree, although it is still on the turn. Southerd mites do not allow peach trees, almonds, and cornels.
Gall mites were named for their remarkable ability: it forms growths - galls at the base of young shoots. This is the home of ticks, inside the galls their whole cluster.
Gall mites are serious plum pests. After wintering in the galls, they begin to feed, damaging the young shoots.
Waking up early, + 15 ° for ticks is already a “working” temperature. They form new dwellings, these galls are clearly visible, stand out in a bright, red-brown color.
By the summer, the Gauls "mask" - they acquire the color of the bark on which they were formed. Ticks feed on the juice of the shoots; young twigs dry out and die.
For two - three seasons possible destruction of the tree.
Fight with a tick is not easy, it is protected, hidden in his house. During the summer, several generations hatch, and live, feed, in the same galle.
But the biology of the pest provides for its relocation in the spring. The tick exits the wintering places, finds live buds and takes root in them.
Two weeks while he is busy moving, the tick is open and vulnerable.
Red fruit mite
A very common harmful insect. Slightly smaller than a half centimeter (0.4 mm), the bright red female is very prolific.
Lives a month, has time to lay hundreds of the same red eggs. Itself gradually becomes brown.
Eight generations of ticks per season dramatically deplete the tree. These pests plum does not spare her.
In summer, the eggs are noticeable on the lower plate of the leaf, they are located closer to the diet. Eggs intended for wintering, prudently laid on the shoots.
When there are a lot of them, the tree looks red after leaf fall.
Nature has foreseen everything: the larvae hatch just before the flowering of the plum. When the flowers bloom, the mite is already mature.
The leaves appear and immediately become the food of the fruit mite. The leaves dry, the plums that have managed to tangle fall down or grow small, shriveled.
Yellow plum sawfly
Insect inconspicuous, yellow-brown, up to half a centimeter long. A seemingly harmless little "front sight" with transparent wings.
Do not be touched by this graceful little bug, glad that it is warmer. Already by the word "sawfly" it is clear that it is difficult to drain from it.
The pest does not cut the trunk, the larva eats the ovary. Years of sawflies begins before the opening of plum buds.
This beautiful fly (each of them!) Will lay in the middle of the flowers about fifty eggs. Maybe more - up to 60.
Snips a bud and puts an egg in each. After a week and a half, slippery yellow-brown "tadpoles" - larvae will emerge from them.
The appetite of young sawfishes is excellent: each larva is capable of killing five fruits during its growth.
If you do not help plum, she does not have enough fruits for all this voracious company.
- In our garden, we focus on biological products (entobacterin or lepitocide). We destroy the hibernating larvae with the usual technique: digging the surface layer of garden rows and, especially, tree trunks. Digging - late autumn. Then many pests of plum of all stripes, who arranged for wintering near the tree, will freeze.
- Watch out for flower buds. Before flowering, sawflies sit on the branches and wait. Choose a cloudy day, lay a litter and shake a tree. Frightened sawflies will be trapped, they are easy to destroy. This is a mechanical way. Manual, but very effective work.
- With a strong lesion, sometimes it is necessary to connect organophosphate pesticides, it is: metaphos, karbofos, other derivative groups. But this is an extreme measure. Acts effectively, decompose into harmless components of the drugs relatively quickly. But toxicity is present, knowingly insects are dying.
- You can try to confuse insects. Without waiting for the departure of the sawfly, a little earlier, process plum odorous infusions. Wormwood will do: wormwood has a strong smell, does not look like plum. Even easier: dilute pharmaceutical coniferous concentrate that is used for baths, and spray plantings. Plum pests do not consider spruce food to be disoriented.
Black plum sawfly
The pest is similar to yellow, even the size of adult Hymenoptera is the same - 5 mm.
But the wings are transparent - black, brown veins are clearly visible on them. The body is also black in color.
Only the female lays fewer eggs than yellow sawflies - up to 30.
But the thirty plums stolen from the harvest by each continuer of the genus are considerable.
The larvae are white with a green tinge or yellow. They feed on pulp, get to the bone, affect it.
Plum falls. By this time, the larva is fat and ready to pupate. It remains only to crawl into the ground and do it.
They fight against the black sawyer by the same methods listed for the destruction of the yellow one.
Common plum moth
With all the "ordinary" pest unusually voracious, which is also reflected in the name.
If you see a drop of gum on the fruit of the plum - there, probably, the moth caterpillar manages.
The moth itself is a nondescript gray butterfly with a brown tinge. It looks like a mole (home), but larger: the span in the summer with its wings open reaches one and a half centimeters.
The awakening of butterflies is also focused on plum blossom.
Eggs plum moth beige-milk, with a green tinge. She postpones them - at night, for everyone she chooses a “personal” plum, a separate plum.
Occasionally, the second and third eggs can be added there. Can populate fifty fruits. A few butterflies, and the harvest is not yours.
Eggs lays on the shadow side - the bottom. Years of butterflies stretched - up to two months. The period is determined by the climate of the region: below + 14 ° the female of the laying stops.
Hatching dirty white caterpillar examines the fetus, selects the place of entry. It does this in detail - it can crawl along the sink for several hours.
Finding a convenient place, she is covered with a cobweb, crawling under it. Gnawing through the peel, prudently does not eat it up: after making its way inside, the skin closes the "door".
Plum tries to heal a wound, allocates gum. On this trail it is clear: inside the uninvited lodger.
When feeding, the caterpillar changes color: it turns red. She sneaks to the place where the stem is attached. If the plum fruit is immature - gnaws a bone.
In ripened, the pulp is eaten away by the pit, leaving excrement everywhere along the path.
It mings so much about the moth for about a month, then gnaws through the stem attachment. If there is a touching fruit nearby, the caterpillar will go there.
After the end of the feeding cycle, the caterpillar emerges and pupates. Interestingly, even in warmer climates, some of the pupae fall asleep for future wintering.
The rest of the butterflies fly out - continue to multiply. Plum pests know how to hedge.
Knowledge of the biology of the pest facilitates the planning of activities for its destruction.
Control measures include methods:
- Attraction of insect entomophages. Sow in the garden entomophagous plants (buckwheat, phacelia, clover). Plant flowering shrubs. Entomophagous insects useful, destroying malware, need nectar and these pests of fruit. Trichogramma, elasmus - these entomophagous animals are specially bred, then they are populated with gardens. In addition to the ordinary trichogram, there is even a podzhodochnaya (yellow pzvodorochnaya trichogramma). She makes egg-laying directly into the clutch eggs. In parallel, it frees the garden from leafworms.
- Using beneficial insects, remember that they are vulnerable to poisons, do not poison them with pesticides. During treatments, entomophages die along with pests.
- The old method - bait for female moths. In the crowns are hung cans with fermented fruit compote, beer, yeast perebrodami. You can use kvass. Butterflies fly to the smell and sink. In the morning the "catch" is removed, it is better to cover the banks. In the evening the traps open.
- Night (or twilight) smoking with toxic formulations for the codling moth. Mix the straw with the tops of tomatoes, potatoes, nightshade, wormwood - that will be at home. Lay out in piles or rows. You can add manure. Task: to organize smoldering masses. Smoke will be toxic for the moth, other insects. Pests of plum will partially die, the rest will prefer to retire. Enough two hours of smoke. It is advisable to periodically repeat the reception during the summer.
- Chemical method If you have chosen it, look for modern, possibly sparing plantings, useful fauna and you.
Such a scheme is effective:
- With the beginning of the summer of the plum moth - plum processing begins immediately. Determine the days of departure of the first females is easy. Put in the garden fermented compote or kvass in an open container. Wait for the catch. The first "butterfly compote" - a signal to start treatments.
- Use pyrethroid class drugs. The name of the group received from chamomile (feverfew). Insects are paralyzed. Their advantages:
- Similarity to action with natural protective substances,
- Selective toxicity or selectivity - damaging pests, spare beneficial insects, fish,
- Minimally toxic - valuable for the gardener himself,
- Reliable adhesion,
- Resistance to light action of the sun,
- Do not wash off the rain.
Well showed themselves in the gardens: permethrin, cypermethrin.
Neonicotinoids are also a group of insecticides that eradicate pests with minimal inconvenience to the gardener. They are good:
- Active action against pests
- Neonicotinoids are not volatile,
- Not dangerous to man
- Racks are valid for a long time.
Treat them: konfidor, aktar, mospilan, calypso - these drugs are used in Russia.
Pyrethroids and neonicotinoids can be combined to increase the effect.
- Repeat treatment after three weeks with a combination of other drugs. The hormonal (for insects) insecticide “Sonnet” disrupts the synthesis of codling moth, it dies. Neonikotinoid "Bankol" gives a paralytic effect, moth of any age dies. These drugs are compatible.
- Do not neglect ecological methods, combine them with "chemistry". Spend and manual work described above.
Gray fruit rot
Hits the whole tree. On the fruits of plum, small, grayish pads protrude in which spores ripen. The fruits dry out. In windy weather, the disease spreads to neighboring fruits and trees. Rot is also transmitted by insects (for example, a brant). The crust on diseased branches cracks, gum is released from the wounds, with the formation of nodules.
Insect pests plums, how to deal with them
Many pests are known that, if they have chosen a fruit tree, they will grow on it, will multiply and, of course, will destroy not only the entire crop, but also lead to the death of the plant. Only timely processing will help preserve fruit trees and protect the garden from insect invasion.
How to deal with plum aphids
- In the spring should be removed radical growth.
- Spraying with nitrofen. Held in early spring.
- When buds are dissolved, they are treated with a soap solution and tobacco extract against the pest,
- Coating trunks and pristvolnyh branches with insect glue.
Caterpillars of the silkworm annulate destroy fruit stone fruit, damaging foliage and buds. Butterflies and caterpillars "work" at night. The wings of the butterfly are brownish in color with dark stripes. The pest tracks are gray with blue stripes on both sides, and orange on the back. Between the orange, along the entire length of the back of the insect, is a white stripe. At night, a butterfly on parts of the tree lays eggs. How to recognize a caterpillar. In addition to the color difference, they can also be recognized by their behavior: if you touch her head with a finger, it will sharply turn it to the side.
How to deal with silkworm caterpillars
- It is better to fight in rainy weather, when the caterpillars hide in their nests.
- Remove and burn winter nests.
- From insecticides on plum recommended use: Dendrobatsellin, Antobakterin.
- From folk remedies helps the treatment of extract of tobacco, bitter wormwood, pharmaceutical chamomile.
To care for the garden in the country, preferably regularly. It is necessary to constantly inspect cultural landings in order to notice uninvited guests in time. It is easier to cure the plant at the initial stage of the development of the disease, and pests can be managed more quickly. Therefore, a weekly round will allow you to take immediate measures to cure diseases and eliminate pests plums.
A small butterfly of brown nondescript color. The plants themselves do not harm, the offspring (caterpillars) is extremely voracious.
It affects the plum and other stone fruit. Caterpillars eat everything: buds, fruits, leaves. Sometimes even young bark and upper layers of branches.
The leaves when the invasion of the leafworm twisted, it gave the name to the insect.
Years of butterflies - from late spring almost until autumn. The whole season will have to track the pest, fight it.
Twisted leaves rolled into lumps of inflorescences, ovaries in the web are signs of a moth being on a plum.
Fighting is always based on the biology of the pest:
- The moths winters under the old bark in the egg phase. The bark of this autumn is gently scraped and burned together with the collected leaves.
- To add the autumn whitewash of boles to the spring - until the summer of the moths. Spring whitewash and skeletal branches.
- During the growing season - the collection and destruction of twisted leaves, hanging baits (kvass, compote), twilight smoke garden.
Drugs are better bacterial: bitoxibacillin, fitoverm. When they are harmless to humans, they infect and destroy the leaf-maker.
Folk methods - as against moth. You can add to them the infusion of horseradish roots.
A kilogram of roots on a bucket of water - insist two days. Boil, stand again for two days.
The resulting infusion - concentrate, enough for a long time. Take 120 g, dilute with a bucket of water, and you can spray the drain. For stickiness add a little soap.
It will take several treatments (approximately every 15 days).
Какие бы вредители сливы в ваш сад ни попытались заглянуть, остановить их можно.
Профилактика предпочтительней, поэтому все агроприемы, рекомендованные выше, желательно соблюдать.
Ухоженный сад уберечь легче. Помогите деревьям вовремя – они отблагодарят вас сочными отменными сливами.