The beauty of this tree is praised by writers, poets and artists. Its touching appearance has aesthetic value, for it is no wonder that it is considered a symbol of the Motherland, Russia, the house where you were born and grew up. Glorified in literary works, it has long been considered the most beautiful tree, its branches were decorated with icons, and peasant dwellings lit with a beam. There are a lot of birch species, and today we will talk about one of the most common ones, which is called hanging birch.
Description and features
Due to its good adaptability in any conditions, the tree is found in different parts of Europe and Asia, but most often it can be found in a temperate climate zone. The birch is hanging or warty, as it is also called - high, up to 30 meters high, a tree, whose branches resemble a flowing green waterfall, which looks particularly impressive against the background of snow-white bark. But the white color of the bark over the years becomes darker, especially from the bottom, cracks appear on it. And in autumn, the tree lights up with bright yellow lights, its foliage resembles a golden sheaf of compressed wheat, and this colorful decoration is preserved until the cold comes.
The bark of young birches is darkish, and begins to turn white only by eight years, so they are sometimes confused with young alder. The tree has received the name because of numerous resinous gland-warts and hanging branches.
The diameter of the trunk in old trees reaches 80 centimeters. The roots are large, but not deep, therefore, the trees are often turned out with the root of the hurricane wind.
Hanging birch is a light-loving tree, therefore proximity with tall old trees affects it not in the best way. In natural conditions, it can be found only on light areas - forest glades and forest edges. Its average age is 120 years, due to the unusual color of bark and leaves it is considered a decorative tree.
Unusual beauty - hanging birch purpurea
But the hanging birch purpurea is considered to be unique in its beauty and the shape of the crown. Looking at its elegant decoration in the spring or summer, one would like to exclaim: “What a delightful nature, your diva, nature!”.
Having planted such a beautiful woman on your plot, you will constantly surprise the guests of your garden and arouse their admiration for its bright purple foliage. The tree grows up to 10 meters in height, and its crown is approximately up to 4 meters.
Openwork leaves look quite original - they change their color from dark red in spring to brown-red in autumn, and in combination with a rhombic form they look just amazing.
Like all birches, it grows slowly, loves light, is cold-resistant and does not tolerate proximity to groundwater.
Thanks to unpretentiousness and simple care, as well as its compact size, birch hanging purpurea is popular among beginners and owners of small land plots.
What should be the landing and care of the birch
A young sapling of a common birch can be dug in the forest, and by visiting the nursery, you will certainly find weeping birch varieties that match your abilities and desires.
The most popular autumn planting of young trees. The old ones get worse in the new place, get sick, even if they are organized properly. In adult trees, roots often suffer during transplantation, which does not affect the seedling in the best way.
Choosing a spring planting, you need to take care that the seedling is not more than three years old, and an earthy lump does not crumble from its root.
If there is a need to transplant birch, which is 7 years old, the best time for this is winter. Try to make so that the frozen earthen room you put in the dug hole, otherwise the tree will not take root.
Seeds are sown in spring and autumn. Under natural conditions, small winged nuts fall from the trees and are carried by the wind over long distances.
The tree is undemanding to the conditions, and it does not need special care. Care of seedlings is watering, and instead of fertilizer can be added to the hole of leafy land. When choosing a place, keep in mind that proximity to groundwater will not lead to anything good, the roots will constantly lock and rot. Birch and strong heat do not like, the best place for it is light partial shade. In her tree grows well and develops.
Birch is planted in the same way as most fruit trees. The pit should be so large that the roots fit into it without difficulty. The root collar can not be buried, so that the tree does not wither. If the birch trees sit in a row, pit no closer than four meters from each other, so that the plants are not crowded.
When watering, water should be poured on the roots, and the trunk circle after planting should be covered with mulch (dry earth, humus or peat) to keep moisture in the ground. The first time the trees need moisture, but watering often and a little bit to avoid the appearance of root rot.
Many gardeners believe that a birch weeping with its powerful root system deprives neighboring plants of water and nutrients, as a result of which they suffer. It is unnecessary to be afraid of it, the correct watering and regular top-dressings will allow to avoid similar problems.
In nature, these trees are most often found in places where there is a lot of sandy loam and light loam.
The birch is a tall tree, so owners of small summer cottages often doubt its planting. A good option for them would be planting dwarf birch, which is smaller in size than a weeping birch, but very similar to it.
The most comfortable conditions for dwarf birch are tundra conditions, here it is the most common plant.
Description and features.
Despite the similarity with the common birch, this type of birch has significant differences. Such birch foliage is round, it is smaller, and their trunk is much lower than that of ordinary birch trees. It is a shrub covered with numerous branches, no more than one meter high and a half meter crown. The description of the tree would not be complete if we did not pay attention to the color of the leaves. Upstairs the leaves are dark green in color, below - lighter.
Sometimes the growth of birch is so small that it seems to be lying on the lichen.
The tree is very winter-hardy, well adapted to the cold conditions of the tundra and forest-tundra, but it grows slowly, in nature it is most often found on stony slopes and in the tundra.
Although its wind resistance is considered to be high, dwarf birch lives less than hung birch.
Decorative dwarf trees are widely used by landscape designers in the design of the area around the houses, green compositions and country sites. Caring for them is simple, they are not capricious, their crown is compact, so often it is not necessary to cut a shrub. The popularity of dwarf birch is growing, so many are interested in the features of its planting and care.
Proper fit and care.
Garden soil, peat, humus and sand are poured into a hole, the size of which should correspond to the size of the root system. From spring to autumn, birch is fed; it is better to use complex fertilizers or nitrogen-containing fertilizers for this. In the autumn it is better to feed with nitroammofoskoy.
Saplings love moisture, so the first few days you need to water them well. If the weather is hot, the volume of water increases.
Above the roots, the ground should be often loosened in order to ensure free access of oxygen and to prevent soil clogging. If you notice that the earrings are ripe, you need to collect the seeds and sow them in the late fall.
Dwarf weeping birch.
Given the desire of owners of small plots to admire the beauty of birch trees, a variety was bred - an attractive dwarf weeping birch. Here are its features:
- slow growth
- the height is not more than six meters and the branches hanging to the ground,
- it is convenient for growing in small areas of land,
- The neighborhood with fruit trees will negatively affect their growth and development.
Like other types of birch, it can be grown from seeds. Here is the sequence of actions:
- In late autumn, when the earrings turn brown, they collect seeds. Even under good storage conditions (in a glass jar in a cold, dry room) their similarity is not always good.
- In the first spring days they are sown in a not hot greenhouse. Sprinkled on top with earth and dry straw.
- It is necessary to water carefully, with a thin stream.
- With the advent of sprouts, the straw ball is removed.
- The box with shoots carried into the shadows.
- Grown shoots transplanted to a permanent place.
If you are a lover of experiments and want to grow decorative weeping birch, or other forms in your garden, feel free to graft its cuttings to an ordinary tree. You should know and remember:
- The crown of a new tree is directly related to the graft site.
- Graft trees will be lower than others, even with good care, but for small areas this is what is needed.
- The beautiful Yungi Birch, with its branches hanging down by a waterfall, grows as a result of grafting on an ordinary tree.
Those who believe that weeping birch is only an ornamental tree are mistaken. All its parts have medicinal properties, birch tar and birch sap are especially useful. And talking about the fact that in the bath can not do without birch brooms, and igniting a furnace - without a birch torch, can be very, very long time.
You've learned what a dwarf birch looks like, now let's talk about possible varieties that look more decorative than a wild version.Golden TrezheIt is a miniature version, which is from 60 to 80 cm, has a diameter of not more than 1.5 m. The shoots are densely arranged, the leaves are painted in salad color.
This variety is used not only to decorate the Alpine hills, where it is planted in the marshy lowlands, but also for hedges. The shrub grows by 10 cm per season, so you don’t have to wait several years to see the “adult” version of Golden Trezhe.
Unfortunately, other varieties of birch can not be called dwarf, as they grow up to 4-6 m in height and require completely different conditions. Therefore, if you want to buy a dwarf birch, then you will hardly be able to find some other option.
Where does dwarf birch grow?
Low-growing birch is also called yernik and slate. It grows in northern regions around the world (Europe, Canada, Russia). You can even meet a miniature tree in the Alps at an altitude of several thousand meters. Dwarf birch grows in the tundra, where mosses and lichens cover the marshy soil. If you take the territory of the Russian Federation, then you can meet it in nature in Yakutia, Siberia and Kamchatka.
Lighting and location
The dwarf birch, though it can withstand extremely low temperatures, however, has quite high requirements for lighting and space. It is impossible to grow a shrub in the shade, at least it should be penumbra, and ideally - a sunny place. In this case, the plant will be less sick and grow faster. You need to choose a place where usually a lot of melt water is collected in the spring. Any more or less illuminated lowland where no more valuable crops or trees can be planted.
Soil for mini birch trees
If you are going to land Yernik in the lowland, then take care of good soil and drainage. It is highly undesirable to use clay or other moisture-absorbing soil variants, as the shrub cannot always evaporate a large amount of moisture, and the culture is not insured from rotting.
Therefore, when planting, we necessarily put drainage in a hole and use the soil that best conducts moisture.
Planting a plant
Next, we will talk about planting options both vegetatively and generatively. We indicate which option will give the best survival rate.
Planting seeds can be carried out immediately after harvest, and in the fall. Seeds should not be afraid of frost, therefore, additional warming of the soil is not necessary. Before sowing, it is advisable to double-check all the seeds and dry them well. Next, choose a place according to the criteria described above and produce sowing. It is necessary to make several furrows, 5 cm deep and up to 10 cm wide. Pour out all the seed and carefully wrap the soil. The distance between the furrows should be at least 30 cm. It is worth remembering that every year the seeds lose their germination, so it is advisable to sow them in the same year when they were collected.
Let's start with the selection of seedlings. Ideally, buy the option that is in the container, as there is no danger of damage or drying of the roots. Always completely check the condition of the seedling at the time of purchase. A few days before planting, a pit is dug out, 1-1.5 m in diameter. The lower soil is removed and the upper is mixed with humus, peat, fertile garden soil, sand and mineral fertilizers so that the seedling roots do not come into contact with pure humus or mineral water. .
Next is planting, during which the roots of the plant are not separated from the earthy coma (if present). If there is no coma, then it is advisable to soak the roots in water, holding them for several hours. First, we line the bottom of the pit with drainage, which can be represented by small pebbles, rubble or expanded clay. Layer should be about 15-20 cm. Next, pour out some soil mixture so that a mound forms in the center, onto which we will plant an earthen clod with roots. After placing the seedling in the hole, adjust it so that it grows up and not aside. Pour out the remaining earthen mixture, lightly tamping it.
At the end we water the bush and mulch it, if this option is acceptable to you.
Watering and feeding
It is worth starting with the fact that the bush “fights” with excessive moisture very well, evaporating up to 250 liters of moisture through the leaves over the season. Such scales suggest that even the slightest drying out of the soil should not be allowed, otherwise the birch will draw out and evaporate the remaining moisture, begin to dry or ache. Exactly because of this reason water should be plentiful, constantly maintaining the soil moisture. Of course, if in the place of planting water accumulates year-round, then watering is carried out only in summer. Speaking about top dressing, we pay attention not only to the “mineral water”, but also to humus. In the spring we apply nitrogen or complex fertilizers, as well as humus or compost. In the fall, nitroammofosku or similar fertilizer.
Pruning begin to carry out the second year after landing. Sick, dry and damaged branches are removed before the start of sap flow, in early spring. Formation of the crown is better to do it in the spring, but you can cut overgrown branches in August.
Diseases and pests
If you have not previously treated the planting with insecticides, then yernik may be occupied by the hawk moth caterpillars, goldfish, aphid and moth. As soon as you notice signs of a lesion, treat with any drug from the proposed list: "Aktara", "Aktellik", "Envidor", "Karate" or "Confidor".
The shrub can also be affected by fungal diseases or infections, which virtually any fungicide of a broad spectrum of action can easily cope with.
We recommend monthly treatment with insecticides and fungicides to prevent any problems. The bush will not suffer from chemistry, and you will be sure that nothing will happen to the decorative birch.
Now you know what a dwarf birch is and how to grow it on a garden plot. Although the tiny version is not particularly demanding, it is worth creating minimal conditions for it, maintaining that you will achieve the perfect growth and development of the plant.