Ryzhiki got its name because of the bright orange and sometimes even reddish hue, due to the high content of beta-carotene, which in the body turns into retinol or just vitamin A.
The cap of these representatives of the mushroom kingdom varies in size from 4 to 14 cm. The color is bright from an ocher-yellow to a dark orange shade, brilliant. The shape is spherical, convex. A recess may form in the middle, and the edges of young mushrooms turn up. With age, the edge of the cap straightens, and it becomes funnel-shaped. The surface is smooth, sticky, slightly slippery. On it are encircling rings, sometimes whitish plaque. From the bottom of the cap there is a multitude of thin plates of an orange-red color, acquiring a green tint when pressed.
The leg is small and thin, its height is from 3 to 7 cm, its thickness is up to 2 cm. It coincides in color with the cap, differs only in a lighter shade. Inside they are hollow, narrowed at the base, the upper part is characterized by small darker grooves.
The pulp of mushrooms is dense, bright orange in color, it breaks green when broken.
A thick milky sap stands out. It also has an orange color, which, when exposed to oxygen, takes on a green tint.
It has a fruity sweet smell.
Common types of mushrooms
Among the species of red mushrooms are three of the most common: fir, red, real. Distinguished by some differences in appearance and places of growth.
Present. Known as pine flax, common flax, autumn flax, noble rustle.
The hat is shiny, large enough, up to 14 cm in diameter. The shape is convex, round. Its surface is different shades - from orange to red. On the surface there are encircling rings, sometimes whitish plaque. The edges are wrapped inwards, more so in adult mushrooms.
Leg thick, high - up to 10 cm in length. Its surface is rough, may be covered with a small fuzz.
The plates are forked, thin, go to the base of the legs and can take no more than 1/3 of its entire length.
Gather in moss from June to frost.
Red. It is less common than other species. Differs flat, wide, shiny, large cap, reaching 17 cm in diameter. In the center has a hollow hole. The cap is fleshy, has an orange-red color. In contact with water, it does not lose its density and does not become slippery. The edges of the cap in young mushrooms are bent, and in adult specimens they do not bend at all. Difference from other species is the absence of circles spots.
Leg dense, strong, short, only up to 6 cm in length. There is a mealy patina and red grooves. The flesh is dense, fragile, white, with randomly located bright red spots. Characteristic milky sap bright red shade at the site of fracture. The plates are narrow, frequent, strongly descend along the leg.
Prefers coniferous litter. It occurs mainly in the highlands from June to September inclusive.
Japanese mushrooms (lat. Lactarius japonicus),
Spruce. It has a relatively small size. Its cap usually does not exceed 8 cm in diameter, the height of the leg varies from 2 to 6 cm, and its diameter reaches only 1 cm. The cap of the spruce rye mushroom is sticky, light orange with a greenish tint. When ripe, it brightens. The leg is thin. The pulp with a pleasant smell, fragile, at the cut, first becomes reddish and then becomes green. This mushroom is found under spruce trees in a mixed forest from July to September.
The uniqueness and recognizable appearance do not allow to confuse the camelina with other representatives of the mushroom kingdom. But among the varieties of these mushrooms, there are those that are not edible mushrooms. They belong to the 4th class - conditionally edible mushrooms. These representatives are called the false counterparts of the redfish. These include:
- Pink waves. It grows mainly near birch or aspen. It differs from the real camel pink color of the pulp. White milk juice, does not change when exposed to air. This fungus is not classified as poisonous, but with improper or insufficient heat treatment, it can affect the work of the intestine and stomach.
- Mlechnik fragrant. It is characterized by a small, brown cap, with a diameter of up to 5 cm. Its edges at any age of the fruit body are concave inward and slightly torn along the contour. The smell is spicy, very strong, like a coconut. Used in cooking in salted or dried, as a spice to dishes.
- Papillary or llechnik large. It is conditionally edible mushroom. Grows in coniferous forests. The hat is gray-brown in color, of small diameter. The flesh is fragile, white, pleasant smell. Milky juice is white and does not change color when it breaks. It is recommended to use as a food product only after careful soaking and long-term salting.
Useful properties and composition
Ryzhiki is a storehouse of useful substances. Its main component is water, by which it contains about 90%. The remaining elements are:
- minerals - potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium,
- vitamins - A and B1,
- amino acids.
Ryzhiki - easily digestible nutritious product. Per 100 g of mushrooms contains about 2 g of protein, which equates to meat. Real and red mushrooms contain substances that are used to obtain an antibiotic that stops the growth of the tubercle bacillus - lactaric acid. Among other things, these mushrooms are valued for carotene, which is included in its composition in rather large quantities. The use of mushrooms helps:
- Strengthening bones, hair, nail plates - thanks to calcium and phosphorus.
- Resisting viruses and bacteria - lactrioviolin, as an antibacterial substance, helps fight infection.
- Slimming - accelerates the process of metabolism.
- Raising the body's tone - ascorbic acid helps to cope with the loads.
In medicine, dried and chopped fruit bodies are used as a treatment for:
- skin diseases
- visual impairment
- metabolic disorders,
Also used as an external agent. Fresh fruit is cut and applied to diseased joints, boils, insect bites, shallow wounds.
Ryzhiki, like other mushrooms, have a number of contraindications to their use. It is not recommended to include them in your diet to people suffering from:
- low acidity of gastric juice,
- chronic constipation.
You should also not use mushrooms in case of individual intolerance of this product after removal of the gallbladder. Due to their high calorie content, salty and pickled mushrooms should be used with caution in people suffering from overweight.
Ryzhiki do not require prior soaking. It should be washed with boiled water washed fruit bodies and wait until they let the juice. Next, put them in salted water. These mushrooms are usually cooked for 15-20 minutes. Ryzhiki well with sour cream, potatoes and vegetables. In cooking, it is also used to make soups, toppings for pies and dumplings.
Marinated mushrooms is a very popular and tasty snack. The first thing you need to do is prepare for pouring:
- bust and clean the mushrooms from the garbage,
- rinse in running cold water,
- make the necessary trimming of the leg, but not more than 3 cm,
- sterilize the banks.
For 2 kg of mushrooms you need:
- 300 ml of water
- 15 grams of salt
- 300 g of citric acid.
First, prepare the marinade. To do this, put citric acid and salt in boiling water. In boiling marinade lay cooked mushrooms and cook for 15 minutes. After that, spread them out on prepared cans, along with marinade. Roll up the jars, turn upside down and let cool. In such a snack preserved nutrients, which are rich in mushrooms.
For salting mushrooms, wooden barrels are usually used. First prepare the barrel. To do this, pour boiling water into it and roll it up for 30 minutes. warm material. Dale peeled and washed mushrooms placed in layers in a barrel, shifting them with sprigs of dill, horseradish leaves, oak leaves, cherries and garlic cloves. From above, mushrooms are covered with gauze with salt and pressed down with a heavy load. Salted mushrooms two months.
Ryzhiki in sour cream. Main ingredients:
- 1 kg of mushrooms,
- 250 g 20-25% sour cream,
- 1 onion,
- garlic to taste
- seasonings and spices.
Wash and clean the mushrooms. Cut into pieces. Onions cut into rings and squeeze garlic. In sour cream add spices, seasonings and salt. Grease the pan with vegetable oil and fry the mushrooms for 5-10 minutes. Add onions and pour 50 g of water. Cover and reduce heat. After the water boils away, and the mushrooms and onions are roasted to a golden hue, they need to be filled with sour cream. Add garlic and leave to stew over medium heat for about 10 minutes.
Description of saffron present
The diameter of the cap varies from 5 to 15 centimeters. The shape of the cap is flat-convex, but over time it becomes wide funnel-shaped. Along the circumference of the cap are white stripes. The edges are slightly wrapped, later they become straight. Cap color is orange-red.
The leg length reaches 3-7 centimeters, and the diameter varies from 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters. The leg is fragile, its shape is cylindrical, inside it is hollow. Hat and leg of the same color. If you touch the leg, it turns green.
The flesh is orange, fragile, turns green when broken. Milky juice is plentiful, not hot, orange-red, and it turns green in the air. The smell of the flesh is pleasant - fruity. The plates are adherent, slightly descending, their width is 0.5-0.9 centimeters.
The color of the leg is orange-yellow, when touched it turns green. The plates are notched, often located fragile. Warty, oval spores, may be light yellow or colorless. Spore powder is yellowish.
Places of mushrooms real mushrooms
Real mushrooms are common in the European part of the country, in Siberia, in the Urals and the Far East.
Harvest time - June-October. Gather them before the first frost. These mushrooms are growing in coniferous and deciduous forests. They can be met mainly in young forests, on forest edges and clearings. They are hiding among the grass, so collecting them is not easy, as you have to look for, even the bright coloring among the dense vegetation does not help very well. You can stand side by side and not notice them, in order to find the camelina, you need to push the grass apart. But the plus is that when a single fungus is found, it will be possible to collect a basket, as they never grow alone, but as whole families.
Edible saffron present
Real mushrooms are great for salting and pickling, but they are not suitable for drying. The taste of the camelina is real savory, pleasant, and the aroma is fruity.
By taste, this edible mushroom belongs to the 1st taste category, that is, it is very tasty. The chemical composition of this fungus includes fats, proteins, carbohydrates, in addition, there is a biological substance fungin, which stimulates gastric secretion. In addition, mushrooms are low calorie.
The real fish has a bit bitter taste. After cooking, the mushrooms get a little greenish tint. A real saffron differs from its fellows by a denser leg, which is good for salting. When salting and pickling preserves the red color of the fungus. But for drying mushrooms are not suitable. Often they are stewed with onions and red pepper.
With the redfish you can confuse the weaving, the pink wave and the panhead. Pink wolves differ from mushrooms in the color of the plates and juice, in the waves they are colorless, whereas in the mushrooms they are orange.
It is safe to collect ryzhiki because there are no false and poisonous similar species.
The disadvantage of camelina is that it is more likely than other mushrooms to become infected with mushroom worms, especially when the weather is wet.
Ryzhik (mushroom): photo and description. What do mushrooms look like?
Ryzhiki are cap mushrooms, they have a well-shaped fruit body, consisting of a cap and a central stem, which are tightly interconnected. Their separation does not occur without breaking the tissue.
Hat young mushrooms in the beginning resembles a cap, it is hemispherical, often flattened from above, velvety, later convex, with thin edges slightly wound to the stem, or convexly prostrate. As it develops, it changes to a funnel-shaped with a straight thin edge, sometimes with a small tubercle in the center. Its diameter is from 1-3 cm to 20 cm.
The color of the cap and the whole fruit body of the camelina has a patronizing color. The brightest mushrooms are those that hide in the grass under the firs. Depending on the place of growth, the cap may be yellowish-ocher, gray-olive, dark orange, blue, sometimes fading to whitish (in the pine and spruce forms) with darker green or red-brown concentric circular zones (rings). The surface of the cap is smooth, naked or velvety (felt), glossy or dry, after the rain it is sticky and slimy.
Author photo: Eleassar, CC BY-SA 3.0
Leg camelina 4-6 cm long, 1-2.5 cm in diameter. Initially filled, then cellular, almost hollow, brittle. It is of the same color with a cap or slightly lighter, at the top under the plates it is lighter, tapering towards the base, or regular, cylindrical.
Its surface may be pubescent and covered with dark green spots and small pits, darker than the rest of the peel skin. When compressed leg turns green.
Author photo: Eleassar, CC BY-SA 3.0
Pulp saffron milk is dense, light, often changes color in the air, becomes green or red. In the stem it is whitish, it reddens first on the cut, then it can turn green. Ryazhik pulp contains a group of rounded vesicular cells, spherocyte, because of which it is usually brittle. It also contains conductive ("vascular") hyphae with a milky sap, which may be abundant or slight, watery or thick. Its color is orange, unchanged or slowly changing in air. In oak he is white. Mushroom juice is not caustic, but tart and often sweet.
Ryzhiki absorb forest aromas in themselves, that is why they become fragrant, give off a fruity, then resinous or mossy smell.
Author photo: Casliber, CC BY-SA 3.0
Himenofor saffron milk leaf. The plates are frequent, thin, forked, slightly descending on the leg. At first yellowish, later orange, turn green when pressed, and then turn dark olive. They are not separated from the cap.
Author photo: Niepokój Zbigniew, CC BY-SA 4.0
Spore powder yellow, yellowish cream or light ocher.
Taste of mushrooms may be soft, sweetish, bitter, tart, astringent or sour.
Where do mushrooms grow?
The range of camelina captures North America, Eurasia, they were brought to Australia, Peru and New Zealand. More of these mushrooms grow in temperate latitudes of Eurasia and North America. In Russia, mushrooms are represented by all known species. Mushrooms form mycorrhiza with conifers, therefore they are found next to pines, spruces or firs. Only red oak, which is more often called the pearlwood, lives in symbiosis with deciduous tree species.
Although mushrooms are growing in mixed and coniferous forests, they can not stand the shadow. Most often found on clearings, forest edges, on the borders of forests or among young, not yet closed and not forming strongly shaded places of trees. Do not like mushrooms strongly dry or excessively wet soil. They grow on sandy sand in groups, sometimes forming "witch circles".
When do mushrooms grow?
These tender mushrooms almost can not stand the cold. The optimum temperature for their growth is in the range from 15 to 27 °. Ryzhiki appear in large quantities from July to September. At this time, they should be collected, but they grow in "waves", with a break. You can meet them later, until November, and even after small frosts. But at this time they are few.
Author photo: Electrostatico, Public Domain
Types of mushrooms, names and photos
Modern taxonomy classifies these mushrooms as sections. Dapetes or Deliciosi subgenus Piperites. Species differ in the color of the skin and pulp, the size of the fruit body, the change in the color of the milky juice during oxidation in air, the relation to woody plants under which they grow, and the size of spores. The following is a description of the mushrooms.
- Ryzhik, the same redfish real (ordinary, pine, pine forest), or Delicious throat (lat. Lactarius deliciosus, syn.Lactariuspinicola). Often there are other names of the species, while the following specific epithets are added to the word “camelina”: autumn, noble, delicacy.
Valuable edible mushroom, successfully defending the first place in taste in a dispute with white fungus. He has a fleshy, convex-depressed, red or orange-yellow cap with distinct blue-green circles and dents. With age, it cracks down and becomes funnel-shaped. The diameter of the cap is 3-17 cm. If you press on its surface, the dents will turn a greenish color. The plates are yellow-orange or ocher, bifurcated, turn green when injured. Disputes are light ocher. Ножка рыжика по цвету не отличается от шляпки, её высота равна 3-7 см, диаметр – 1-2 см, вначале она заполнена мякотью, позже пустая. По форме ножка цилиндрическая, с фистулами, то есть углублениями на поверхности. При нажатии зеленеет. Мякоть ломкая, но плотная, желтоватая или белая, сразу под кожицей шляпки и ножки она оранжевая, на изломе сначала краснеет, затем зеленеет. Обыкновенный рыжик имеет приятный смолистый запах и вкус. Мякоть выделяет обильный ярко-оранжевый, не едкий, но немного острый млечный сок, который на воздухе через несколько часов становится серовато-зелёным.
Pine redfish grows in Russia, Foreign Europe, East Asia, North America on elevated places and clearings of pine, less often mixed forests. Together with woody plants, the species was imported to Chile, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. In the Northern Hemisphere, it occurs from July to the end of November. When collecting mushrooms cut with a full leg and laid with the caps down so as not to damage.
This species is similar to blood-red and green-red mushrooms. It can be distinguished by clear concentric cap rings and milky juice greening in the air.
This is the most delicious saffron. It is fried, salted, pickled and even eaten raw. Mushroom does not require prior soaking.
Author photo: L.Payakoff, CC BY-SA 3.0
Author photo: L.Payakoff, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Spruce red (green), or helper (lat.Lactarius deterrimus,syn. Lactarius deliciosus var. deterrimus, Lactarius deliciosus var. picei). According to one classification, it is considered a subspecies of camelina present, on the other - a separate species. The cap is orange, with greenish or brown spots, fleshy, but thinner than that of the camelina mushroom, smaller in size (3-8 cm) and brittle, without pubescence at the edges. The sun fades slightly and becomes whitish. The skin of the cap is more often orange, but can change to pale pink with pale concentric rings and spots. The surface of the cap is smooth, slippery in wet weather. With damage and aging turns green. In comparison with the redfish, its leg is shorter: 3-6 cm in length, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, slightly bent. The color is the same as the cap, first filled, then almost hollow inside. The milky juice is orange-red, less often almost red, turning green on contact with air. The plates are usually lighter than the rest of the fruit body. The flesh is more friable than that of the camelina, orange, at first it blushes at first, then turns green, has a pleasant fruity smell. Spore powder is light orange.
Spruce mushrooms grow in spruce forests with an abundance of grass, in the forest litter among the needles, from August to October. This species occurs more often than the present, sometimes forms whole thickets. In Europe, it is considered to be truly real Gingerbread.
Spruce ginger can be confused with a pink rose (lat. Lactarius torminosus). It differs from the present ginger in smaller sizes and place of growth. In Russia, it is considered a delicious edible mushroom, used in fresh, pickled and salted form. In the blanks, it changes color, becomes green. When collecting spruce mushrooms, cut 2/3 of the legs.
Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0
Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0
- Red ginger, blood red (lat. Lactarius sanguifluus). Rare edible mushroom with an orange-red or blood-red hat and the same color of juice, darkening, but not green in the air. Hat with a diameter of 5 to 15 cm, smooth, with mild greenish concentric rings or without them. In wet weather, it is a bit sticky. The leg is 3–6 cm high and 1.5–2.5 cm in diameter, narrowing towards the bottom. It is of one color with a cap, and hollow in mature mushrooms. The plane of the leg is covered with powdery powder and red grooves. Red pulp dense, under the skin of the legs and under the plates - blood-red, elsewhere yellowish or white with reddish spots. With a pleasant smell and spicy taste, green on the cut. Hymenophore plates are ocher light, with age they become wine-colored, go deep down. Anastomoses (associations) are formed between the plates. When pressed, they first turn brown, then greenish. Spore powder is white.
Red mushrooms grow in the pine and mixed forests in the mountainous areas in summer and autumn. Form mycorrhiza with pine and Siberian cedar. They are found in the Czech Republic, Great Britain, Italy, France, and Russia.
Author photo: zaca, CC BY-SA 3.0
Author photo: zaca, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Red pine red, red, or green-red (lat. Lactarius semisanguifluus). Edible mushroom with orange-red or orange cap and green concentric zones. Orange juice, blushing in the air. The diameter of the cap is from 3 to 10 cm. It is medium-haired, convex- or flat-prostrate, slightly concave in the center. With age, it becomes funnel-shaped. In young mushrooms, the edge is bent to the leg, in mature ones it is prostrate and thin. When compressed, the cap first becomes red, then greenish. Plates in color do not differ from the cap, in the places of damage gradually turn green. Spore powder is light ocher. The stem is from 3 to 8 cm long and 0.8-2.5 cm thick, usually cylindrical, less often slightly narrowed to the base, salmon-colored with green spots, in “ripe” mushrooms with a narrow cavity inside. The flesh is yellowish, in the central part is white, under the skin of the cap is greenish, in young mushrooms it is dense, in old ones it is loose.
Red pine pine forms mycorrhiza with pine. It is found in Italy, Northern Ireland, Great Britain, France, Russia. Mushroom picking season is from July to October.
Author photo: Markus Wilhelm, CC BY-SA 3.0
Author photo: Irene Andersson, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Japanese red fir, fir (Latin Lactarius japonicus). Edible mushroom. The cap with a diameter of 6-8 cm, in young mushrooms, is straight with the edge wrapped down, in mature mushrooms it is funnel-shaped with a small depression, with pronounced concentric zones. Its color is light brown or light ocher. The plates are brighter than the top of the cap, pinkish-orange, with red tints. The leg is bright, red-orange with a white line on top, 4.5-7.5 cm long, 1.2-2 cm in diameter. The flesh is light, it rarely turns green on the cut, more often it remains red-orange or blood-red, which and was originally. The taste of pulp is bland.
Japanese mushrooms grow in Russia in the south of Primorsky Krai and in Japan, in mixed forests under black fir (Latin Abies holophylla). Collect them in September and October.
Taken from the site: wikigrib.ru
- Salmon redhead, or Alpine (lat. Lactarius salmonicolor). Edible mushroom. It has the largest and brightest hat among all the mushrooms. Its diameter is from 6 to 20 cm, the color is bright and saturated, carrot-orange at the edges, yellow-orange in the center with alternating concentric zones of salmon pink and bright orange color. The plates are pink, sometimes with an orange tint. Leg - 3-5 cm long and 1-3 cm in diameter, pinkish-orange, with darker grooves. The pulp of the fungus is white in the middle, the carrot is closer to the skin. Milky juice is plentiful, also orange. And the juice and pulp do not change color on the cut.
Edible salmon mushrooms form mycorrhiza only with fir, so you can only find them where there is these coniferous trees. They grow from August to October.
Author photo: Jerzy Opioła, CC BY-SA 4.0
Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0
- Red oak or oak oak (lat. Lactarius insulsus) - conditionally edible mushroom. It grows in deciduous forests, forms mycorrhiza with oak, hazel and beech. Distributed in Finland, France, Britain, Spain, as well as in the European part of Russia. The harvest time of oak mushrooms is from July to September.
The oak cap camel is first flat-rounded, often of irregular shape, later funnel-shaped, red or orange-brick, with darker rings. Its diameter is 5-12 cm. The plates are yellowish, coming down on the leg. Spore powder ocher or yellowish cream. The stem is of the same color as the cap, or lighter, with dark recesses, thickening downwards, 3–7 cm high, 1.5–3 cm in diameter. Cream or white flesh pinking on the cut. Milky juice, liquid, acrid, white, stands out in small quantities. Usually oak mushrooms are soaked to remove bitter juice and then salted.
Taken from the site: wikigrib.ru
Taken from the site: wikigrib.ru
- Ginger dark, dull or reddish brown (lat. Lactarius queticolor). A hat with a diameter of 5 to 12 cm, bluish-orange with a gray tint or darker with gray tones. In places of damage, it turns green. The rings on the cap are mild, sometimes they are completely invisible, often leaving only large patches of different shades. The pulp in the center of the fungus is white, orange closer to the surface, slightly pungent in taste. Milky saffron juice is red-orange, turning green when flowing. The plates are frequent, slightly descending on the leg, pinkish-orange with a cream shade or orange, turning green when injured. Leg 3-5 cm high, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, dense, cylindrical or tapering towards the foot, hollow, gray-orange or lilac-red in mature mushrooms.
The fungus grows in symbiosis with pine, is found in mixed and coniferous forests, where this tree grows. The season of collecting dark sausage is August-October. This is a very rare mushroom of the north of the European part of Russia, it belongs to edible species.
Author photo: A.Aguilera, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Red wine or wine red (lat. Lactarius vinosus, syn. Lactarius sanguifluus var. violaceus). According to some data it is an independent species, according to others it is a kind of red camelina. A hat with a diameter of 4-12 cm, its peel is non-tacky, wine-red, shiny and smooth, with pronounced annular zones. The plates are rather narrow, in young mushrooms orange, in mature lilac-pink, in old ones wine ones. The flesh is white, fragile, dense, closer to the skin is wine-red or red-lilac, at the cut changes color to red-brown or red. The milky juice is wine-red; when oxidized, it turns purple-brown. Leg 4-6 cm high, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, tapered towards the base, salmon-colored or violet with wine-red fistulas. The surface of the cap and legs in places of compression is blue.
Wine Redfish grows from July to October in the forests of the northern temperate zone in ecosystems with the participation of pine. This is an edible mushroom.
Photo author: Jean-Marc Moingeon, All rights reserved. Taken from pharmanatur.com
- Red Finnish, blue (Latin. Lactarius fennoscandicus). Hat with a diameter of 3-8 cm, sticky, with well-defined zones. The color of the inner and outer concentric zones differs only in tone. In the center it is darker, rich brown or the color of cinnamon with an olive tinge, becoming dimmer at the edges. The plates are narrow and frequent, from peach to yellowish-orange, green when wounded. The pulp of the fungus is white in the center, orange at the edges, on the break and cut it turns blue or becomes blue-green. Milky juice of Finnish saffron milk is orange; when oxidized it changes to greenish-gray. The stem is 4–11 cm high, 1-2.5 cm in diameter, regular cylindrical or slightly thickened at the base.
Bluefish is an edible mushroom that grows in symbiosis with spruce, preferring the edges of spruce and mixed forests of Karelia, around Arkhangelsk and the Vologda region.
Author photo: Irene Andersson, CC BY-SA 3.0
False mushrooms. Photo and description of doubles
Young edible mushrooms can not be poisoned. In ancient Russia, they were eaten raw. Today, before use, they are advised to at least scald with boiling water. But you can eat them only if you are sure that these are the mushrooms.
Below are the mushrooms with which inexperienced mushroom pickers may confuse mushrooms.
How to distinguish mushrooms mushrooms from the wave of pink
Red mushrooms are often confused with a conditionally edible mushroom that requires more thorough heat treatment (soaking and boiling), a pink rose (lat. Lactarius torminosus), which also belongs to the genus of mlechniki. Sometimes it is called false ginger. At the same time, the difference between the winding and the camelina may not be noticeable during a cursory surface examination.
- Volnushka has fruit body of pinkish shade, and saffron milk is most often ocher.
- The cap has a very pubescent cap, the saffron milk cap is smooth or slightly felt.
- The next difference is that the milky juice of a white hair is white, which does not change color in the air, and the camelina is usually orange, oxidized when it interacts with air.
- Volnushka grows under small-leaved trees: aspen and birch, and camelina under conifers.
- The surface of the body of the wave does not change color when damaged and squeezed;
- Volnushka leg more thin and without dents.
On the left is spruce fir, author of the photo: Igor Lebedinsky, CC BY 3.0. On the right is a pink wolf by the author: Tocekas, CC BY-SA 3.0.
What is the difference between mushrooms and chanterelles
Ryzhiki and chanterelles can only confuse inexperienced mushroom pickers. Below are their similarities and differences.
- And mushrooms, and chanterelles contain a lot of carotene, because of this they are painted in bright colors.
- The shape of the cap of a mature chanterelle is deep-funnel-shaped with a wavy edge. The camelina is straight, with a slight depression in the center.
- On the cap of the camelina there are almost always rings.
- The cap of the chanterelle passes into the leg smoothly and imperceptibly, there is no clear separation between these parts of the fungus. The small cap is tightly attached to the stem, but their separation is clearly visible.
On the left is a real redfish, author of the photo: Petritap, CC BY-SA 3.0. Right chanterelle, author of the photo: User: EPO, CC BY 3.0.
On the left is a true redfish, author of the photo: Ericsteinert
commonswiki, CC BY-SA 3.0. Right velvety chanterelle, author of the photo: Vavrin, CC BY-SA 3.0.
Do not confuse chanterelles and rychiki with false chanterelles, namely: with inedible orange gossip and poisonous olive oil omphalot. How do these mushrooms look and how to distinguish them, read the article about chanterelles.
Differences of red mushroom from amber mildew (gray-pink)
It is often written that these two types of mushrooms are difficult to distinguish. Yet the difference between them can be traced by the following signs.
- First of all, you need to compare the flesh of these species. The small red flesh under the skin of the leg and under the plates is blood-red, in other places it is yellowish or white with reddish spots, turning green on the cut. The flesh of the clerk is pale yellow, does not change color in the air, with an unpleasant smell and a bitter taste.
- The differences in the color of the milky juice are also well marked. In the saffron milk he has a blood-red color, in the case of the lamb he is watery white and unchanged.
- Cap of camelina with a diameter of up to 15 cm, red or orange, often with greenish concentric zones. The cap of the crown is 6-12 cm in diameter, its skin is pinkish-brown, sometimes with a gray tint and silk shine.
- The camelina has a leg height of 3-6 cm and a diameter of 1.5-2.5 cm, from the bottom it narrows. In the case of the crab it is up to 9 cm tall and 1.5-2 cm in diameter, cylindrical, covered with whitish fibers at the bottom.
- It is possible to distinguish saffron milk and on the plates of hymenophore. In the gray-pink crown, they are whitish at first, then fawn or with a pink tinge. In Ryzhik, they are light ocher, becoming wine red with age.
On the left is a red mushroom, author of the photo: zaca, CC BY-SA 3.0. On the right is an amber (gray-pink) Milky Way, author of the photo: Jerzy Opioła, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Differences of orange crab from the present ginger
Below is a comparison of the mushrooms and the distinctive features of each.
- First of all, these mushrooms differ from each other in the appearance of the cap. Fish cap with a diameter of 3-17 cm, orange-yellow or red, with clear blue-green circles and dents. The orange cap is 3-8 cm in diameter, often with beige circular zones.
- Leg of camelina 5–7 cm high, 1–1.5 cm in diameter, of the same color with a cap with indentations on the surface. In the case of the crown, the stem is 3–6 cm high, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, a little lighter than the cap, without depressions.
- Pulp redfish yellowish or white, at first cut red, then turns green. The pulp of the crab is unchanged, with a characteristic orange flavor.
- Milky redfish juice is bright orange, when oxidized becomes greyish-green. At the crab it is white and unaltered in the air.
On the left is a true redfish, author of the photo: Uzyukin Ivan, CC BY-SA 4.0. On the right is the orange crab, author of the photo: Jerzy Opioła, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Useful (healing) properties
Ryzhiki are very useful and tasty mushrooms. The human body absorbs them more easily than other types of fungi. The saffron milk contains:
- Vitamins: C, group B (riboflavin, thiamine, niacin), beta-carotene, which in the human gut is processed by bacteria into vitamin A (retinol). By the way, the orange color of mushrooms is explained by the high content of beta-carotene.
- Minerals: magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, sodium, calcium.
- The antibiotic substance lactarioviolin inhibits the development of most bacteria, including tubercular bacilli. This antibiotic was isolated from redfish.
In the old days, mushrooms were used for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract, and also used as an antiseptic for injuries.
Harm and contraindications
Any mushrooms, and even mushrooms are hard food for the digestive system. In large quantities they are not recommended for pregnant women, children under 12 years old, people who have undergone operations on the digestive organs. They can not be eaten when:
- kidney and liver diseases,
- low acidity of the stomach.
If the mushrooms are collected young, processed and cooked correctly, then they can not be poisoned. But do not forget that any mushrooms can not be collected in the city, near the roads, plants and garbage, as they absorb heavy metals from the soil, which when eaten accumulate in the human body and worsen health.
Caloric and chemical composition of mushrooms
Calorie mushrooms in 100 g:
- Fresh mushrooms - 17 kcal,
- Marinated and salted mushrooms - 17-17.5 kcal,
- Boiled mushrooms - 22.4 kcal,
- Fried mushrooms - 94 kcal.
100 g of fresh mushrooms contains:
- 88.9 g of water
- 1.9 g of protein
- 0.8 g fat,
- 0.5 g of carbohydrates
- 2.2 g of fiber.
Minerals and vitamins per 100 g of saffron milk:
- 0.7 mg of ash,
- 6 mg of sodium
- 310 mg of potassium,
- 6 mg of calcium
- 8 mg of magnesium,
- 41 mg of phosphorus,
- 2.7 mg of iron
- 0.07 mg of vitamin B1,
- 0.2 mg of vitamin B2,
- 6 mg of vitamin C.
Author photo: Pawelec, CC BY-SA 3.0
How long can you store mushrooms?
Raw mushrooms are not kept warm for more than 3-4 hours, after this time the mushrooms begin to deteriorate. Especially quickly the process of destruction occurs in the sun. For this reason, they are not sold fresh on the market and in stores. В холодильнике очищенные от хвои, мха и листьев грибы можно хранить упакованными в пищевую пленку или в закрытой эмалированной, деревянной или пластмассовой таре не более суток.Blanched mushrooms can be stored in the refrigerator for three days.
How to clean and handle mushrooms?
Before cooking, mushrooms are cleaned of debris and washed, preferably under running water. On the question of whether it is necessary to soak the mushrooms, there is no consensus. In the central European part of Russia and in the north of the country, they are soaked for up to 3 days. In the Volga region they are not soaked at all. In addition, since the oak ginger is bitter, it is soaked to remove bitter juice, and then salted. Other species are not bitter, so they are prepared without soaking.
Ryzhiki contain easily oxidizing substances that change color in the air. They need to be cleaned quickly and immediately put in salted and acidified water (for 1 liter of water - 2 g of citric acid and 1 tsp. Of salt). For drying and dry salting mushrooms do not wash.
In addition, mushrooms are often damaged by insect larvae. The larvae themselves are safe for human health, but the products of their metabolism can cause poisoning and botulism in canned food. Therefore, the places "marked" by the larvae should be carefully removed.
How to cook mushrooms? Cooking methods
Ryzhiki can be eaten in any form - these are universal mushrooms, but the first category of quality was given precisely to salted Ryzhik. It can be eaten already a day after salting.
Ryzhiki cook in all possible ways:
- boiled or blanched,
Pure mushrooms are thrown into salted boiling water. Cook for 15-20 minutes.
Peeled and washed mushrooms can be fried fresh, or you can boil it beforehand in salted water for 15 minutes. Wrung out of water, they are put on a dry frying pan and heated to remove the released moisture. After that add oil and cook another 10-15 minutes. Lay onions and fried mushrooms until golden brown. All these operations must be carried out over high heat, otherwise stewed mushrooms will turn out.
- and eat raw, just salt the plates of mushrooms and stand 1-2 hours.
In addition, mushrooms kvass, marinate, salt, freeze, dry, add to the mushroom caviar, from them prepare the extract (essence). But all this is for the most part only to taste and prevent feelings of hunger. In order for the beneficial substances of fungi to digest, we must forget all the known rules of their preparation, especially preparations for the winter. To "get" from the mushrooms, you need:
- grind them, and even better to mince,
- finely chopped mushrooms are best steamed, it is not so useful to cook and it is harmful for the body and health to fry.
Photo by: cogdogblog, CC BY 2.0
Salty mushrooms. How to pickle mushrooms?
Usually mushrooms salted dry, cold and hot ways.
Dryin a way salted only mushrooms. This type of workpiece is preferable for them. Pre-clean the mushrooms from dirt, wipe clean, better with a linen cloth and lay the layers in a container with plates up. It is impossible to salt the mushrooms in galvanized, copper, tin and plastic containers, since the interaction of the brine with such materials produces toxic compounds. Each layer is sprinkled with coarse salt. Spices in mushrooms do not put, so as not to kill their own flavor and taste. After laying half the mushrooms, they are kept for 5 hours. When they settle, add the other half to them. Top cover with a cloth and put a wooden circle, which is pressed down with a yoke. Two or three days they are kept at room temperature to start the fermentation process. After placed in a cellar and kept at 5 ° C. Salty mushrooms can be eaten in a day, but they acquire a richer taste after 10-15 days. After this period they are transferred to clean containers.
Cool way salted mushrooms is different from dry only in that the mushrooms are washed several times before being placed in a container.
For hot fashion salted mushrooms, first scalded 2 times with boiling water, then cooled with cold water and dried. To mushrooms were spicy, they can be shifted with ground black pepper, currant leaves and laurel. But it will be a taste of seasoning, but not red mushrooms.
Author photo: Josep Xicota, CC BY-SA 3.0
Marinated mushrooms How to pickle mushrooms?
You can pickle fresh and salty mushrooms.
- Fresh mushrooms are sorted by size, large cut into pieces, small preserved whole. Washed mushrooms boil in pouring 15 minutes. Lay them out in sterile jars and pour brine, cover with lids and sterilize.
- Salted mushrooms put in a colander, pour the brine from them, then rinse with hot water. Put the mushrooms in jars and pour marinade. After that, the banks are sterilized.
How to freeze mushrooms?
Mushrooms should be washed in running water and dried before freezing. You can store raw, fried and blanched mushrooms.
- Prepared raw mushrooms spread on a wooden plate so that they do not touch each other, and placed in the freezer. After one day, they are put in storage containers and then closed again in the freezer. Frozen mushrooms in this way can be stored for 6 months.
- Blanched and fried mushrooms, after they are drained from the liquid, immediately laid out in portioned bags or containers and frozen. These mushrooms are stored for up to a year.
Is it possible to dry mushrooms?
Previously it was believed that dry mushrooms can not be. Now, under the pressure of facts, opinion has changed.
All edible mushrooms can be dried, except for lamellar and tubular species containing bitterness, which is not removed during the drying process. Although the latter does not apply to some mushrooms, the bitterness of which adds flavor to dishes.
Edible mushrooms are not bitter. Dry young, healthy, strong mushrooms. When dried, they retain their forest aroma and beneficial properties. In the form of powder, they become flavoring for soups and sauces, and in the Scandinavian countries the powder is added to coffee.
Before drying, they are cleaned and wiped with a dry nylon cloth. Dried mushrooms are whole, but the mushrooms should be approximately the same size. Dried mushrooms should bend well, break, but not crumble. Store dried mushrooms for 1 year in linen or paper bags, in glass jars with tight-fitting lids, in a dry place, far from strongly smelling objects and make sure that they are not saturated with moisture. Before use, dried mushrooms are simply washed or soaked in water or milk.
How to grow mushrooms?
Mycorrhiza mushrooms are not grown commercially because of their unprofitability. But you can try to grow a bed of mushrooms for the family. To do this, you need to grow next to your house that conifer, which prefers this type of mushrooms. Not extra will be the additional delivery of soil with forest litter from the forest. The conditions of light and soil moisture should be as close as possible to those in which these mushrooms grow. The caps of mature mushrooms are ground, dried and scattered on the ground. Top sprinkled with soil, slightly tamped and watered with water at room temperature.
When mushrooms go, you can bring part of the mycelium from the forest. To do this, dig a cube of soil (with an edge of 20 cm) in the place where the camelina was found. After delivery, it is immediately planted under spruce, fir or pine.
Pine (pine forest) (Lactarius deliciosus)
Pine (pine forest) (Lactarius deliciosus)
It grows in pine forests and mixed forests, it comes across more often than others, it differs favorably with the reddish-red color of fruit bodies and the strong, stocky appearance of mushrooms. The orange-yellow cap is round, with a diameter of 5–18 cm, with dark concentric zones, at first convex, with time the edges are raised, forming a wide funnel. To the touch the cap is slippery, in rainy weather - sticky. The plates are frequent, narrow, yellowish. Height of a hollow leg is up to 9 cm.
On the break of the pulp, an orange milky, sweetish juice with a sharp taste and smell of resin, which quickly turns green in the air. When removed, the mushroom acquires a slightly greenish tint, especially in places of contact.
The flesh is dense and salted, these mushrooms look very attractive.
Spruce redhead (elovik) (Lactarius deterrimus)
Spruce fir (Lactarius deterrimus)
Spruce firmen form mycorrhiza with roots of spruce and grow only near these trees. The color of the cap is light orange, with darker rings and spots, with time acquires a dark green, coniferous shade. Under the sun, the skin is prone to fade and becomes whitish. The leg is thin, 3–7 cm high, fragile, and the cap is fragile, especially at the edges, which is why people of eloptics crumple and break in baskets.
Milky reddish juice stands out in large quantities, it is pleasant to the taste, it turns green in the air. In salting, eloviki are very tasty and fragrant, but acquire a dark, greenish-brown hue.
Red ginger (Lactarius sanguifluus)
Red ginger (Lactarius sanguifluus)
The species is widespread in pine and spruce forests, characterized by a dense cap reddish-pink or orange in color, up to 10 cm in diameter, with bent edges and a recess in the center, without an adhesive coating. The flesh is bright, with a pinkish tinge and burgundy spots. The milky juice is saturated red, darkens with time, acquiring a red-brown color.
The leg is strong, up to 6 cm tall, narrowed at the base, covered with a characteristic powdery patina and crimson small pits over the entire surface. The color of the legs varies from yellow-orange to purple. The species is edible, suitable for salting and cooking a variety of mushroom dishes.
Milky red (Lactarius semisanguifluus)
Milky red (Lactarius semisanguifluus)
This beautiful bright mushroom is found near the pines. The cap is fleshy, up to 9 cm in diameter, flat, with a slightly indented cent and bent edges. The skin is light orange, on the edges of a pink shade, over time a greenish tone appears at the center. The plates are frequent, narrow, orange with a characteristic pink sheen, the aging fungus becomes reddish.
Milky juice is orange first, then red and green. The taste is pleasant, soft. Hollow leg up to 7 cm tall, narrow, fragile. The flesh is fragile, orange, on the break becomes greenish.
Locations and collection times
Hogs of all kinds prefer coniferous forests, but can grow in mixed plantings under pines or spruces. Favorite places are forest edges, forest glades, cutting areas, young spruce forests and pine forests. Most often these mushrooms are found in the northern regions, forests of the Urals and Siberia.
It is not easy to find mushrooms — they hide in small groups under fallen soft needles, in dry weather there are almost none, and after drizzling summer and autumn rains they suddenly appear en masse, lifting their needles from pine needles and grass, highlighting with an orange warm color to match the color of the pine bark.
Eating begins in July, the main collection falls in August and lasts until September. Experienced mushroom pickers notice the growing places of orange mushrooms, and after each rain they again and again collect fragrant forest crops.
False mushrooms (doubles)
Ryzhiki - valuable edible mushrooms of the genus Mlechnik, on a break that emit a plentiful orange-red milky juice. The advantage of this characteristic feature is that they cannot be confused with inedible and dangerous species.
However, due to inexperience, noble and fragrant mushrooms of this genus, attributable to conditionally edible, can be taken for a noble ginger.
Pink Wave (Lactarius torminosus)
Pink Wave (Lactarius torminosus)
It is characterized by a white milky sap that does not darken in the air. This fungus grows in deciduous forests at the roots of birch trees and is more common in northern regions. In addition to the white color of the milky juice, the pink wave is distinguished by a soft pink hat with its wrapped down fringed edges and whitish pulp on the break.
Eating pink volushka in food, with insufficient boiling or salting less than 45 days, can cause disruption of the stomach and intestines.
Mlechnik large or papillary (Lactarius mammosus)
Mlechnik large or papillary (Lactarius mammosus)
Another conditionally edible fungus of the same genus, growing in coniferous forests, often on light sandstone. It is distinguished by a grayish-brown dry cap and a milky juice of white color, which does not darken in air. The flesh is white, fragile, if rubbed between your fingers, the faint smell of coconut can be heard.
This species is used in food after soaking and prolonged salting.
Fragrant Milky Way (Lactarius glyciosmus)
Fragrant Milky Way (Lactarius glyciosmus)
A small mushroom with a cap diameter of up to 6 cm, which is characterized by a beige or ocher color and tucked edges. The flesh is light, the milky juice is white, does not change color, the smell is strong, coconut.
It is used as a spicy additive to other dishes and in salted form.
Recipes for cooking mushrooms
Knowledgeable mushroom pickers believe that real mushrooms should be eaten. salted without spices, then they acquire incomparable forest taste, give out with needles, and a slight bitterness of pine resin. Therefore, mushrooms salted immediately after collection, wiping with a clean cloth, tightly packed in a container and generously sprinkled with salt. This pickle is eaten in 10-14 days.
The need for fast forest harvesting of mushrooms is justified not only by their excellent taste, like other mushrooms, it is a perishable product that should be processed as soon as possible.
Salty mushrooms with spices
At home you can cook delicious savory mushrooms, which are obtained with cold pickled. To do this, for 1 kg of mushrooms, take 40 g of salt, a little bay leaves and leaves of black currant, allspice and black pepper to taste.
Mushrooms are doused with boiling water twice, sprinkled on a sieve, then doused with cold water, and left to dry for a while.
Salt and spices are placed on the bottom of the tank, mixing them and scattering them in a thin layer. Then spread mushrooms, with caps on top, in rows of up to 7 cm in thickness, each layer is salted and perched. Up all the remaining spices are laid. The blank is covered with a piece of cotton cloth, a wooden circle, pressed down with a yoke and taken out to the basement. As a yoke, it is convenient to use a glass bottle with water.
After a few days, a brine appears and, if it is not there, the burden of oppression increases. Excess brine is drained if necessary. Such spicy mushrooms can be eaten in a month, and keep a snack in the refrigerator.
Baked marinated mushrooms
This tasty original snack will serve as an excellent decoration of the holiday table. And for juiciness and forest flavor, it can not be compared with any purchased delicacies.
To prepare the marinade take:
- 1 liter of vinegar 3.5%,
- 20 grams of sugar
- 20 grams of salt
- 5–7 bay leaves,
- a little carnation.
All components are mixed and brought to a boil.
The cleaned mushrooms, washed under running water, are spread on a baking sheet and put in a hot oven for 10–12 minutes. Then take it out of the oven, cool it a little, put it in jars while still warm and pour it with hot marinade.
After that, the banks are sealed with plastic lids and as soon as they cool down, put in the refrigerator. For long-term storage, canned food is covered with metal lids, sterilized for 30–40 minutes, and then sealed.
Ryzhiki in sour cream
The classic mushroom dish turns out to be especially delicious when using mushrooms. To prepare perform the following steps:
- Onions finely chopped and fried until golden brown.
- Mushrooms are cleaned, washed, large cut into halves, lightly sprinkled with flour and fry.
- Combine mushrooms with onions, add sour cream and warm to boiling.
The dish is salted, add ground pepper, finely chopped dill and other spices to taste.
Video about mushrooms mushrooms
Ryzhiki can not compete in taste and popularity with the recognized kings of the world of mushrooms - whites and milk mushrooms. But still, these are fragrant, nourishing, exceptionally useful gifts of nature, which deserve the closest attention of mushroom pickers and must take their place in home cooking, among the cans of winter pickles.
Ryzhik mushroom: description, places of growth, types, cooking recipesRyzhiki are one of the most common mushrooms in temperate latitudes - they not only have excellent taste characteristics, but also have useful properties. Where they grow, what types there are, how to collect and harvest mushrooms, let's consider in more detail.
Most common types
Ryzhiki are among the representatives of the genus Mlechnik, which includes about 7 names of the subspecies - red, salmon, alpine and others. In this case, it is believed that the main varieties of the present camelina are pine and spruce species.
The ripening time of this camelina falls in the middle of June, and it can be found in the forest until cold weather (until mid-September). It belongs to the category I edibility of the mushroom (absolutely edible and nutritious mushrooms). It has the following external characteristics:
- a hat - characteristic bright orange color, shiny, large size (up to 14 cm in diameter). On the surface of the cap are encircling rings, sometimes whitish plaque. The form has a standard - convex, spherical. A small depression may form in the middle of the cap, and the edges will wrap inward (especially for large mushrooms). The surface is smooth, slightly slippery and sticky.
- leg - thick, large (up to 10 cm in height). The color always corresponds to the basic shade of the cap. The foot is rough with small shcherbinka or pits. Can be covered with a small gun. К верху немного сужается, образуя непропорциональный цилиндр.
- records — тонкие, раздвоенные, густо усеивают низ шляпки. Часто пластинки как бы заходят на основание ножки гриба (занимают не более трети всей длины ножки). Цвет оранжевый, с коричневатым оттенком, однако при нажатии пластинки приобретают зеленый оттенок.
- мякоть - dense texture, saturated orange color. In the open air it may become green.
- the juice - thick and plentiful, sweet to the taste.
This variety of camelina got its name because of its territorial formation - fir mushrooms only grow near the roots of spruce or on the spruce litter. It is an edible mushroom. External data:
- a hat - up to 7 cm in diameter, has a mandatory knob in the center. The edges are fragile, curved to the bottom. The older the eloviki, the more their cap takes on a curvilous funnel shape. Peel without roughness. When wet air becomes sticky to the touch. The color varies from orange to brown, the rings and concentric spots on the cap are always darker than the base color. If you damage the delicate skin of the cap, it will get a green tint,
- leg - up to 6 cm in height, thin (up to 1 cm in diameter), very fragile and fragile. The cylindrical shape to the base narrows slightly. The color is the same as the cap,
- records - abundant, frequent, descend at the base of the leg. Have a lighter shade in comparison with the cap,
- the pulp - orange, at the breaks it is first painted in a red tint, and then becomes greenish. It has a sweet-fruity flavor,
- the juice - thick, red tint. In the open air becomes greenish.
Elovik grow from the beginning of the summer until the middle of autumn (until the end of October, provided there is no frost).
The least common species of camelina, which grows only in coniferous bedding in the highland areas. Specifications:
- a hat - flat, large size (up to 16 cm in diameter), sometimes squeezed in the center. Very dense texture, fleshy. In young specimens, the edges are folded inward; in adults, the cap practically does not bend. The color is orange-red, shiny, does not lose elasticity and does not become slippery when wet,
- leg - relatively short, up to 6 cm in height. Very dense and strong, with a big mealy patina and red hollows.
- records - frequent, narrow, strongly descend along the leg,
- the pulp - very dense, but fragile, white shade with bright dark-red chaotic spots. At the breaks from the pulp flowed milky juice of bright red color.
Unlike other subspecies of camelina, such a red mushroom has no concentric spots and circles on the cap. Distinguishes it from other representatives of the subspecies presence of thick juice of bloody hue.
Bright external data of mushrooms and their dissimilarity to other mushrooms will not allow to confuse this species with poisonous or inedible mushrooms. However, among the varieties of mushrooms there are such representatives that are not fully edible mushrooms. They belong to class IV - conditionally edible mushrooms). These are the doubles of camelina - pink waves, a papillary and a milky scent fragrant.
- Pink waves. It has white milk juice, which does not darken when in contact with air. Grows mainly in deciduous thickets, near birch or aspen. In contrast to this camelina has a pink color of the pulp, and the leg - a small and thin. The pink wave is not poisonous, however, with insufficient heat treatment, it causes serious problems with the stomach and intestines.
- Papillary breast (large crab). It grows in coniferous forests, is a conditionally edible mushroom. The cap is gray-brown, of small diameter, the milky juice is always white. The flesh is also white in color, with a slight coconut flavor. It is possible to eat only after careful soaking and long-term salting.
- Mlechnik fragrant. It has a small cap with a diameter of up to 5 cm brown. The edges are always concave inward, slightly torn along the contour. The smell is very strong, spicy, resembles a coconut. In cooking, it is used only in dried or salted form as a spice to other dishes.
Locations and collection season
Ryzhiki always grow in small groups - most often found in mixed and coniferous forests, as well as between the roots of trees and in moss. They do not like the cold, so they form and ripen in the warm months - from the beginning of summer to mid-autumn. The most mass ripening period is July-beginning of September. Distributed in almost all continents, but most often found in the temperate climate zone.
What is the difference between mushrooms and the wind
The external similarity of these two species of mushrooms is very large, but there are some significant differences. The first - This is a characteristic of the milky juice. In volnushka it is always white, and in Ryzhikov - yellow or orange, which acquires a greenish tint in the open air.Milky sap of fungusMilky juice mushroom redhead
If you turn both of these mushrooms and look under the cap, then you can distinguish them very easily: the waves of the plate are always pale pink or gray, but the mushrooms are fully justify their name - their plates are red, orange or bright yellow. The next way to distinguish these twins is their place of growth.Wafer mushroom plateFungus mushroom plate
Volnushka prefers to grow near birch and some other deciduous trees, but mushrooms are most often formed on coniferous bedding and roots of pines and spruce. Ryzhik loves clean ecology and unpolluted air; therefore, it does not occur near highways, unlike windfalls - they are less sensitive to air parameters and grow massively on roadsides.
The composition of this mushroom includes such components as: protein, water, ash, fiber, monosaccharides and disaccharides, minerals, vitamins of groups B, vitamin C and elements such as sodium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, etc. Mass fraction of dietary fiber is 11%, vitamin B2 - 11.2%, potassium - 12.5%, iron - 15.5%. The ratio of BZHU is 1.9: 0.8: 0.6 (per 100 grams of product). The caloric content of 100 grams of the fungus is 17 kcal, however, during heat treatment (especially salting and frying) the caloric content increases significantly.
What is useful
Ginger is a very useful multivitamin mushroom - its active ingredients and provitamins have a strong antioxidant effect, strengthen the immune system and help reduce the risk of cholesterol blockage. In addition, the fungus contains a strong antibiotic that fights against active pathogenic viruses and bacteria (in particular, it neutralizes tuberculosis). It is these beneficial properties of camelina that determine its harmlessness - this mushroom can be eaten raw even without heat treatment.
In addition to useful properties, saffron milk is nutritious and has excellent taste. - its oily pulp is not inferior in taste indicators to the most tasty kind - white mushroom. In terms of its energy component, this mushroom approaches beef and turkey, and in terms of calories it exceeds poultry meat and chicken eggs.
Description and characteristics of the fungus
Ryzhiki have a bright reddish color and a reddish tint, which is due to the high content of beta-carotene. False mushrooms do not exist, so it is almost impossible to collect poisonous mushrooms that have red hats that look like mushrooms. Inexperienced mushroom pickers sometimes confuse mushrooms with conditionally edible and less valuable pink waves. (Lactarius torminosus), which secrete a colorless milky juice and have a strongly pubescent cap surface.
Currently, the description and characteristics of the most common types of mushrooms are known to almost all experienced mushroom pickers.
Ryzhiki are considered inhabitants of coniferous forests. Collected mushrooms should be in the period from July to September. These mushrooms most often grow in areas that are richly moisturized, warm and well lit. Sometimes the “sunny royal mushroom” grows in open and well-lit forest edges.
It is such sites that have been chosen and popular with fans of quiet hunting chanterelles. The decisive factor in the spread of edible mushrooms are the substrate indicators. Almost all species of mushrooms grow in dry pine forests. Some species are found in mixed forests. Fruit bodies are scattered groups.
How to cook: the best recipes for winter
Salted and marinated mushrooms are high-calorie foods, exceeding in terms of their energy value meat products, including beef and chicken meat. Ryzhiki serve as a source of amino acids and a substitute for high-grade protein food for vegetarians, they are widely used for winter preparations.
After salting, ryoniki change a dramatic orange color to greenish-brown, which does not adversely affect the taste. To taste properly cooked mushrooms closely resemble salty milk mushrooms or volnushki. Cooking salted and pickled mushrooms is simple:
- Collected mushrooms must be carefully but carefully cleaned to remove all plant forest debris,
- Prepared mushrooms should be placed in a clean and dry glass or enameled bowl with dense layers 5-7 cm thick with caps, each layer is poured with salt at the rate of 50 g per kilogram of mushrooms,
- a wooden circle and a load are placed on top of the mushroom layers.
Mushrooms salted in this way are ready to eat in about a month and a half.
Hot pickled mushrooms are prepared according to the following recipe:
- boil water and add salt and citric acid to taste,
- sterilize prepared jars in the microwave and boil for a few minutes the sealing lids,
- Prepared mushrooms should be dipped in boiling marinade and boiled for 15-20 minutes,
- mushrooms boiled in the marinade should be spread on banks, and then pour mushroom decoction.
Ready cans of mushrooms should be immediately capped and then turned upside down and covered. Such a snack is not only completely safe, but also incredibly tasty.
What are the mushrooms and when to collect them (with photos)
All species of mushrooms mushrooms grow in coniferous forests - spruce and pine. It can often be found on lighted areas, forest edges, glades, in a young forest, on glades, elevated places, on the edges of forest roads. Where mushrooms are dried mushrooms, almost always sandy soil. Settled in groups, can form a "witch circle." In our country it is distributed in the central and northern regions. Ryzhik can be found in the center of the European part of Russia, in the Urals, the Far East, in Siberia. Redfish begins to bear fruit in June, and ends in October.
On this page, you will learn how mushrooms look like mushrooms, when to collect them and how to grow yourself.
Ginger easily recognized. It got its name after the orange color of the cap, the plates and the legs. The same color and pulp. On the break - the appearance of an orange milky juice is characteristic, which begins to turn green in the air. The plates on the back of the cap are also green in crushed places and tears. The cap of a young mushroom is convex, and then funnel-shaped, reaching a diameter of 10–12 cm, the leg is rather short, 1–2 cm, hollow inside. The coloring of the cap is characterized by concentric zonality, the intermittency of light and dark colored, sometimes with an admixture of greenish stripes. It is unlikely that even in which fungus one can find such an abundance of characteristic signs, which make it possible to accurately determine this mushroom.
The cap of the forest mushroom of the small mushroom is 4 to 17 cm in diameter, in the middle there is a funnel-shaped groove, from which concentric circles extend. The most "red" mushrooms - with a hat of a grayish-orange color - grow in pine forests. In spruce forests, mushrooms are painted more modestly, their caps are bluish-greenish with yellow-orange circles. The mushroom pickers noticed that in the rainy summer there are more spruce mushrooms, and in the arid season there are more pine mushrooms.
The small redfish usually grows in the second half of the year. Most abundant in the second half of September - the first half of October. Single finds occur throughout November. We had to meet him after the first frost on the ground. Regarding when to pick mushrooms mushrooms, there is a saying: “Summer saffron fish is not suitable for serious business, only in frying, but the autumn one is good for everyone and kind in all kinds.”
Redfish grows usually in groups (families). Each family consists of uneven-age specimens, most of which are hidden under moss or in thick grass and the most adults can be seen from a height of human growth. Therefore, if you already sat down to put a mushroom in the basket, look closely, move the grass apart, throw away the fallen leaves, and be sure to find a few more solar discs, one less than the other.
By ryzhiki can determine the direction of the world. Most of these mushrooms grow on the north side of the trees.
Ryzhiki can be confused only with the waves, but the waves have white or pale pink pulp, and the whole mushroom is much lighter than the red mushroom. Although it is with the mushrooms of the wind that they most often meet.
These photos show the mushrooms mushrooms:
In the photo is edible mushroom "Red pine"
Mushroom Delicious on photo
On the photo is edible mushroom "Spruce fir"
The use of mushrooms mushrooms
Since ancient times, in Russia they liked to cook mushrooms. They were served on the table fried or stewed. Salted mushrooms were especially honored. Peter's favorite dish was salted mushrooms with sour cream. It is possible to use young saffron mushrooms in raw form, only having previously salted them Calorie salted mushrooms surpass pickled porcini mushrooms, eggs and even meat.
In the old days in the Urals, salted mushrooms in the woods. They brought barrels in which mushrooms were poured with coarse salt. Each mushroom was pre-wiped with a linen towel.
Migrants brought mushrooms even in Australia. There are so many of them that the hillsides from the abundance of mushrooms become red. This fungus from an early age is affected by insect larvae.
The main use of mushrooms is frying, salting and pickling. Very young mushrooms can be eaten raw, without heat treatment. Ryzhik can not be soaked before salting, otherwise it will turn green. Calorie salted mushrooms surpass beef.
Edible mushrooms Ryzhiki, like their companions on young pine groves, almost never grow alone, but always in flocks, ribbons. And the secret is that on the plate then there will be incredibly small fungi. Of course, such a mushroom separately would never be seen in the grass. But when you cut the string, along with the large ones, they fall under the knife and the little ones. Where there are many mushrooms, in Nizhny Novgorod or Vyatka forests, mushrooms in bottles like to pickle mushrooms. The whole point is that only those mushrooms that are able to crawl through the narrow bottleneck get into salting. In general, mushrooms in northern places, for example, in the Vologda region, are most often salted in birch bark ware, in large and small dishes.
The following describes how to grow mushrooms independently.
How to grow mushrooms mushrooms (with video)
These mushrooms can be grown only in natural conditions. For them, you need to find a place that, according to its conditions, does not differ from the place of natural growth of mushrooms. The light, humidity, soil condition, species and age of the trees should be taken into account. Under the mushrooms, it is better to choose shaded, but not dark places with free air movement. The soil should be moist and slightly acidic, contain a lot of rotting leaves, needles. But at the same time in the spring it should not be flooded with water. You can specifically for these purposes to plant on a plot of pine or spruce.
Ryzhiki is permissible to eat in a fried, salty, pickled form. When salting, they are not soaked, not boiled, but simply washed and wiped. In ancient times, they were salted in a special oak dish without any spices, so as not to kill the natural smell and taste of mushrooms.
Red mushrooms can be sown in the same way as white mushrooms, in several ways. Collect the caps of old overripe mushrooms in the forest and chop them into pieces. Dry a little on a thin fabric (gauze is suitable for this purpose), occasionally turning it over. In the selected area, lift the top layer of soil and place the cap pieces under it. Well compacted and pour warm water. Or lay out the pieces of the cap on the loose soil and pour water on it.
Or soak old caps in rainwater with added sugar. On the following day, mix well and pour under selected trees.
You can transplant found mycelium. For what it should be carefully, without damage, dig in the forest in the form of layers with dimensions of 30 x 30 cm and 25 cm thick and bring home. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure that the earth does not shake, otherwise the mycelium will be damaged. Layers of land, without waiting for them to dry, you want to immediately plant under the same trees, under which they dug. To do this, pre-dig holes in the desired size and carefully transfer layers of earth into them. Then pour rainwater. Replant mycelium better in the morning or evening.
You can also lay out the old caps in the selected area and cover with moss. In dry weather, they should be watered. After 2 weeks, the moss rises and under it you can see the greenish-purple filaments of mycelium.
Growing mushrooms is watering in dry weather. It should be watered or rain or well water. Первые грибы появятся только на следующий год после высадки мицелия. Грибы при сборе надо осторожно срезать ножом, в противном случае можно повредить грибницу.
В следующем разделе статьи представлены фото и описание грибов рыжиков разных видов.
Посмотрите видео «Выращивание грибов рыжиков», где показаны все тонкости ухода:
Cooking Good fried, and salty have an extraordinary taste. When salted, they do not require boiling, they do not put dill, or garlic, or other seasonings. Only mushrooms and salt. It turns out excellent delicacy.