There are several methods of home cultivation of champignons. The difference - only in some details. For example, in the method of implementation, the volume of production. Everyone is free to determine for himself what exactly he needs - cultivation of champignons for his own consumption or for sale. Knowing the ultimate goal and focusing on their capabilities, choose the best method, make the necessary adjustments to certain types of work is not difficult. The main thing - to understand all the nuances of the process.
It is more correct to start from this point, so that the reader will immediately understand, firstly, that there is nothing particularly difficult in this, and secondly, whether he can realize one of the listed technologies with his own abilities and needs.
Favorable conditions for champignons
They do not need much:
- Humidity (%) - above average (about 70 - 80).
- Temperature (ºС) - moderate, within 18 ± 4.
- Good breathability. And how to organize the ventilation - natural or forced, is decided on the spot.
And practically no care, unlike most garden and decorative crops.
In this case, it means not only a plot on the plot, but also a certain area in the greenhouse, a voluminous basement, an empty shed, a vegetable store, and so on. All that is needed is a segment of the territory (horizontal base) on which the prepared soil mixture can be poured.
- Waterproofing foundations. Since champignons need high humidity, it is necessary to exclude the "leaving" of water into the ground. The simplest way is to trim it and cover the entire area of the future bed with a polyethylene film (preferably thick, it is stronger).
- Substrate laying. The recommended thickness of its layer is 35 ± 5 cm.
- Sowing mycelium. You can choose one of two common methods. The first is that grooves are made in the soil into which the planting material is loaded, which is the finest bodies — mushroom filaments of champignons (vultures).
That is, in the same way as seeds of carrots, beets, and a number of other crops are sown. The second technology is no more difficult. Planting material is simply scattered over the surface. So that the mycelium is well fixed in the substrate, on top it is again a small (approximately 5 cm) layer of cooked earth.
It remains only to organize the systematic irrigation of the beds. For the growth of the mycelium, the soil must always be kept hydrated. Plus - to regulate the temperature (if we are talking about the room) at the required level. The appearance of the first mushrooms can be expected in about a couple of months.
- The simplicity of this technology.
- Virtually no preparatory activities, except for the choice of location.
- Minimum investment. Only on the acquisition of mycelium. The cost of 1 sachet is within 150 rubles.
- Great risk of infectious diseases of champignons. It is clear that it is impossible to get out on ready-made beds with planted mycelium. Therefore, when visiting a room with mushroom mushroom sponge, you will have to follow the rules of hygiene. Change of shoes and so on. If the bed on the site, in a shaded place, to fulfill all the requirements of sanitation is much more difficult.
- The impossibility of changing the position of the mycelium. How significant this flaw is is to decide the owner of the territory. But it is worth noting.
- The difficulty in harvesting champignons.
On the racks
This method is known as Dutch technology.
The difference from the horizontal method is that the substrate is loaded into containers (preferably plastic containers). They can be put on the shelves (or turned into separate compartments), hammered pallets and so on - there are enough options.
You can do so - to make a kind of shelves with shelves, drawers. It is much more convenient.
- Rational placement regardless of location chosen. Moreover, if necessary, it is easy to change.
- Significant space savings. Shelves can have floors, tiers.
- High quality care. First of all, the fight against infections is greatly facilitated.
- A sharp decrease in labor costs, taking into account the mechanization of the process.
- Some difficulty in caring for champignons is due to the fact that in the process you will have to look after each container (compartment) separately. Make a revision of the soil, determine the lesions and the like.
- Experts note the high cost of this technology. Even very rough estimates show that for growing mushrooms on an area of 100 m², financial investments of at least 500,000 rubles are required. For example, on the organization of drip irrigation and much more. But this is for the bulk production of champignons.