Many vegetable growers grow sweet Bulgarian and hot chili peppers at the sites. These vegetables are relatives of tomatoes, and growing them is very similar. Therefore, for normal growth and high-quality fruiting, they require the same substances and, accordingly, the same fertilizers.
It is important for those who grow peppers to know that they like loose, oxygen-rich and nutritious soil.
For healthy growth and good harvest, pepper requires:
- Water. Especially plants need it in the heat when it actively evaporates through the stomata of leaves. Do not forget about regular watering.
- Potassium. This trace element is necessary for the development of fruits.
- Nitrogen. Without it, the formation of green mass of the plant is impossible.
- Phosphorus. It is especially necessary for a plant, until it has managed to build up an extensive root system.
Regular feeding is designed to provide seedlings with all necessary. And they can be both radical and extra-root.
This is the most common way to feed seedlings of pepper for growth and abundant fruiting. The first feeding is carried out in the preparation of ridges for planting seedlings in open ground from the greenhouse. After 2 or 3 weeks, the plants must be fed again, otherwise their growth will slow down significantly. The following fertilizers are made no more than once every 3-4 weeks.
Plants quickly absorb nutrients in liquid form.
Foliar top dressing
It can be alternated with basal. It should be noted that the effect of it is noticeable after 5-6 days. The surface of the leaves is much larger than the root system, and the absorption of nutrients occurs more actively. This method is called the "first aid". Weakened plants need just such feeding.
- Cloudy day or light cloudy,
- Low air temperature
- Evening or morning time of day
- No strong wind or rain.
Fertilizer sprayed the whole plant, not forgetting the bottom of the leaves.
To fix the fertilizer on the leaves, it is customary to use soap, but the oat extract is much more effective and beneficial for the plant. Ordinary flakes "Hercules" are poured into warm water at the rate of 150-200 grams per 10 liters, mixed and infused for about an hour. The necessary fertilizers are dissolved in the infusion. However, the infusion itself is rich in substances useful for pepper. Such a composition will carry 2-3 rain.
It contains a lot of calcium and phosphate. To prepare the top-dressing, you need to fill it with a three-liter jar for a third, fill the container with water to the top and defend until the mixture begins to emit a sulfurous smell. The resulting infusion to make the soil during the tie, growth and ripening fruits.
Brewed strong black tea is rich in trace elements, so it is suitable as a fertilizer. At 200 grams of brewing need 3 liters of hot water. Insist for a week, then pour the plants with the resulting solution.
Like the fruits themselves, the rind is rich in magnesium, and is well suited for fertilizing seedlings of pepper during active growth. Peel 2-3 bananas insist in 3 liters of water for 3 days and water the infusion seedlings.
It is possible to feed seedlings of pepper with iodine when a fungus has already begun to develop on it, and also as a preventive measure for fungal diseases. Per liter of water enough 1-2 drops of pharmacy iodine. It is desirable to dilute the solution with a serum in the ratio of 1:10.
Feeding seedlings of pepper yeast is able to protect the plant from fungal diseases. It is necessary to dissolve 250-300 grams of fresh yeast and a glass of sugar in a bucket of warm water. The liquid must ferment. On 1 plant enough 1 liter of solution. Yeast can be replaced with a loaf of rye bread.
You should not feed chamomile with a pharmaceutical pharmacy: there are few nutrients in infusions and herbal decoctions, and its antiseptic effect is not so strong as to protect plants from diseases.
The most natural mineral fertilizer is wood ash rich in microelements. In a weak ash solution, seeds are soaked before planting, and they are also often dropped into prepared wells. Under each bush of pepper enough to pour about a handful of ash, which before placing the roots in the hole must be covered with a thin layer of earth.
To prepare liquid fertilizer, 100 grams of ash is taken to a bucket of water, which is thoroughly mixed until dissolved. Fill the furrows between the beds with this solution.
Industrial mineral fertilizers may differ in composition, purpose and form. They have a dry and liquid form to choose from. Among them are many integrated options.
Dry fertilizers must be dissolved in water in accordance with the instructions on the label. Concentrated fertilizers that require dilution are often sold in liquid form. On the package with the drug is always clearly spelled out the required dose of the substance for each case.
- mineral composition "Malyshok",
- "Orton Micro Fe" - complex fertilizer designed specifically for seedlings in the phase of 3-4 leaves,
- "Ideal" - iron-rich drug that strengthens the immune system of plants and stimulates growth,
- "GUMI Kuznetsova" - a drug that stimulates rooting and growth, as well as improving disease resistance.
However, the use of industrial mineral fertilizers is a necessary measure when organic fertilizers are not enough. When they are excessive, they accumulate in the fruit and can be harmful.
Top dressing of pepper in an open ground
This substance is the main source of nitrogen for peppers. Fertilizer can be applied 15 days before planting in the ground. In order for the plants to quickly take up the beneficial components, urea is diluted with water according to the instructions and sprayed with peppers. Urea granules are laid out around the plant and sprinkled with soil, this helps to eliminate the loss of nitrogen.
The drug was created to stimulate plant growth. Even in concentrated form, Peat Oxidate is safe when people or animals come into contact with it. The first top dressing with pepper can be done after transplanting the plant into the ground. This will help to easily adapt to weather conditions and develop the root system. If necessary, watered with fertilizer every 10 days.
The drug contributes to an increase in yield by 25%. Pepper and other vegetables after applying Oxidate peat are of good quality, with a normal content of vitamins and trace elements. For irrigation use 1% fertilizer solution.
Most often, potassium sulfate is used as an additional plant food. This substance without harm to plants is shared with other fertilizers. The use of potassium sulfate allows you to increase the amount of sugar and vitamins in the fruits of pepper, thereby improving the taste of vegetables. Top-dressing with this fertilizer is made in the autumn period directly into the hole before planting.
Among phosphoric drugs, Superphosphate is widely used. It can be used individually or as part of a mixture. It has a positive effect on the growth and development of plants, increasing their immunity. Phosphate fertilizers in granules can not be applied to the soil surface, because this element, interacting with other substances, ceases to dissolve in water.
In this state, phosphorus is not available to plants. In connection with which this type of fertilizer in dry form is applied directly when digging or deep to the roots of a plant, it is also used in liquid form. For dressing pepper and other vegetable crops use 30-40 gr. substances per 1 square. m
The drug is available in granules, its use helps to get a bountiful harvest. The first feeding with this fertilizer is carried out on the 14th day after planting the Bulgarian pepper in the ground. To do this, prepare a working solution at the rate of 40 grams of granules per 10 liters of water.
Feeding pepper by folk methods
On the shelves there are many chemicals for feeding pepper and other crops. However, not all gardeners rush to use them, giving preference to natural ingredients. Such self-produced fertilizers can be used without concern for the health of their relatives and close people.
Milk with iodine
Such a composition is carried out spraying plantings of pepper, which helps protect plants from diseases and pests. To prepare one liter of milk diluted with water (4 liters), stir well and add 15 drops of iodine.
This natural remedy is rich in trace elements, which is favorable for the growth of peppers. In addition, the serum protects against fungal infections. Serum solution can be watered or sprayed planting. Before feeding, dilute 1 part of serum in 10 liters of water and mix thoroughly.
This organic fertilizer surpasses manure in the amount of nutrients. Trace elements potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus contained in bird droppings are well and quickly absorbed. Preparing fertilizer from chicken manure for three days. 2 parts of water are used for one part of the component, the mixture is stirred every day. When the saturated solution is ready, it is diluted 1:10 and water the beds.
Feeding pepper in the summer
After the pepper is planted in the ground, it can be treated with a biostimulant so that the plant quickly grows. After 15 days, the first feeding is done. This may be an infusion of nettle, litter or urea, the main thing that the fertilizer was a lot of nitrogen and potassium. The second feeding of pepper is carried out 14 days after the first.
For the third time, it is recommended to feed the peppers with complex fertilizers Nitroammofoska, Gomel, Uniflor-rost, Agricola, GUMI.
Top dressing during flowering and fruiting
During this period, the plant is fed every week. Preferences give potash drugs. Solutions from a dry concentrate are prepared with 1 tsp per 10 l of water. The tincture of nettle or skins of a banana is also suitable, they contain a large amount of potassium and other useful substances.
How to understand that the pepper is not enough micronutrients
Nitrogen. With a lack of this element, the leaves of the plant become shallow, have a pale color. If the nitrogen starvation lasts a long time, the leaves turn yellow and fall off.
Phosphorus. The color of the leaves is saturated green with a bronze tint. Red or purple spots may appear. Sometimes the development and ripening of fruits is delayed. The lack of this element is most often manifested on acidic soils. With insufficient amount of organic fertilizers.
Potassium. Potassium deficiency is noticeable on the bright edges of the leaves, they can later become white, develop unevenly and wrinkle.
Calcium. Young leaves of the plant are curled, and at the growth point they dry out and fall off. The root system grows poorly, shoots become unnaturally thick. To solve the shortage of a substance, lime is added to the soil or plantings are fed with calcium sulfate.
Magnesium. The foliage of the plant becomes red, yellow or purple, while the veins retain a green color.
Manganese. Upper young leaves become pale or white, veins remain green. A shortage of manganese can cause brown spotting.
Boron. The lack of boron affects flowering, as a rule, it is delayed or completely absent. The leaves of the plant are small, and curled, the fruits can tangle, but have an ugly shape. For plant nutrition apply boric acid 5 g per 10 liters of water. This sub-feed is performed only once every three years, at the very beginning of summer.
Zinc. The leaves are small, wrinkled, thin shoots break easily.
Preparing for a transplant
Seeds begin to sow two months before transplanting seedlings into separate pots or other small containers at a distance of 1.5 cm. It is useful to pre-place seeds in a wet napkin for 2 days. Cover the seedbed containers with a film to create a greenhouse effect.
Already the seedlings need nutrition. The first feeding should occur when the appearance of two leaves on the germ. Suitable fertilizers or self-made compost from organic components. The use of fresh manure is not permitted at this stage.
Repeated feeding is made in two more weeks. At least 5 leaves should appear on sprouts by this time. Urea mixed with potassium monophosphate is often used. You can buy ready-made mineral fertilizers for pepper, for example, Fortress, Ideal, Aquadon-micro.
Mineral fertilizers are useful to replace with organic food at any stage of plant development. Can be treated with mullein with water or chicken droppings with water.
At the beginning of summer, seedlings are moved to the open ground - it is desirable that the weather was not too sunny. Plant each bush in the garden should be at a distance of 35 cm. You can not choose a shady area. Does not like plant drafts and strong wind. Dig the hole is not very deep and add nitrogen, potash, phosphate fertilizers. Carefully taken from the seedlings one bush along with an earthy clod.
14 days after planting the plant will take root, it will be possible to carry out the first feeding with mineral fertilizers or bird droppings. You can process it with a mullein diluted with water and add superphosphate. Bought solutions are also suitable, for example, Sudarushka or Ideal.
Additional feeding pepper in the open field. To decide on how to fertilize the pepper, you need to consider the condition of the bush, the soil in which the vegetable grows, and the stage of development.
To make the peppers feel great in the ground when landing, you need to prepare the soil. You can buy soil or prepare a nutrient medium yourself. There is a great benefit of peat oxidant:
- thanks to this component the earth becomes soft, porous,
- peat is a natural antiseptic,
- retains nutrients in the soil,
- the need for peat can be traced when a crust forms on the soil surface.
How is fertilizer properly used? There are many tips from agrotechnicians on how to use plant food: “If you scatter peat around the plot, there will be no benefit. Before planting peppers, I use one of the recipes for preparing the soil for a meeting with sprouts. ”
You can apply fertilizer at any time of the year. There are several options for how to properly prepare the ground:
- Take equal parts of humus, peat and ordinary soil, add charcoal and diluted with superphosphate.
- In equal quantities, you can take humus, peat, river sand and ordinary soil.
- You can make a mixture based on peat, river sand and soil (the components are taken in equal proportions). For the impregnation of the mixture, carbamide, potassium sulfate and superphosphate will be needed.
The absorption of trace elements occurs not only through the roots, but also with the help of leaves. The foliar dressing of pepper is prepared by adding ammonium nitrate or potassium sulfate to the bucket of water. The prepared solutions are diluted with water intended for watering plants. It is necessary to take 1 liter of solution and mix with 10 liters of liquid.
Popular superphosphate, which is needed about 60 g. The composition is poured with hot water, left to insist for a day. The resulting solution is filtered and diluted in 9 liters of water. For spraying it is convenient to use a spray.
Variety of types and cases
Feed the pepper after planting in the ground to properly. Fertilizer formulations are recommended to alternate. You need to know, for example, how to feed the peppers during flowering or when problems arise.
To get juicy and sweet fruits, the bushes can be treated with a nitroammophotic, preferably in spring. The first feeding of peppers should be carried out a couple of weeks after transplanting. For 10 liters of water you need to take 40 g of fertilizer. Similar composition and water the beds.
There is a wide variety of fertilizers for pepper in the open field. Feeding pepper after planting involves several steps:
- feeding pepper during flowering is the use of nitrogenous compounds,
- during the period when the ovaries and first fruits appear, it is useful to treat the soil with ashes (ash fights bacteria and fungi),
- calcium deficiency in soil is replenished with calcium nitrate 0.2%,
- Phosphate fertilizers can be used throughout the season and during fruit formation.
In the early stages, calcium is necessary for the growth of sweet pepper. Without it, the plant can rot, the ovary will fall off, and growth will stop. If time does not take the necessary feeding, the plant will die.
Normal growth depends on potash fertilizer for pepper. Potassium is responsible for the movement of nutrients from the soil to all parts of the plant. With a lack of this component, growth slows down, the tips of the leaves turn black and dry. Potassium is found in the furnace ash.
2-3 weeks after the first feeding comes the time of the second feeding of peppers. К этому времени уже должны сформироваться завязи. Если в первый раз использовались минеральные корма, то теперь нужно обрабатывать органическим составом, или наоборот.
Во время цветения и плодоношения лучше всего использовать органические удобрения. С этой целью, например, в ведре воды на 5 дней замачивают 1 кг навоза и 500 г птичьего помёта. 50 g of potassium monophosphate or Sudarushka fertilizer purchased can be added to the mixture for peppers.
How to fertilize the plant, if there are problems? If the pepper in the open ground begins to shed its leaves, grows poorly, fades, you need to eliminate the lack of trace elements or an overabundance of minerals.
The tactics of action depends on the signs:
- if the leaves become dull, pale green or even gray, it means that there is a shortage of nitrogen in the ground (should be sprayed with urea),
- if the ovaries fall, then boric acid spraying is necessary,
- lack of phosphate leads to poor development of the fruit (requires superphosphate).
To increase the yield and attract insects that pollinate, it is necessary to process the peppers during flowering with a sweet solution (100 g of sugar and 2 g of boric acid are mixed in a liter of water).
Before feeding pepper, it must be watered with ordinary water. Due to this fertilizer spread evenly and will not leave burns on the root system.
Many agricultural technicians prefer to use folk remedies instead of mineral fertilizers.
Banana peel fertilizer is very popular. Banana peel contains a lot of potassium. For this, the peel is dried, crushed and the bushes are powdered at the base with the obtained powder. There is an option to make a tincture. The skin of 2-3 bananas is soaked in 3 liters of water for three days. The resulting infusion should be watered peppers.
Many gardeners feed the plant with eggshell, which contains a large number of trace elements.
You can simply crush the shell and sprinkle the beds, and you can make the tincture. The shell of several eggs is crushed, poured with water and insisted for three days.
It is extremely useful for all cultivated plants whey (the product is obtained as a result of milk souring). Whey is rich in vitamin-mineral complex, a lot of protein and lactose. It nourishes the soil and fights bacteria that cause plant diseases.
Whey is used for spraying the leaves in order to feed it with amino acids. The fertilizer composition prevents the occurrence of phytophthora - for this purpose, it is recommended to spray the peppers immediately after planting into the ground.
Whey is not used for fertilizer in its pure form. This is the only nutritional deficiency. Its acidic, fatty structure changes the acid-base balance of the earth. Be sure to dilute with water.
All garden crops, including pepper, need iodine. This component improves growth, increases yield, makes the fruit tasty and enriches with vitamin C. In addition, it acts as an antiseptic and increases the resistance of pepper to many diseases.
Peppers for growth can be processed with iodine solution. It is enough to dissolve two drops in a liter of water (milk whey can replace water). It is best to use serum with iodine to care for young shoots.
After planting in open ground, it is possible to use both foliar plants (whole bushes are sprayed) and root feeds. For foliar nourishment, it is enough to dissolve two drops of iodine in 1 liter of water and spray leaves every 1.5 weeks.
Processing peppers with milk and iodine will not only enrich the plant with useful substances, but also protect against diseases and many pests. Insects do not tolerate lactose. After spraying on the leaves, a protective white film is formed, which does not allow pathogens to pass through. Mix 4 liters of water, 15 drops of iodine and 1 liter of milk.
Popularity gaining yeast dressing. Yeast contains phosphorus, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals. Compounds with yeast improve the development of the root system, stimulate the activity of microorganisms in the soil, which affect the good yield. You should know that yeast inhibits the action of potassium, so you need to add ash.
For the preparation of the composition can be useful both dry and fresh yeast. Fresh yeast (1 kg) is poured with 5 liters of water per day. Before watering, the resulting solution is diluted in 50 liters of water.
Benefit for bell peppers bring infusion of nettle. This plant contains a lot of iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium, which contribute to the growth and development of pepper.
Nettle stalks are harvested until seeds appear, crushed and placed in a large prepared container. Top with water, cover with a lid for a while, so that the composition of fermentation. Infusion can be used in two weeks. Water the plants, previously diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10.
Infusion of nettle can sprinkle the leaves. To do this, fermented composition is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20. This treatment will protect the plant from many insect pests.
Peculiarities of pepper seedlings pickingGrowing peppers in the open field begins with a dive of seedlings. The procedure is usually carried out two to three weeks after sowing the seeds, when the sprouts appeared two strong leaves. Often, a picking is carried out, coordinating the date with the lunar calendar, the best time for picking is the waning Moon in Sagittarius.
For picking prepare plastic and peat cups, making holes in them to drain water. Glasses put in the pan. As a soil, a mixture of garden soil with peat is used, adding river sand and wood ash to it and mixing thoroughly.
Before transplanting sprouts watered, if this is not done, you can injure immature roots. Plants poddevyvayut and removed along with the ground. Prepared soil is poured into a cup, a hole is made in it and a sprout is placed.
It is important to place the roots so that they do not bend, but lie flat on the ground. Then the seedling is covered with soil, easily tamping it with your fingers. After a couple of days, the soil will settle a little, and you need to pour it.
After planting, the plant is watered with prepared separated water at room temperature. Pallet with cups put in a bright place. If it is a window sill, then the first time you need to cover the shoots from the sun.
Feeding pepper after disembarkation: when to fertilize seedlingsLet's figure out when to feed the peppers and how to fertilize them better. First dressing spend seedlings in the presence of a pair of leaves. It is advisable to do this a week after the picks.
For this purpose, suitable liquid mineral complex.
In addition, water is useful for young peppers, settled with eggshell or sleeping black tea brewing.
What and how to feed the pepper after planting in the ground
Before thinking about how to feed the pepper after planting it in the ground, the seedlings need to be fertilized two more times before transplanting - it will harden the plants.
The best option second feeding will be the mineral composition: ammonium nitrate (0.5 g), superphosphate (3 g), potassium (2 g), ingredients dissolved in a liter of water. Feeding is carried out two weeks after the first.Third dressing spend a week before transplanting in open ground, you can use the same composition, but increase the amount of potassium to 8 grams. After transplanting seedlings to the beds, a minimum of two weeks must pass before pepper can be fed in the open field.
Organic fertilizer features
If you are an opponent of chemical compounds, use organic folk fertilizer recipes.
- Black tea. 200 g of tea leaves fill with three liters of water, let it brew for about six days. Bulk tea leaves black tea contains calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and sodium.
- Banana peel. Potash potassium, necessary for plant growth. Pour the rind from two fruits with three liters of water, leave for three days, then strain. This is exactly what you need to fertilize the pepper during the growth period. This infusion can be watered up to three times during the active growing season.
- Egg shell. It contains calcium, magnesium and phosphates. This mixture will help peppers grow and develop. Pour into a three-liter jar on one third of its height eggshell powder. Leave until you feel an unpleasant sulfur smell. Fertilizer is used in the period of growth, development and formation of fruits.
Consider how to feed the pepper after planting in the ground to protect against fungus. In this case, yeast and iodine help.
- One or two drops of iodine is added to a liter of water, 100 ml of serum will not be superfluous. This solution will help in the case when the fungus is already present on the pepper.
- To prepare a yeast dressing, take 100 g of yeast (only live), 125 g of sugar and three liters of water. This mixture should ferment, then you can water the peppers.
How to get a rich harvest of pepper: features of careThe secrets of a good harvest of pepper lie in the right care, agricultural technology and crop rotation. Peppers can not be planted where they used to grow potatoes, eggplants and tomatoes. The best predecessors for him are carrots, onions, cabbage, cucumbers and pumpkin.
It is not necessary to plant and where they grew peppers themselves. It is known that after a long growth of the same culture in one place the earth is depleted. In addition, you will attract insect pests that were on the site before.
If you notice that the pepper does not grow well, you need to think about what to do with it and how to feed it. First of all, the ground on which the pepper grows must be loose, saturated with oxygen. So it activates all the necessary trace elements pepper. Do not forget to carry out loosening and weeding after irrigation.
Secondly, good nutrition. Peppers need to feed often, the entire summer season. If the soil on the site itself is not too nutritious, you can hold up to five additional feedings.
We will understand what elements are needed for active growth and development of the pepper, how to feed the peppers.
- Nitrogen need a plant before flowering period and after it, during the formation of the fruit. With its deficiency, the lower leaves of the plant turn yellow and die off, while the upper ones turn pale, losing color.
- In phosphorus Pepper needs during the formation of the root system. While she is not strong enough, she cannot pull out phosphorus from the soil.
- Potassium it is necessary from the moment of formation until full ripening of fruits.
- Water. Naturally, watering is needed all the time, but most of all water to pepper is needed when fruits are formed. Little watering - little you collect. During the period of little precipitation water the peppers once a week.