The horse is a beautiful and intelligent animal that can be easily trained with a skillful approach. Having your own stallion is an expensive pleasure that not everyone can afford. Moreover, in the city there is no need to contain it, because the movement is carried out using a car and other mechanical transport. In rural areas, for example, leisure and work are directly related to horses, they are used for movement, transportation of goods, arable land.
What you need to know about the harness?
In order to harness a horse, you will need the skills, knowledge and experience of handling this animal. The horse is unlikely to trust a man who does not know. An animal is usually harnessed to a cart or toboggan. They learn this difficult craft quickly if they are smart and remember the sequence of actions along the way. Horse is a popular animal in the village and households. The owners use stallions as a force for strength, because they are hardy and patient.
By contacting this animal, a person receives emotional benefits. Properly harness a horse is an art that can harm an animal if it is not sharpened by a master. During the harness procedure, it is important to be careful, consistent, not to scold the stallion, if something does not work out.
Types of harness
Specialists use three basic types of harness: multi-window (they divide four, six, eight in Europe), parokonnuyu and single-window. The harness itself is transport, arc, arc-free, exit. For example, post edge harness is actively used for agricultural work and other purposes. You can attach a plow and a crew to it. The governing cart or sleigh should be careful when the horses are harnessed. The team before the trip must be inspected: the animal's health depends on its safety.
Before getting acquainted with the temper of the horse, understand what the harness consists of. The main elements of the harness - bridle, yoke, saddle, cinch, braid, turtle, underbelly, reins, arc.
- The bridle is used to control the horse. The bridle consists of several belts (on the cheeks, nape, forehead, chin) and a ring.
- With the help of a free yoke, thrust from the animal to the cart is transmitted.
- Nurse - a mechanism in the harness that supports and secures the harness.
- The girth holds the saddle.
- Braid - these are belts that hold back and adjust the position of the horse, hold the yoke.
- Chersedelnik - belt, which is attached to the shaft. Holds a yoke, arches and shafts on the back of a horse.
- Reins - with their help, man controls the movement of the animal.
- The arc connects the clamp, shafts through the tugs (soft straps).
There are several known methods for how to harness a horse. Each of them requires skill and experience. In Russia, the most popular types of harnesses are breathing and oglobelnaya.
- Chimney-arc method. Before harnessing one, two or more horses, it is important to check the sled or cart, the tugs on the yoke. The length of the tug should be adjusted so that the rider had the opportunity to pull the tongs and attach the arc on the shafts. Then the bridle is put on the horse, the belt is tightened on the chin, the bits are inserted into the mouth. If it is necessary to harness a horse in the winter, in the cold, it is recommended to heat the bits in the palms. After that, the saddle is put on by moving from withers to back. Then the stitching is straightening out, from under it and the yoke gets mane and tail.
- Postfromo-breathing method. A pair of harnessed horses in a post-fire-breathing mode is called a steam room. This method is used in the household for tools and carts with a drawbar. The cart for the harness must be with a single shaft, which is in the middle. Horses are fastened to it.
- Pyaterik. Method suitable for harnesses six or more horses. Animals have pairs. Pyaterik is used for solemn processions, performances, events, not used in the household.
Before you harness a horse, you must carefully examine and clean it. Then check the integrity of the harness: it should not have scuffs, cracks, tears. If the tugs are of different lengths, they should be made the same.
- When the test phase is completed, take the furrow and underbelly, connected by a ring, pass the belts through it. Tension the resulting loop on the shaft.
- Put the saddle, bridle and yoke on the horse. Nurse should be on the lower part of the withers. The clamp is put on by the tongs, then it is lowered and turned over.
- Grooming put on withers and straighten. Belts are combined with buckles.
- After the first actions, the animal should enter the shaft, step over its pole.
- Take the arc and stand in front of the horse. Rest the arc against the right hoof, twist the tug with your left hand.
- The arc is inserted into the left edge of the tug loop. It should be in the neck of the arc.
- Tighten the clamp and wind around the ticks around the sponge (strap for tightening the clamp).
- Tie the horse to the left shaft and insert the yoke.
- Throw a reason around your neck, attach it to a worse one (belt, loop). Flip the straps over the shafts.
- Attach to udil (bridle belts) reins.
What was the name of horses harnessed in Russia? In the old days, animals working in harness next to each other were called spouses. An interesting fact, given that pair sledding remains one of the most popular today. Used steam room in the village for plowing. The first stage of the harness begins with the alignment of the bibs (light harness), flares (wide strap from the yoke), and liner (the strap that connects the roller and the yoke). Then clamps and reins are put on horses. Depending on the position of the animals in the harness, they are placed to the left and right of the drawbar. The hook is put on the front wheel or the end of the drawbar and fixed on the ring. They fix the clamp and distribute the tension. Edges are fixed on the roller in the following sequence: internal - external. The animal unwinds carefully and in reverse order.
How to train a horse to harness?
Before you harness a horse for the first time, you must accustom it to this procedure, teach it to obey. To begin with, teach an animal to understand and execute commands: “right”, “left”, “stop”. Remove the horse on the reins without a cart, gradually accustomed to the saddle. This should be done with an assistant in the open. Sitting in the saddle, it is much easier to learn the stallion. Of great importance during the trainings is the voice, the location of the person.
After learning the horse, it is important to praise and give a favorite feed. In this case, the animal will remember the positive moment of training. The next time you need to sit in the saddle longer, leisurely ride. Classes in the saddle can be alternated with the wagon train. Harness a horse that is already used to the saddle is easy if you prepare for it. Pay attention to the length of the shaft (two poles that bind the cart and horse): the animal should not hit the cart with its hind legs.
The first races should be done in the most empty areas, where there are few people and a smooth road. The cart should not rattle and frighten the animal. It is best to travel in dry weather. To teach a horse to move backwards, hold a treat near the neck or so that the animal cannot reach it. At the same time, repeat the “back” command. A horse harnessed to a cart (as well as during a harness) must not be near children. Give the horse more hay and less oats before riding or training. Thus, she will have the desire to take a treat during learning.
Recommendations of specialists
Experts advise beginners to first learn what the harness consists of and find an approach to the animal. A horse harnessed to a sleigh or cart is a simple type of transport used in different regions of the Russian Federation. To get started, study the instructions, see how the professionals harness the horse. During the selection of harness, be guided by the individual characteristics of the horse, size, body. The harness should be new, high-quality and not deliver discomfort to the animal.
The main elements of harness
Before you begin to harness a horse, you need to figure out what is part of its harness.
Any harness has the following necessary elements:
- bridle. It is the main part of the horse harness. Its purpose is to control the horse while driving. It consists of the following elements: bits, rings, neck, two belts placed on the cheeks, one belt on the chin and one on the forehead,
- clamp The main purpose is to transfer traction from horse to carriage. Consists of: ticks, tugs, homutiny, tires, lining of felt, gort and ring. To avoid squeezing the neck of the animal, the clamp must be free,
- saddle. A special device with which to fasten and support the harness. With his help, the horse pulls the wagon 15 percent better,
- girth. Device for fastening the saddle to the horse,
- shleya One of the most important elements of harness. With its help keeps the clamp. She also does not allow him to crawl if the horse accelerates sharply or, on the contrary, slows down. It consists of a set of belts that regulate the position of the horse in the harness and keep it in it,
- Sunday It is a belt that passes through the saddle and is attached to the shaft of the cart. It is he who holds the yoke, arches and shafts on the horse's back. Cherpedelnik is also involved in the transfer of traction from the animal to the wagon,
- underbelly. Fastened under a cinch and secured to the shaft. Looks like another strap,
- rein. Appointment - management of the drawn horse,
- arc. Last in the list, but not the last in importance harness element. It is used to connect the clamp and shafts. The arc is fixed with the help of tugs and is a kind of shock absorber, which softens the blows and jerks of the wagon, thereby facilitating the work of the animal.
So, what is the harness, figured out. It is time to go directly to harness a horse in a wagon. We will describe the stages of this process on the example of a one-pointed Russian team.
The composition of the team
Everyone knows about the need to harness a horse, but not everyone understands the structure of the harness that ensures the implementation of the conceived actions. It should be remembered that the harness has several main components, which we consider in more detail below.
- A bridle is the most dominant component that is required to control the animal during the ride. The bridle is a nuchal belt, fished with a ring. It is equipped with two straps on the cheeks and chin.
- A nurse is a special device that attaches and secures a harness that can increase traction.
- The girth is an element that is aimed at holding the nurse.
- A shleya - an element which allows to hold a collar and to fix it during movement. In appearance it is a few adjustable straps.
- Chersedelnik - belt, which runs in the nurse. The mount is a shaft. This strap allows you to hold and fix many of the main components of the harness and pull.
- The collar is an element that serves to provide thrust from a horse to the movement device. Khomutin, tongs, tire, tugs, felt lining, ring and gort are part of the yoke. It is possible to relieve horses from squeezing by means of “relaxing” the yoke.
- The underbelly is a belt, from the name of which it is already clear where it is attached. Need for fixing.
- The reins are a particularly important component, because thanks to him the wagon moves.
- The arc is a device that serves as a connecting element, a shock absorber: the tug “reduces” the yoke and the shaft to soften the jerks, shocks.
A wagon and cart can move correctly only if the harness takes into account the importance of each element.
Variety of studs for horses
In addition to the design of the harness, to understand how to harness a horse, you need to consider the types of this component. A team is necessary in order to provide traction reinforcement from a horse to a cart, sleigh, or carriage. To preserve the performance, an individual harness version is selected, regulating the size and suitable for a constitution.
To date, harness a horse in several ways. What is the name and the difference between each of them?
- Postromochny. This method is the simplest, because the harness is not equipped with a drawbar, an arc and does not have a shaft. Another name for the sled is the fastener. The method is ideal in order to harness carriages, carts and perform agricultural work. Horses are harnessed by laying a stitching and fixing the carting ring.
- The arc-chipping method is ideal for harnessing a horse into a traditional cart. To do this, you should check the presence of a nurse, turtle, tug, supony, arcs, and a hinge. It is necessary to pick up a collar, proceeding from the sizes of a horse, after all it should fit a horse's shoulders, like a collar. To narrow the yoke use felt stripes. Having picked up a small clamp, it is necessary to abandon it immediately. Harnessed horse must be with a cradle and a nurse, so that the thin animal cover was not damaged by a belt. The crape is tensioned and passed over the top. This element serves as a pressure distributor for horses. The importance of the arc is to ensure the correct position of the shaft.
- Postfrom-breathing harness (otherwise called the steam room) is suitable only for 2 animals, which is especially appropriate in rural areas when performing heavy economic operations. Paired harness provides a cart equipped with a drawbar (shaft, which is located in the center). Horses and horses are fastened to the shaft. A harness consists of post-rims, lugs and breastplates. You need to adhere to a certain order of actions so that the harnessed horses feel comfortable and provide you with quality work. First, the horses are placed in the bridles and clamps, and then placed on 2 sides of the shaft. Dyshlo puts on a nashilnik (it concerns both animals) and is fixed in a breast ring. Thanks to the stowage, it is possible to control the tension and fixation of the clamp. The final step is to secure the breastplates and fasten the reins.
If there are more than two horses, then a harness of zug will do. A horse, properly drawn into a cart, will not only get rid of unnecessary trouble, but will really please with its work. The only thing you need to know is the design and typology of the team. After studying the theoretical material, the transition to practice will be simple and fast.
Regardless of where you are going, you need to provide yourself and horses with safety, and this is possible only with the correct harness. How is the Russian one-box harness performed? It is important to consistently and clearly follow the steps described by professionals.
- At the very beginning you need to properly inspect and wash the horse. It is important not only to check her well-being, but also to analyze whether the harness and all its components are not damaged: there should not be any cracks or breaks anywhere. When detecting different along the length of the tugs, it is important to equalize them, so as not to lead to a deterioration of movement. After inspecting the animal and the cart, you can proceed to the other components.
- It is necessary to connect the underbelly with the furrow with a ring. After threading in it is necessary to make a loop - it covers the shaft.
- Horses put on a collar, equip with bridles and saddles at the bottom of the withers. For the correct location of the clamp you need to try, because it can only be ticks to the top. Then you can lower it and turn it around your neck, fixing it if necessary.
- In the next step, the belts and buckles are as tight as the palm can go.
- Horse lead in the shaft. To do this, you need to choose one of the options: the animal can independently step over the shaft of the shaft, or it is driven back into it. You can also use the rolling method for shy or young animals.
- The arc is taken and leans against the horse on the right, with the help of his left hand they twist and adjust the tugs to the required size. It is important to place them near the edge of the shaft.
- The arc is passed through from the left side of the loop, the second edge is shifted through the shaft. It is important to ensure that the loop is inside the arc, which is located on the neck. The arc turns a notch in the direction of the shaft, which impose a tug. The clamp is tightened, the tongs are wrapped with supony. After their contact it is necessary to monitor the location of the arc and the shaft at a right angle.
- It is necessary to tie the animal to the left shaft. You can begin to insert the collar only after pulling the horse a step back.
- The head is covered with a reason, the tug is attached with a lanyard in such a way as to prevent the horse from raising it. Каждый ремень кидается через оглоблю, чтобы не допустить «болтания».
- Удило крепится с вожжами.
Так и запрягается лошадь в повозку. Если всё сделано правильно, то вы гарантировано получите безопасную езду и сохраните в норме здоровье животного. Remember that much depends on the frequency of training, because the horses are far from simple animals, so you need not only to find an approach to them, but also to have a stock of relevant knowledge.
Properly drawn horses and a cart are a guarantee of a safe ride. To date, use several types of harness: for one, two or more horses. European grooms share a multi-wadding for 4, 6, 8 animals. The team, in addition, may be arc, arc-free, exit and transport. For work with 2 horses, the post-fire-breathing method is used, and for attaching the plow and the crew - post-fire. Harnessed beauties are quality and useful workers in the field of agriculture.
What is harness
A harness is essentially a set of knitted horse harness accessories, with which you can attach any carriage to an animal:
Without a harness, it will not be possible to use a horse as a cab driver for several people or cargo, since it is not possible to attach the carriage reliably for humans and for animals in any other way.
The harness consists of many different elements interconnected for the connection to the animal of a vehicle.
Let's look at what parts harness consists of.
Table 1. What is the harness
Instruction number 1 - how to harness a horse
Step number 1- cleaning and inspection of the horse
A good owner knows: before going somewhere and harnessed animal, you need to inspect and clean it. The fact is that the wounds on the animal's body, if any, may increase due to the high load, or will be rubbed by the harness straps. And the sick animal should not take you somewhere at all; on the contrary, it should gain strength.
It is necessary to clean the animal so that the dirt mixed with sweat does not rub into the animal's skin, causing the development of inflammation.
Before the horse harness, you need to clean it thoroughly
Cleaning an animal is carried out in several stages:
1. At the beginning we will work with a rubber groomer, with which we will collect from the fleshy parts of the animal's body:
- foreign objects that could get stuck in the horse's fur.
Making circular motions, go through the groomer all over the horse’s body, while avoiding:
- front part,
- protruding bones
- spinal areas
The first stage of cleaning the horse's body before harness is performed using a groomer
2. Then we proceed to cleansing the horse’s body with the help of a special brush, equipped with stiff bristles. To her, we will already thoroughly comb through the wool, extracting from it what the groomer could not remove. In addition, using this brush:
- combing dead hair
- the horse's skin is massaged, thereby improving its blood circulation.
However, you cannot comb the hair and mane with the same brush, just as you can not touch it:
- horse face
- other "short-haired" parts of the body.
With a brush with stiff bristles, the horse's body is processed secondarily.
3. Next, a brush with a soft bristle is used, with which the process of cleansing the horse's body is completed. It removes small remnants of dirt, combing and massaging the horse's body even more actively. She can already comb through all areas of the body, however, observing increased caution in the area of the facial area.
Last but not least clean the body with a soft brush.
Pay attention: there are special brushes for cleansing the faces of horses, and it is better, of course, to use them in the process of cleaning.
4. Next, with the help of warm water and soap, as well as warm rags, the horse is washed. Especially thoroughly wash it with:
- muzzle and eye area,
- under the tail.
Since these zones are always too moist, they can accumulate mucus and other substances that accumulate bacteria, which then penetrate into the body of the animal and disrupt its work.
5. After the main procedures end, it will be necessary to comb through the mane and tail.
6. Finally, if you harness a horse in the summer, by the way it will be possible to sprinkle its skin with a special remedy for annoying insects.
Step number 2- inspect harness
Taking care of the beauty and health of the horse, you need to think about its convenience and safety, checking the integrity of the harness. You should take the device and look through every inch of it, looking for:
- rubbed areas, etc.
If you find one, you will need to replace the unsuitable part of the harness. If you cannot do it at all, then take another device, a newer and more complete one.
Next, examine the tugs. They must be the same length for the cart to move normally. Correct them if you find different lengths.
To make trips comfortable and safe, you should regularly inspect harness for damage.
Step number 3- we start the harness
So, first take connected with the ring:
In order for us to have a loop, we must pass the belts through the desired ring. The resulting circle of belts must be put on the shaft.
Then we put on the animal chosen by us for rental:
- clamp, with the tongs placed in the upward direction, and then we lower the part on the neck and turn it over,
- saddle, putting her so that she was not on the back and not on the withers, but somewhere on the lower part between them,
Nurse can not be placed too low or too high, the horse will be so uncomfortable
Next on the withers spread the stitching, and straighten it, making the connection:
Careful fastening of the stitches
It is necessary to tighten the straps until the moment when the human palm is between them and the ischial tubercles.
Step number 4 - we get a horse in a shaft
We have come to that stage when it is time to lead our ward into a shaft prepared in advance for the trip. This can be done in three ways:
- roll the device on the animal, standing in a standing position,
- make the animal step over one of the poles of the device,
- put the horse in the shaft in reverse.
The first method is perfect for working with young stallions and mares that are not yet experienced and shy.
Now you will need to take the arc and stand right in front of the animal, while looking at his face. Now the arc needs to be brought closer to the right limb of the horse, and on the left side to fit the tug under the required length, securing it subsequently right at the end of the shaft.
You can drive a horse into the shaft of your ass, or roll a shaft on it yourself.
Set the left end of the arc in the loop of the tug, and the right one will need to pass through the shaft.
The free shaft will need to be brought closer to the arc, having previously turned it by a notch in the right direction. Then, by analogy, the tug is laid on the shaft, and the eyelet clings to the arc.
Suponi winding on tongs
Next you will need to do the following:
- hold the clamp,
- on tongs tightly wrapped around the supone.
Now carefully make sure that the shafts and the arc are located at a right angle relative to each other.
The tug pulls on the arc and shaft
Next, we attach the horse to the left side of the shaft. Next, you need to gently pull back, literally half a meter, and insert the clamp.
Step number 5 - go to the head and neck harness
So, now we need a reason to put on the horse's neck, and attach such an element as a lanyard to the tug, having made the attachment in such a way that the horse has the opportunity to raise its head. The belt part of the device must be thrown over the shafts so that they do not hang freely.
Now let's add the reins:
- one of which must be held under a tug,
- and the second over the tug.
Hooray, for the first time you yourself harnessed your horse, congratulations!
Instruction number 2 - how to stud horse
Step number 1 - remove the load
In order not to cause great damage to the horse's body that transported the load, before removing the harness and the rest of the ammunition from it, you must remove the desired load and allow the animal to walk about 10-15 minutes without it.
Even if the horse was carrying a small load, give it some time to recover from the ride.
Step number 2 - weaken the cinch
Next, we will need to slightly loosen the girths on the animal. If you see that your pet is still seriously agitated, it is better not to touch him, but give another walk for 15 minutes.
Then you will need to relax the cinch, the picture indicates where they are located
Step number 3- we complete the trimming
As soon as the 15 minutes indicated by us have passed before, it will be necessary to straighten the horse to the end by doing the following:
- first detach and pull the reins from the arc, and then throw them off the neck,
- untie the knot of the underbelly, as well as the thrusher,
- remove the straps from the shafts,
- unwind and remove supone,
- slightly loosen the clamp and detach the arc,
- lower the shafts and remove the horse from them.
Gradually remove from the horse all the elements of her uniform.
Next we will have so much to remove the collar from the horse, to remove the harness, saddle.
Step number 4- we carry out additional procedures
Your horse worked hard so that you could ride fast and comfortably. It is necessary to thank him for it, having cared for him after the removal of the harness.
The horse will be pleased if, after a trip in the hot summer, you give her a dip in cool water and rub her whole body with a wet washcloth
If it is a warm summer outside, you need to thoroughly wipe the horse from sweat with wet rags. Conversely, if it is cool, then you need to cover your pet with a cowboy and take him to the stable.
Step number 5 - we process the harness
The removed harness must also be carefully cleaned and inspected for any damage resulting from operation. If they are found, immediately return the fixture for repair.
Let's sum up
How to harness a horse is a question that sooner or later will want to ask fans of these graceful animals. And it does not matter whether you have become a horse breeder, or just went to such an unusual entertainment, or left to live in the village. The main thing is that you had to comprehend this science, and now is the time to do it. Do not forget that it is not enough just to learn how to harness a horse mechanically. It is necessary to develop an intuition in order to begin to understand how comfortable the animal is, and how not, how less harness will wear out. The efficient owner will spend quite a bit of time trying to figure it out, and if he has the desire, he will succeed.
Nikolay Zhuravlev Chief Editor
Author of the publication 11/23/2018
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