I want to talk a little about yoshte.
Opinions about it are ambiguous: some people like it, some don't, and some cannot decide, because they are confused by a difference of opinion. This is what I doubt and I want to help.
For me, yoshta is a favorite among berry bushes. But in my area, she appeared eight years ago by sheer chance: she looked for something unusual on the market in the spring, and they offered me a small bush of three branches, which was presented as an extremely successful hybrid of black currant and gooseberry. And I still agree with this opinion: Yoshta does not have thorns, she has large berries that do not crumble after ripening (leaves look like gooseberry leaves, only more beautiful).
Not knowing anything about this crop specifically, cared for her as well as currants. Planted acquired seedling in a sunny place in the loose earth. And the next year I tried the first berries. I note that the yoshta is growing rapidly, and some of its branches reach a length of 2 m, so the bushes require annual pruning.
By the way, after planting, weaker branches should be removed from the saplings, then the development of the bushes will go faster.
Flowers unsightly in appearance, appear a little earlier than the leaves. In order to attract pollinating insects, I spray bushes with water with the addition of honey or sugar. Most importantly, the shrub does not require any special care. Unless, of course, do not count feedings. Every spring I bring this nutrient mixture: 300 g of slaked lime, 70 g of superphosphate and two compost buckets per square meter. In this case, I seal it only to the outside of the crowns, to the depth of the spade bayonet.
As the yoshta bushes are sprawling, I tie up some particularly overgrown specimens: I hammer a 2-meter pole straight into their middle with a ring bolted to its upper end, to which I tie up fallen branches in a circle - and the berries are clean and convenient to assemble. For two bushes made wooden supports (photo 1). It turned out too well.
The only problem with yoshta is pests. My landings are occasionally damaged by the glass. Moreover, the initial stage of infection can not even guess: caterpillars gnaw through the bark and penetrate into the branches, where they overwinter.
The following year, they enthusiastically begin to engage in their black work, and then the shoots damaged by them begin to lag behind in growth (this is especially noticeable at the end of flowering), and the berries tied to them grow small and tasteless.
This “picture” is no longer impossible to notice, but, as they say, it is already too late to drink Borjomi. It remains to cut all the diseased branches under the base and burn them (I do it in front of the site, on the wasteland). I don’t know of any other way of dealing with a glass case. Maybe someone from the readers will share ideas on this?
Two methods of breeding yoshta - choose to taste
I propagate yoshtu vegetatively. I pin separate branches to the ground, lightly peel the bark at the points of contact with the ground, then sprinkle it with fertile soil from the beds and tamp it down. Then I hammer the peg next to it and tie the tip of the pinned branch to it. And the very next year, the rooted bush is planted in a new place (photo 2).
I tried to make propagation by cuttings. I prepared them like this: I chose strong, woody branches, cut off “blanks” 18-20 cm long (I cut the cutting places obliquely), removed the leaves from the lower half and planted it in the penumbra in the soil well fertilized with humus, plunging into the holes by about 2/3 their lengths.
Such cuttings took root well, but for a long time were weak and very slowly went to growth. Then, in order to speed up the process, I tried to cover some cuttings with plastic bottles with cut-off bottoms (but before that I darkened them with a clay mash and let it dry).
The result was slightly better, but still it took a lot of time to make a normal fruiting shrub from the cuttings. Therefore, I refused such a method and now I reproduce only with layering.
What can I cook from yoshta
Ripe berries Yoshta dark color with a bluish bloom. They hold tight to the branches, do not fall (photo 3). From them simply magnificent jam turns out. If one of the guests does not know, then he will never guess what it is made of: currant is to taste, and it smells like gooseberry. And I cook it literally in 10 minutes. In a deep frying pan, half the berries are poured and the same amount of sugar in weight, I put it on a strong fire, stir it. As soon as the sugar melts, and the berries burst, everything starts to bubble - turn it off. I fill the clean jars, roll them up, cover them up to cool. Leaving unattended jam while cooking is impossible - and strives to escape.
Yoshta juice perfectly gelled, opening a jar, get berries in jelly without adding gelatin. And what excellent taste, color and smell does the compilation of yoshta have!
So, my impressions of yoshta are only positive.
Perhaps no berry causes so much controversy, like this one. But the thing is that some summer residents yoshta fruits very well, while others do not want. It is finally time to find out what is the cause of such vagaries.
All my friends buzzed my ears about the fact that contacting Yoshta with oneself is more expensive, but I decided to plant it in my house. After all, all those who admire this culture cannot deceive themselves and others. And after several years of communication with this berry, I can share my impressions and experience.
So, I landed two bushes in the far corner of the garden. They accepted well and began to gain strength quite quickly. And here they flew to a height of more than one and a half meters, but they never showed any flowers or berries. Well, I think, apparently, I was among those who were not lucky with Yoshta. But she didn’t uproot the bushes: firstly, they grow in the backyard (albeit well lit) and do not bother anyone, and secondly, I have never complained about lack of patience, there’s nowhere to hurry, let them grow. Suddenly come to their senses?
As time went on, and my planting in the garden expanded. It came to the far corner where Yoshta grew. Next to her, I was forced to attach two old white currant bushes, which on the old
they began to wither, being in the shadow of overgrown fruit trees. And then something amazing happened: as these “old men” revived (currants instead of distant branches, beaten with life, young ones began to actively grow, on which flowers appeared immediately), the yoshta bushes, which also bloomed, began to recover.
Moreover, these processes developed synchronously. And it came to the point that last year I had already gathered on the floor a bucket of currant and yoshta berries. And there is every reason to hope for more in the new season.
It turns out, yoshta began to bear fruit, not because its bushes have grown, but because of the neighborhood with currants.
Say simple coincidence? I do not think. And here's an argument. Between these bushes, I planted a young bush yoshta, well developed after rooting, the year before last. What was my surprise when the next spring I saw flowers on it! Of course, I cut them off, leaving a couple of twigs, but the fact remains: the first bushes didn’t bear fruit for about six years, and this one has already given color for the second year.
Another interesting observation. Three meters from the yoshta, the black currant bush has been growing for a long time, but its appearance turned out to be completely unnoticed (at least, she did not even think about blooming with this currant for the company). I did not notice the yoshta and gooseberries, which I landed on the other side, at a slightly greater distance. Hence the following conclusion: the neighborhood with both "parents" (after all, Yoshta came from the crossing of currants and gooseberries) is not a panacea. So if this capricious will take an example, then only from a white currant.
So, dear summer cottage workers, if you want yoshta berries, then this is quite a realistic dream!
© Author: Lyudmila Dmitrievna Belashova G. Elista. Kalmykia
Descriptions of Yoshta
Hybrid - is a perennial berry crop with a strong root system and shoots up to 1.5-2 m., Unlike the gooseberry, it has no thorns. Dark green leaves are large, shaped like a leaf currant. Yoshta flowers are bright and large, and the berries are purple-black with sourness, collected in 3-5 pieces in a brush. Fruiting begins with two years.
The shrub grows in one place for a long time up to 20-30 years, resistant to frost and many pests and diseases.
The benefits of yoshta berries
- The rich content of vitamins, mineral elements, pectin, organic acids allow the fruit to be used for cured purposes.
- Vitamin C raises immunity and berries are used to prevent colds, vitamin R strengthens blood vessels and improves blood circulation, and phytoncides suppress any inflammatory processes in the body.
- The fruits raise hemoglobin and are used in the treatment of anemia.
- In addition, the yoshta berries normalize the activity of the digestive organs, stimulating the elimination of dangerous substances from the body, and heavy metals.
- Fruits speed up the metabolism, accelerating the burning of fat reserves. Sugar berries do not cause aggravation of diabetes mellitus and patients can eat them without looking back and with pleasure.
- Yoshta berries can be frozen or dried, useful qualities will not be affected.
Planting and care
Place for planting should be sunny and always near the currant bush or gooseberry, so that the crop was stable and high. Planting material is best purchased in nurseries. Make sure that the root system of the seedling is healthy and strong, and the bark on the wrong side is greenish. If the bark is brown there is a seedling dead.
Planting is carried out in early spring before bud break or in early autumn, so that the plant can take root well. If the seedling has dry roots, you should hold it in water for a day and then plant it. In the fall, a leaf is carefully removed from the sapling so that the buds are not damaged. Also remove dry and rotten roots, healthy slightly pruned.
When planting in early spring, the planting pit is prepared from autumn. The size of the pit should be 50 cm in depth, length and width. The distances between the bushes leave 1.5-2 m. 5-6 liters of compost, 100 g of superphosphate, 0.5 liters of wood ash, about 1/3 of the dug soil are brought into the hole, and water is poured over the contents, so that everything settles until spring. . Early in the spring, loosen the contents of the hole, place the seedling in the middle, straighten the roots, cover it with soil, tamp it down a little and pour it with water. And then, when the surface dries, mulch with a layer of 5-9 cm with sawdust, straw, peat and cut the branches so that there are two buds left.
When planting in the fall, the wells are prepared in two weeks just as described above.
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It is simple and not much different from the care of currants and gooseberries, reduced to loosening the stem circle, weeding, feeding, watering, treatment from pests and pathogens.
Loosening and weeding. In early spring, the first loosening is carried out by no more than 4.6 cm. Then they are loosened every 2-4 weeks, combining with weeding. If the surface under the bush to mulch, then loosening is carried out less frequently.
Top dressing. It is desirable to use humus up to 20 kg under a bush every year as mulch. Such mulching protects the soil from drying out and serves as an excellent source of nutrients.
Up to the age of three, up to 20 g of potassium and 30-40 g of superphosphate are applied annually, and then the amount of potash fertilizer is increased to 25 g, the superphosphate is reduced to 27-30 g. In the autumn, 0.5 l of ash is necessarily added.
Watering. With a lack of moisture, shrub growth slows down. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the soil under the bush does not dry out. It is enough to pour 25-30 liters per square meter to soak the soil to a depth of 40 cm. It is better to water it early in the morning or late in the evening.
Pest Control. As a preventive measure, it is worth spraying Bordeaux liquid (1% solution), copper sulphate or urea solution (7%) in the spring at the beginning of bud break and in the autumn after the shrub has dropped off the foliage. The temperature of the air during treatment should be more than 5 degrees. Read how to properly handle garden plants in the fall.
Pruning. In the spring, before bud breaks, sanitary pruning of dry, damaged, diseased branches, as well as frozen tops, to a healthy place is performed. Yoshta does not need crown formation. Only with time, 7-8 year old shoots are shortened to 6 buds.
In the autumn, after the foliage has been discharged, the branches that have been broken and damaged by pests are cut out, eliminating bush thickening.
Breeding. It can be performed by vegetative methods and seeds. The vegetative methods include: division of the bush, layering, cuttings (green or semi-woody). Read more about reproduction by cuttings in the article "Reproduction of currant cuttings."
The most common such diseases are: powdery mildew, columnar rust, cercoporosis, intersection mosaic, terry.
remember, that mosaic and terry cannot be cured. Therefore, infected bushes immediately dug and burned. Fungal diseases are treated with drugs: Fundazol, Maxim, Scor, Bayleton, Topaz. It is better to carry out preventive measures to prevent diseases.
I hope you have seen that such a useful berry shrub is worth planting on your site. Yoshta, landing and care simple and do not require large expenditures, and the benefits of berries is big.
Hybrid Yoshta - Description
Hybrid yoshta is a perennial, powerful, spreading shrub that forms shoots about 1.5 meters high and more. Its root system is located at a depth of 30-40 cm. Despite the fact that the yoshta shrub is a direct descendant of such a prickly crop as gooseberries, it does not have thorns. The diameter of the crown of the yoshta is 1.5-2 m. The leaves of the yoshta, large, shiny, dark green, which inherit the form of currant leaves, but do not possess its aroma, keep on the bush until winter itself. Yoshta blooms large, bright flowers. Yoshta fruits, sweet and sour, black with violet tint, more similar to cherry, are gathered in a brush of 3-5 berries each. Usually yoshta fruits from the age of two.
Berry yoshta resistant to frost, disease and pests, its life expectancy from 20 to 30 years. Considering the origin of the yoshta, one can safely say that she has to have relatives not only gooseberries and black currants, but also red currants and white currants. From this article, you will learn how to plant, multiply and care for yoshta, which yoshta varieties can be grown in the middle lane, why yoshta does not bear fruit, if its bush becomes too thick, what diseases and pests of gooseberry and currant can cause harm to yoshta, and much more.
When to plant yoshtu.
Yoshta is planted in early spring, before the start of sap flow, or in early autumn. The plot for this unusual plant should be sunny, and the soil - fertile. They say that yoshta will grow and bear fruit only if there is a currant or gooseberry bush growing nearby.
When buying planting material should pay attention to the quality and condition of the root system of seedlings - it must be strong and healthy. Dry and weathered roots may not settle down in the soil. Pay attention to the bark: its “wrong side” should be green, not brown, otherwise you risk to buy a dead seedling. If you purchase yoshta saplings in the fall, carefully remove all the leaves from them before planting, taking care not to damage the buds. Remove also rotten and dry roots, slightly trim healthy roots. If it seems to you that the roots are dry or chapped, hold them for a day in a bucket of water.
Landing yoshty spring.
The size of the landing pit for yoshta should be such that the root system of the seedling fits into it with a margin of approximately 50x50x50 cm. Prepare pits for planting in the fall. The distance between the bushes of the yoshta is observed within 1.5-2 m, but if you decide to use the yoshtu as a hedge, then the distance between the bushes of 40-50 cm will be enough.
Place half a bucket of humus or compost in each pit, add half a liter of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate and some bad soil to it and mix thoroughly. Fill the pit with this mixture for a third of the volume, then add up to half the volume of fertile soil from the topsoil and pour a bucket of water into the pit. In this preparation of the pits in the fall.
During the winter, the soil in the pit will settle and settle. In the spring, slightly loosen the bottom of the pit, place the seedling in its center, gently spread its roots and cover the pit with soil from the upper fertile layer, shaking the seedling from time to time so that there are no voids in the soil. When the hole is full, lightly tamp the surface of the area around the seedling, pour a bucket of water under it, and when the soil dries out slightly, grumble it with a layer of peat, humus, straw, hay or grass 5-10 cm thick. After that, cut the seedling, leaving it on each shoot no more than 2-3 buds.
How to grow yoshtu? Growing yoshta and caring for it is no more difficult than growing currants, and much easier than caring for gooseberries due to the fact that the latter has thorns. Мероприятия по уходу за йоштой сводятся к рыхлению грунта вокруг кустов, прополке, регулярным поливам и подкормкам, а также к защите кустарника от вредителей и болезней.
Первое рыхление участка проводят в апреле на глубину 4-6 см в прикустовой зоне и 8-10 см в междурядьях. Spend loosening at least once every 2-3 weeks, but if you have mulched the plot, then you will have to water, loosen and weed the soil less often. In addition, mulching creates favorable conditions for the development and nutrition of shrubs. The best mulch for yoshta is humus and peat. Try to keep the soil around the yoshta bushes in a slightly damp and loose state and do not allow the appearance of weeds.
Growing yoshta protects the bush from diseases and pests. In order for the yoshtu not to be affected by harmful insects and dangerous diseases, it is necessary to annually carry out preventive treatments for the shrub. Therefore, yoshta in the spring, before the buds begin to open, and after the leaf fall, when the plants pass into the dormant period, is treated with one-percent solutions of Bordeaux liquid, copper sulphate, Nitrafen or a seven percent solution of urea. The latter preparation is preferable, since, in addition to protection against pests and insects, it also performs the function of feeding the plant with nitrogen fertilizer. Wait until the temperature in the garden is above 5 ºC, and start spraying the bushes.
Taking care of your yoshta means regular and sufficient watering of the bush. The lack of moisture can retard the growth and development of the yoshta, which is why it is so important to maintain the soil moisture around the bushes during the entire growing season. When irrigating, the soil should be moistened to a depth of the root-forming layer - 30–40 cm, therefore the approximate water consumption during one irrigation is 20–30 l per m² plot.
Watering is carried out in the morning or after sunset. It is better to pour water into specially made circular grooves with a depth of 10-15 cm, located at a distance of 30-40 cm from the crown projection. On the outside of the grooves, there should be restrictive earthen rollers about 15 cm high. The frequency of irrigation depends on the moisture permeability of the soil, the weather and the presence or absence of protective mulch on the surface of the site.
Top dressing yoshty.
Planting yoshta and caring for it involve the subsequent mulching of the site with peat or humus. Under each bush, as mulch, up to 20 kg of organic matter is required, which protects the soil from rapid drying and cracking and is a source of nutrition for the plant.
In the first three years of life, the annual rate of mineral fertilizers for each square meter of yoshta is 30-40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulphate. From the fourth year, the rate of potash fertilizer rises to 25 g, and the rate of phosphate decreases to 25-30 g per m².
In the fall, a half-liter jar of wood ash is poured under each bush of the yoshta.
Pruning yoshty spring.
In the spring, a sanitary pruning of the yoshta is carried out: the broken shoots are removed, the diseased shoots are shortened to healthy tissue by those that have frozen over the winter. Yoshta does not need formative pruning, but over the years it is necessary to shorten branches that are 7-8 years old, leaving only segments with 6 buds from them.
Propagation yoshty division bush.
Divide the bush yoshta in the autumn and only when the need arises to transplant it. Propagation and planting of yoshta are performed as follows: a bush is dug out, the roots are cleared from the ground, a plant is divided into parts with a sharp knife or pruning sheath, each of which must have developed roots and 1-2 strong shoots, root sections are treated with crushed coal, after which delenki Seated in pre-cooked places.
Yoshta reproduction by layering.
For this method of reproduction in spring, as soon as the soil warms up, well-developed biennial or annual branches are laid into the grooves 10 cm deep in advance made in the loosened soil, fixed with metal hooks and pinching the remaining tops of the earth, sprinkled with fertile soil. As soon as shoots with a height of 10-12 cm are developed in the layers, they are covered with earth to one half. Weeks after 2-3 hilling repeat at the same height. In the autumn, and even better next spring, rooted cuttings are separated from the mother bush and from each other and planted in a permanent place.
In addition to horizontal cuttings, vertical and arcuate cuttings can be used in the reproduction of the yoshta.
Propagation yoshty cuttings.
This breeding method has two options: green cuttings can be used for rooting, or semi-woody can be used for rooting. For harvesting woody cuttings choose mature shoots from two to four-year branches. It is better to do this in the fall, in the second half of September: the cuttings planted for rooting have time to settle down and hibernate normally, and in the spring they go together to grow. The stalk should be with 5-6 buds, 15-20 cm long. Do not use the undewakened tip of the shoot for rooting. Plant the cuttings into the excavated soil at an angle of 45 º at a distance of 60-70 cm from each other, leaving only two buds above the ground, the lower of which should be at the surface level. Condense the ground around the cuttings, pour it and grumble with peat. Care for cuttings is watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds, especially in the first month after planting.
For green cutting, cut, on the contrary, apical cuttings 10–15 cm long, from which the lower leaves are removed, and two pairs of the upper leaves are left, but shortened by a third. You can plant green cuttings throughout the summer from June to the first days of September. Prepare for cuttings cold greenhouse in advance. Make a light incision over each kidney of each cutting, and in the lower part - a few cuts, place the lower sections of cuttings for half a day into the root-forming solution, then rinse them in clean water, plant in a greenhouse very close to each other with a slope of 45 º and pour through a fine sieve, then cover with a transparent lid. Between the lid and the cuttings there should be a distance of at least 15-20 cm. At first, do not lift the lid: there should be moist air in the greenhouse and the temperature should not be lower than 20 ºC, but as soon as the temperature rises to 25 ºC, begin to raise the lid every day for ventilation. If you do it right, it will take 3-4 weeks to root the cuttings, after which you can proceed to tempering procedures, removing the cover from the greenhouse every day and gradually increasing the duration of ventilation. As soon as the cuttings are strong enough, the cover from the greenhouse is removed altogether. The survival rate of the green cuttings of yoshta is very high. Hardened cuttings are transplanted to the growing school and, as soon as they take root in the open ground, they feed up 30 g of saltpeter dissolved in a bucket of water. Loosen the soil in the garden bed, remove the weeds, keep the soil loose and slightly wet, and transplant the seedlings to a permanent place next spring.
Diseases of yoshta.
Detailed information about what diseases can affect the yoshtu and how to deal with them, you can get in the article about diseases and pests of currants posted on the website. In this article we will list the most common diseases of yosht and briefly describe what measures are best used to combat them. So, the diseases of yosht: anthracnose, goblet and columnar rust, powdery mildew, septoria, church disease, mosaic and terry.
Mosaic and terry diseases are incurable, therefore, patient specimens must be immediately dug up and burned, and fungal diseases can be treated with fungicides like Fundazole, Byeleton, Maxim, Topaz, Early, and similar preparations. But the best protection of plants from disease - compliance with agricultural practices and preventive treatment.
Pests of yoshta.
Among yoshta pests are the same insects that damage all varieties of currant and gooseberry: different types of mites and aphids, butterfly moths and currant glass bowls. It is best to use insecticides against these pests - Agravertin, Akarin, Aktellik, Decis, Biotlin, Kleschevit and others.
Since yoshta itself is a hybrid, there are not so many varieties. They are divided into two types: varieties, to a greater extent retain the properties of the gooseberry, and those that are closer in description to currants. We offer you a brief description of the yoshta varieties:
- – EMB - resistant to diseases and insects, tall - up to 1.8 m in height - a variety of British breeding, which inherited to a greater degree the characteristics of the gooseberry. Yoshta bloom of this variety lasts about 2 weeks, fruitfulness is abundant, berries weighing up to 5 g of excellent taste, are sown for about two months,
- – Crown - Swedish variety of average yield, the berries of which do not differ in large sizes, but they do not fall off after ripening, but stay on the bush for a long time. This variety is often used for hedges and gardening,
- – Rext - frost-resistant, productive Russian variety with not very large berries weighing up to 3 g of excellent taste,
- – Yohini - a highly productive variety, reaching 2 m in height, with very sweet berries, which in taste are not very similar both to gooseberries and currants,
- – Moro - a plant reaching a height of 2.5 m, with dark, almost black fruits the size of a cherry, with a violet bloom and a strong muscat aroma. Yoshta Moreau belongs to the new, so-called colonic varieties - compact, but tall.
If you are interested in whether the plant yoshta is suitable for the Moscow region, we can safely recommend all these varieties for cultivation not only in the middle lane, but also in a colder climate.
Useful properties of yoshta.
Due to the healing substances contained in the berries, yoshta has a definite benefit for the human body:
- - Vitamin C, which is a part of yoshta in large quantities, has a beneficial effect on a person’s immunity and protects him from colds,
- - Vitamin P contained in yoshte and berry anthocyanins strengthen the walls of blood vessels and promote good blood circulation,
- - Yoshta increases the level of hemoglobin in the blood, so its use is recommended in the treatment of anemia,
- - Yoshta helps to normalize the work of the gastrointestinal tract, it is prescribed for constipation and other disorders of this type,
- - Yoshta berries mixed with honey are recommended for use by patients with hypertension,
- - phytoncides contained in the yoshta fruit help to cope with various microbial infections and inflammatory processes occurring in the body,
- - patients with diabetes can fearlessly use the yoshta fruits instead of dessert, because the sugars they contain do not provoke the development of the disease,
- - Yoshta helps to speed up metabolic processes and burn body fat stores, so it is often included in the diet of people suffering from obesity or trying to lose weight,
- - Yoshta stimulates the excretory system, so that the body gets rid of toxins, toxins, heavy metals and radionuclides.
In order for you to eat healthy yoshta not only in summer, but also in winter months, when there is a deficiency of vitamins, you need to freeze or dry its berries - this yoshta will not lose its healing properties. In addition, yoshta berries make excellent jam, jam, compotes, jelly and even wine. We offer you two recipes blanks from yoshta:
- - pound washed and peeled from twigs and tails of the yoshta berries, ground with a blender, add 1 kg of sugar, mix and put on the fire. When the jam boils, add a couple of mint leaves, remove the foam from the jam, pour into sterile jars and seal,
- - peeled from tails and twigs, washed berries of yoshta in the amount of 1 kg are twisted through a meat grinder twice to obtain a homogeneous composition, add 2 kg of sugar to it, mix thoroughly and put them on the cans, filling them 2 fingers below the neck, then caulk nylon lids and placed in storage in the refrigerator. This recipe allows you to save most of the healing properties of yoshta.
Yoshta - contraindications.
Unpleasantness from eating yoshta can occur in people with individual berry intolerance. It is undesirable to use yoshtu often and often for patients with thrombophlebitis, since it helps to increase blood clotting. And, of course, it is impossible to eat a berry for people with a strong lesion of the gastrointestinal tract - patients with a stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and suffering from colitis.
History of breeding yoshtaIn appearance, yoshta resembles a large currant or black gooseberry, which makes it look like both species. In fact, experiments on the crossing of these plants lasted for more than a century without any serious results: the bushes bloomed, but they did not give fruit. It was possible to achieve a positive result only in the 70s of the twentieth century, when the German breeder R. Bower derived the first fruiting hybrid.
His “name” consists of two letters of the German name for currants and three letters for the name of the gooseberry, which as a result of the merger gave the word Josta (yoshta). At about the same time, another German breeder, H. Murawski, thanks to numerous experiments, developed three more currant-gooseberry hybrids, which ultimately received the names of Jokhne, Moro and Jochemin. In the future, all displayed hybrids were obtained thanks to the efforts of breeders from other countries, in particular, and Russian scientists. All new specimens differed in the size of the bush or the berries themselves, the shape of the leaves, the yield and taste.
Currently, a popular hybrid of currants and gooseberries is a powerful bush with studless shoots reaching a length of 1.5 meters. In comparison with the black currant, the yoshta branches are more durable. This plant forms a small number of root shoots, so it does not need a strong pruning. However, the main advantage of the yoshta, which favorably distinguishes it from the same currant and gooseberry, is its high resistance to the main diseases of the “parents” and good frost resistance.
How to choose the yoshta seedlings when buying
If you decide to plant a yoshta on your own plot, then the first thing you need to know is the criteria for choosing the seedlings of this plant.
Here it is necessary to take into account a number of the following features:
- The younger the purchased seedling, the easier it will take root in a new place.
- The root system of plants should be powerful and healthy, and the roots themselves - fresh and moist. With dry and weather-beaten roots, the sapling will take root, but will grow very slowly.
- In a high-quality seedling, the bark on the shoots and the trunk will be smooth and elastic, and if it has already managed to wrinkle, it means that a specific specimen was dug out long ago and has already managed to dry out.
When buying a seedling in the autumn, the leaves that are on the branches must be carefully removed without damaging the buds in the axils. In addition, before transporting the purchase, the yoshta roots should be wrapped in a damp cloth and placed in a plastic bag.
Site selection and soil preparation for yoshtuYoshta's planting (both in spring and in autumn) can be carried out with a different purpose: for obtaining a high-quality harvest or for decorating a summer cottage. In the latter case, the quality and abundance of the crop plays an insignificant role, therefore, bushes can be planted both in the sun and in the shade, choosing elevated or low-lying areas of flat surface or territory on a slope. In the case when the primary task of growing yoshta is to obtain a large number of juicy and tasty berries, it is better to look at the sunny and fertile tracts of land. Preparation of the selected site is necessary only in the case when weeds are growing on it, and the land is not originally characterized by high fertility. In such a situation, soil is dug up and rotten organic fertilizer is applied at the rate of 15 kg per 1 m².
Proper planting Yoshta seedlings
As soon as you buy a yoshta sapling and prepare a place for it, it will be possible to proceed to direct planting of the plant in the ground. However, before this, it is necessary once again to inspect the acquired seedlings, to remove dried branches and dead roots.
As we have already noted, the yoshtu is planted in a permanent place of growth in spring or autumn. To do this, first dig a hole with a depth of 50-60 cm and a width of 50 cm (more is possible, depending on the size of the seedling root system). Compost or humus (half a bucket), 100 g of superphosphate and half a liter of wood ash are added as a fertilizer. All these fertilizers are thoroughly mixed with a fertile layer of soil, which is subsequently filled into a hole 1/3 of its volume. The next must be a fertile layer of soil without fertilizers, which is poured over with a bucket of water. As soon as the liquid is completely absorbed, a sapling is placed in the middle of the pit, its roots are straightened, and the pit is covered with earth, slightly tamping up the ground. Finally, the soil is once again watered and mulched with peat, grass or hay (optional). The height of the mulch layer should be about 10 cm.
Most often planting occurs in the spring, but in some cases planting yoshta is more relevant in the fall. There is nothing terrible in it, and the whole process follows the above scheme, with the only difference that the pits for seedlings are prepared two weeks before planting.
Soil mulching creates an optimally stable balance of moisture and nutrition in the soil, which saves you from the need to constantly loosen the soil under a bush. На роль мульчи хорошо подходят перепревший компост или перегной, которых на один куст требуется 1-2 ведра. Также неплохим вариантом считается использование торфа. Более того, мульчирование грунта под кроной кустарника и в районе его ствола не только создаст благоприятный питательный режим в почве, но и ограничит испарение влаги, а также воспрепятствует росту сорняков.
As practice shows, yoshta, grown only as a decorative element of landscape design, does not need additional feeding, but if you want to get a rich and tasty harvest, then this issue will have to be given due attention. By and large, the plant responds well to fertilization and in the first few years you will need 4-5 kilograms of organic compounds per year. In addition, yoshta needs other nutrients: potassium sulphate (20 g per year per 1 m²) and superphosphate (30-40 g per 1 m²). Organic fertilizers (diluted fresh mullein can be used) and superphosphate are applied to the soil in early summer, and potassium sulfate is added to the soil in the autumn.
All the nuances of pruning Yoshta
Although yoshta does not need formative pruning, you still have to face this aspect of plant care. Thus, with the onset of spring, sanitary shrub of the shrub is carried out, which involves the removal of broken and diseased shoots, as well as shortening healthy parts that have frozen slightly over the winter. In addition, after 7-8 years, it is necessary to shorten the shoots, leaving only segments with 6-8 buds on the bush. Sanitary measures are reduced and pruning yoshty autumn. As soon as the bushes and trees pass into the dormant period, the gardeners cut out the broken shoots, as well as the parts affected by the glass case. Moreover, healthy branches, which are cut to one third of their length, are subject to shortening.
How to propagate yoshtu
Like currants, yoshta has several options for vegetative propagation, which means that every gardener can choose the most suitable option for himself. What it will be (grafting, dividing a bush or planting a plant by layering) - only you decide, but in any case it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of each method.
This breeding option is used in the autumn and only when a bush needs to be transplanted. In this case, reproduction and plant transplantation provide for the following actions: having dug up a bush, its roots are cleaned of adhering soil and divided into parts with a sharp knife or pruner. Each of them should have developed roots and several strong shoots. For sanitary purposes, the cutting sites are treated with crushed coal, after which the obtained parts are seated at previously prepared places. Territory selection and soil preparation for planting are performed according to the previously described rules.Yoshta grafting in spring has two options for implementation: using green cuttings or by means of semi-woody plant parts. In the latter case, matured shoots of two to four years of age are chosen for material procurement. It is better to do this in the autumn time (in the second half of September), since in this case, the cuttings planted for rooting will have time to settle down and overwinter normally, and in the spring they will all grow together. Taken from the maternal shrub part of the shoot should have 5-6 buds and reach 20 cm in length.
The obtained parts of the yoshta are planted in excavated soil at an angle of 45 º, keeping to a distance of 60-70 cm. Only two buds should remain above the ground. As with conventional planting, the land around the seedling is slightly compacted, watered and mulched with peat. As for green grafting, in this case, on the contrary, apical cuttings, which are 10–15 cm long, are better suited..All lower leaves are removed from them, and the upper ones are shortened by a third of the length.Such cuttings can be planted in open ground throughout the summer (from June to early September), but a cold greenhouse is also useful. Light cuts are made above each kidney of the cuttings, after which the lower sections are placed in the root-forming solution and left in it for 12 hours. After this time, the cuttings are taken out, washed with clean water and planted in a constructed greenhouse close to each other with a slope of 45 º. Now it remains only to pour the seedlings through a fine sieve and cover with a transparent lid. Between the edge of the cover and the cuttings themselves, a space of at least 15-20 cm should be preserved.
The first time after landing the cover can not be lifted. Fresh air and a temperature of +20 ºC should be kept in the greenhouse, but as soon as this value reaches +25 ºC, the lid is lifted for ventilation. If all the recommendations are followed, the cuttings of the yoshta will take root within 3-4 weeks, and it will be possible to proceed to tempering procedures by daily removing the cover from the greenhouse and increasing the duration of ventilation. As soon as the cuttings are well strengthened - the cover is completely removed. It should be noted that the survival rate of green cuttings is somewhat higher than that of semi-lignified parts of the shoot, therefore, the use of this method of reproduction is preferable.Yoshta reproduction by layering is carried out in early spring, as soon as the soil warms a little. To realize this plan, you need to select well-developed annual or biennial shoots, place them in the grooves about 10 cm deep prepared in advance in the loosened soil and fasten with metal hooks. The tops that remain above the ground are pinned and sprinkled with fertile soil. As soon as the cuttings appear shoots with a height of 10-12 cm, they should be sprinkled with earth to half. After two or three weeks, the earthing up is repeated at the same height, and in the fall (or even better next spring), the rooted cuttings are separated and planted in a permanent place. In addition to horizontal otvodkov, with the reproduction of the yoshta can also use the arc or vertical versions of this method.
Full ripening of yoshta berries occurs within 2-3 weeks, and the weight of each of them varies from 3 to 7 grams. Given the fact that the berries collected in the brush ripen at different times, it is likely that their long stay on the bush. However, be that as it may, harvesting is carried out from the middle to the end of July, since it is at this time that the yoshta reaches biological maturity. The fruits of the shrub are used both fresh and after processing into jam, fruit drinks, compotes, jam, jelly, jam, etc. Depending on the climatic conditions and the level of ripening, the yoshta berries can be sour-sweet, sweet or very sour. Having decided to plant a yoshta on your plot, you will firstly make sure that this is a truly unique plant that combines all the positive qualities of currants and gooseberries.
Features hybrid yoshta
Bush yoshty massive branch sprawling. In height, shoots grow to about 150 centimeters or more. The roots go 30-40 centimeters deep.
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The bush has no thorns. Crown in diameter reaches about 1.5-2.0 m. The shrub has large leaves of dark green color that looks like currant leaves, but they do not have the characteristic smell that is characteristic of currants. Foliage on the bush lasts until the onset of winter. Large bloom, saturated color. Berries plants sour-sweet, the color of the fruit is dark purple. Berries look like cherry fruit. In one brush is about 3-5 berries. The crop appears when the plant reaches the age of two.
Shrubs can safely tolerate frost. And also the plant is resistant to pests and various diseases. On average, the life of a shrub is 20 - 30 years. Related cultures:
Planting yoshta in open ground
Start planting a hybrid stands in the spring before the sap flow begins. You can land in the fall, only at the very beginning. It is necessary to choose a site that is sufficiently lit, and the soil is saturated with nutrients.
Tip! Experienced gardeners claim that next door to yoshta shrubs should grow currants or gooseberry. Such a condition is necessary for the shrub to better develop and bear fruit.
To choose a healthy seedling, you must carefully examine its roots. They should not be flawed. If the roots of the seedling are dry or weather-beaten, the plant most likely will not survive. The wrong side of the bark should be green, if it has a brown color, the seedling may be dead.
If the yoshta was bought in the fall, then before planting it is necessary to remove all the foliage, but very carefully, so as not to injure the kidneys. It should cut all dry and rotten roots, while others a little trim. It is recommended that the roots be immersed for 24 hours in water if they have strongly weathered.
Planting yoshty spring
The landing pit for a sapling needs to be made spacious. Such a condition is necessary for the entire root system to fit into it and there is still extra space left. The approximate size of the pit is 50 * 50 * 50 cm. It is necessary to prepare the pit in autumn. The distance between the holes should be 1.5-2 m. If the plant is planted in order to create a hedge, then the distance between the plants should be reduced to 40-50 cm.
In the landing pit need to pour:
- 500 ml wood ash,
- ½ bucket of humus,
- ½ compost buckets
- some poor soil,
- 100 grams of superphosphate.
The listed ingredients should be mixed. Fill the third part of the pit with such a mixture. Further up to a half of a landing hole the fertile earth is brought. Then you need to pour water, it will be enough 10 liters of water.
During the winter months, the ground will have time to settle and settle. With the onset of spring, the bottom of the pit should be loosened, and then a sapling should be installed in the center. Next, straighten the root system and fill the pit with soil. It is necessary to pour the ground gradually, sapling slightly shake, so that all the empty gaps in the pit filled. The soil at the wheel circle is compacted. Shrub need to pour 10 liters of water.
As soon as the earth becomes dry, it should be mulched 5-10 cm using peat, grass, hay or humus. Next, you need to cut the plant. Each stem should be left with 2 or three buds, but no more.
Autumn planting hybrid
The procedure for planting shrubs in open ground is similar to the spring pattern. The only condition - the landing pit must be prepared about 15 days before disembarking.
Watch the video! Yoshta is a shrub that should grow in every garden
Growing yoshtu is not difficult. In addition, caring for seedlings is somewhat easier than for gooseberries, since the yoshta has no thorns. It is important to timely loosen the ground near the circle of the tree, as well as remove all the weeds, constantly add fertilizing and water the seedlings. In addition, the plant should be protected from diseases and parasites.
In April, it is necessary to loosen the plot. This will be the first loosening. Soil at the trunk should be loosened by 4 or 6 cm, and the aisle - by 8-10 cm. It is necessary to loosen the ground once in 15-20 days. To reduce the frequency of weeding, loosening, watering it is necessary to mulch the area. Mulching will allow shrubs to grow better. Peat or humus can be used as mulch. It is important that the soil contains the desired level of moisture and is quite loose. As soon as weeds appear on the plot, they should be removed.
The method of dividing the bush
Such reproduction should be carried out in the fall. Or when transplanting is done. The bush is removed from the ground. The root system must be cleaned of soil. The bush should be divided into several parts, for such purposes it is recommended to use a sharp garden knife. It is important that when dividing, each part has 1 or 2 strong branches and developed roots. The cut must be treated with charcoal. Then you can start planting the separated parts of the plant.
With the help of grafting, you can get:
- Half-cutting cuttings,
- Green cuttings.
To prepare semi-woody cuttings, you need to use 2-4 summer branches with stems that have matured. Cuttings need to prepare in the fall. From about the middle to the end of September, the cuttings take root well in the open ground. They winter without problems, and with the onset of spring they begin to develop.
Optimally, the length of the cutting is 15-20 cm. Each cutting must have 5-6 buds. Insecure shoots are not suitable for harvesting cuttings.
Cuttings are planted in the previously dug earth. The distance between cuttings is maintained at 70 cm. The angle of planting cuttings is 45 degrees. The soil next to the cuttings should be compacted, watered and mulched peat. Cuttings after disembarkation do not need special care. Especially the first four weeks they need to be watered regularly, weed, loosen the soil.
To prepare green cuttings, gardeners use the top of the branches. Such cuttings should remove all foliage, except for a pair of upper leaves, they should be shortened by a third. The landing is carried out from June to September. The landing site should be prepared in advance.
An incision should be made above each kidney, and several incisions should be made at the bottom. To accelerate the appearance of the roots, the lower cut of the cutting should be soaked in a special solution for 12 hours. Then rinse the solution off the cuttings with clean water. Planted cuttings in the prepared greenhouse tightly to each other. The angle for landing should be 45 degrees. Landing is recommended to water a sieve. Greenhouse covered with a transparent canopy. The distance from the top of the cutting to the roof should be at least 15-20 centimeters. In the first days after planting, it is not necessary to lift the greenhouse lid so as not to disturb the level of air humidity. As soon as the temperature in the greenhouse becomes more than 25 degrees, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse every day.
If you follow all the methods of farming, then after 20-30 days the root system will appear in the cuttings. Before transplanting the cuttings must be hardened, for this open greenhouse. You also need to gradually increase the time of ventilation. As soon as the cuttings take root, you can completely remove the greenhouse cover. Statistics show that green cuttings have a high survival rate. As soon as the cuttings take root in the open soil, it will be necessary to feed. It is recommended to use saltpeter, or rather its solution (at the rate of 30 grams per 10 liters of water).
Caring for the green cuttings is simple. The main thing is that the soil was constantly wet and loose. In the spring of cuttings can be planted in a permanent place.