Plant with many names: Voronets simple (Actaea simplex), or cimicifuga simple (Cimicifuga simplex), or black cohosh simple (Actaea cimicifuga var. Simplex), and in common - Black cohosh, Christofor grass, wolf berries, skunk, raven berries..
The Russian name "Klopogon" comes from the Latin Cimicifuga: cimex - bug and fago - to drive, due to the fact that this plant was used as an insecticide to remove bugs.
The British call it Autumn Snakeroot (autumn snake root).
Black Cohosh (black stembler), Bugbane (black cohosh), and the German name Silberkerzen (silver candles), which only more accurately characterizes this magnificent state-of-the-art plant with tall, elegant candle inflorescences and beautiful split leaves.
This plant looks very extravagant in almost any garden and almost always attracts all the attention to itself.
The bush has sometimes impressive dimensions, but at the same time it retains its compactness and classical proportions due to the wide carved leaves at the bottom and stately thin, high inflorescences, tending upwards.
Depending on the variety, Vorontsi may bloom from August to October, or they may not bloom at all if they do not like the weather.
Just imagine how this plant will look in a mixborder and how other bright plants will look on its background.
Classification of zimitsifugi
This plant is now referred to the genus Voronets (Actaea). and previously attributed to the genus Tsimitsifuga (Cimitifuga), both - the family buttercup (Ranunculaceae).
All plants, and the genus Voronetz, and the genus Klopogon, are high rhizomatous perennials with several large erect stems reaching 1-2 m in height. The leaves are large, complex, usually ternate with pinnate complex lobes. The inflorescence is narrow, racemose, on a long leafless peduncle, small flowers, with numerous stamens. The petals of the perianth fall when blooming, and the flower, consisting of some stamens protruding in all directions, becomes like a blooming brush, and the entire inflorescence resembles more than just a soft dishwashing brush.
These plants are in special demand among florists, as they create a beautiful openwork background, giving the autumn bouquet lightness and grace. Species of copepaws grow well in the shade of moist rich soils, while varietal varieties prefer sun or partial shade. Reproduced by dividing the rhizomes in spring. Growing in one place for 15-20 years. Looks great as single groups among lawns or in mixborders, creating in them the upper tier. All parts of the plant are poisonous; when ingested, they cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, in severe cases, tremor, convulsions, stupefaction. These genera together have more than 30 species, we consider only one of them.
Tsimitsifuga simple, or Voronets simple, or black cohosh simple
Plants of this species have a thick, many-headed rhizome. Stems up to 100-150 cm (and up to 200 cm) tall, somewhat simple and bare to the base of the inflorescences. Lower stem leaves on long, at the base of dilated petioles, twice trifoliate, petiolate or almost sessile, oblong-ovate, more or less deep-peristone-cut, on the edges - sharp and coarse-toothed-toothed. Flowers in a simple final brush pubescent with simple and glandular hairs. Bracts broad, wedge-shaped or ovate, almost membranous at the apex, whole. Differs from other species by slightly drooping buds. It blooms in late August - September. In the cold summer may not have time to bloom, but decorative with its leaves.
Growing a black cohosh or black cohosh
Black cohosh plain prefers neutral or slightly acidic, necessarily moist, light soil.
Propagated by seed or division of the bush. During propagation by seeds, sowing in open ground is carried out in the autumn after a complex two-step stratification. The first, the so-called warm stratification, is carried out at +20 ° C for 2.5-3 months, and cold - at +4 * C, is carried out after the warm one and has the same duration. With a successful stratification, the seedlings sprout, the first years the plant grows slowly and blooms only in the 2-3rd year.
Vegetative reproduction is much easier when black cohope is propagated by dividing a bush. It is possible to divide an adult plant of black cohosh every 5-6 years, in early spring or at the end of August - the beginning of September. You can also propagate basal shoots with a "heel" in the spring or green cuttings. At the same time in one place Klopogon can grow up to 20 years. Winter hardiness of the plant is high, winters without shelter.
Klopogon, or Voronetz, is great for open and semi-shady places, for single plantings and compositions, for the background of flower beds.
Be sure to consider its future dimensions when planting and make sure that it will have enough space in diameter to grow and develop (forms a majestic shrub up to 1.5 m), as well as the necessary distance in order to evaluate the whole plant with a glance. If you do not cut the inflorescences after flowering, then black cohosh will decorate your garden in winter.
His inflorescences are also used for cutting for bouquets, to which the Zimi-digital gives lacy and contrast of color. This is a wonderful honey plant. However, black cohosh are poisonous! Wash hands thoroughly when handling. <например, как="" с="" комнатными="">например,>
Black cohosh varieties
Decorative varieties of black cohosh is mostly low - 0.6–1.4 m, bloom from July to September. Today the most famous varieties are:
Armleuchter - strongly branching peduncles, double-dissected leaves, with white flowers.
Braunland - with very dark, greenish-brown leaves.
Brunette - with purple stems up to 1.8 m tall, dark, brownish-purple leaves and compact inflorescences up to 20 cm long. The flowers are white with a purple tinge.
Elstead (Elstead Variety)
Late flowering variety. Stems brownish-purple, lukooobrezno curved, the leaves are wide, oval, dissected. The flowers are white, revealed from purple buds.
Light green, twice-dissected leaves, rare peduncles and strongly curved lush inflorescences of white, emerging from the green buds of flowers.
Hillside black beauty
Zone 4. Height is up to 1.5 m, bush diameter is 75-80 cm. It was bred by well-known breeders Fred and Mary Ann McGourty and named after the Hillside garden and nursery, which they founded near Norfolk in England. This unusual black cohope infects with dark leaves and white flowers, collected on strictly vertical peduncles. The leaves are very dark purple, almost black, do not fade during the season.
Decorative plants give elegant carved leaves and tall white inflorescences that appear in late summer. Publishes a subtle, amazing flavor. Flowering fairly late in September. The plants get the brightest color if they grow in partial shade. When choosing a location, plant it in partial shade or in the open sun. In southern areas, it is desirable to provide an afternoon shade for this variety. Winter hardy without shelter. Like his other brothers, he prefers moist soil.
Black Negligee (Black Negligee)
Winter hardiness zone is 5. Height is -110-125 cm, diameter of the bush is 60 cm, height of peduncles is 150 cm. New variety presented by Terra Nova nursery.
Forms a magnificent large upright shrub capable of playing a solo role on your site. He has the darkest leaves of all varieties, and the most decorative in the open sun.
Brilliant leaves provide the perfect backdrop for a dark stem. The flowers are white with a purple base. It has amazing for its group, pleasant aroma of grapes and jasmine. It blooms from July to September. Show all its beauty in the sun and with good watering, on loose, well-drained soil.
Does not tolerate dry soil. Attracts butterflies. Used for cutting. The landscape is used as an accent plant or to create a spectacular background.
Growing tsimitsifugi, planting and care, reviews about the benefits - tips gardeners
The decorative culture of cimicifuga (popularly called klopohgon) is also recognized as a medicinal plant. In Europe, it is included in the formulation of homeopathic medicines used in female diseases associated with insufficient production of hormones by the body. The fact is that this plant contains a plant analogue of the female hormone - estrogen.
Healing properties of zimitsifuga
Tsimitsifugi extract is used to alleviate the symptoms of menopause, it has a positive effect on the autonomic nervous system, eliminating the attacks of hot flashes, sweating, palpitations and dizziness, reduces muscle, joint and headaches.
From the rhizome with the roots of cimicifuga at home I prepare an alcohol extract. I pour one part of fresh raw materials with five parts of 70% alcohol, insist for 5 days in a dark place in a glass container, shaking occasionally, then filter and take 20-25 drops 2-3 times a day one hour after meals. With hormonal disorders, the minimum course of treatment is 4 weeks.
This is a perennial plant up to 2 m in height with a beautiful white inflorescence in the form of a panicle. There are several types tsimitsifugi - brushy, simple, Daurian, sharp, branched, serdtselischnaya. The main differences are in plant height, color of leaves and inflorescences, as well as during the flowering period. Cistina cysts are blooming from May to August, and simple from August to October. In the fall, the leaves of all species of cimicifuga acquire a beautiful red ebb.
Tsimitsifugu can be grown from seed, propagated by cuttings or dividing the bush.
For cuttings suitable green shoots that appear in early spring. They are added to the ground and covered with plastic bottles on top. Later shoots become lignified and poorly rooted.
The division of the bush is also best done in early spring. To do this, choose the bushes age 5-6 years. They are dug out, carefully separated daughter buds with sprouts, which are planted in a shaded place at a distance of 50-70 cm from each other. Uterine bush return to its original place. But we must bear in mind that plants obtained from delenok, can be sick for a long time. When growing zimitifugi from seedlings, seedlings are not required, it is possible to sow them immediately in the fall into the ground immediately after harvest. In a well-dug up soil, you can add the usual mineral fertilizer or compost. The best place for cimicifuga is wet and slightly darkened. During the reproduction of this plant, it is necessary to use hand protection (gloves), because cimicifuga refers to potent plants, and its aerial parts are poisonous.
Frequent watering for this plant is not needed, it is enough to do it once a week. Winter shelter doesn’t require tsimitifuga, before a forecast of permanent soil coverage with snow, you just need to cut the stems to the root.
Place in design
The inflorescences and leaves of tsimitifugu are very spectacular and attract attention, therefore they become a real decoration of any garden, especially in combination in a flowerbed with such plants as lungwort, bergen, yarrow, sedge, fern and astil-ba. In the landscape design of my garden plot, smooth flowering looks especially beautiful, passing from the early to the late tsimitsifuga.
The name Klopogon (the Latin name has the same meaning) was given to the plant due to the fact that in the old days one of the species (smelly) was used as a natural insecticide against bedbugs and other household pests.
© Author: Kristina TEPLOUKHOVA. pharmacist, Altai Territory, Biysk
© Svetlana Volkova is a wonderful expert in her field.
Popular species of black cohosh for the garden
Black Klopogon (C. racemose). The most sun-loving species, blooms in comparison with other species early in July. It grows with a wide shrub of 60 cm and a height of up to 2 m. The foliage is large, the peduncles are high, up to 80 cm, covered with small white fragrant flowers.
Klopogon simple (S. simplex). The plant looks massive, reaching 2 m in size. The main feature of this species is in the drooping form of flower stalks. Petioles are also decorative, with purple bloom. The plant blooms in August and has many different varieties:
• Hillside Black Beauty - with dark purple foliage and snow-white inflorescences up to 1.25 cm in length. Very dark bronze-purple foliage.
• Brunette Grades and Atropurpurea, Braunland, Elstead also have a brownish-purple color, sometimes with a cherry tint of foliage, which persists until late autumn.
• White Pearl - with green foliage and fluffy curved white inflorescences.
Hillside black beauty
Black Cohosh White Pearl
Black cohosh (C. ramosa). Blooms later than other species - in September. Has a large size, up to 2 m, cherry leaves and interesting shades of inflorescences, depending on the variety. For example, grade Pink spike along with beet leaves has white and pink flowers. Interesting variety Atropurpurea - up to 2 m high, red-purple leaves change their color to green with age. Flowers classic color - white. Sort Black negligee with dark leaves and a white-lilac shade of flowers looks unusually and fascinating.
Black heartwood (S. cordifolia). It blooms continuously, starting in July, with beige flowers collected in a brush up to 30 cm. The plant itself reaches 1.5 m in height, has beautiful pinnately dissected green leaves, shaped like a heart.
black cohosh Atropurpurea
black cohosh Pink Spike
Klopogon can be ranked among a number of plants for “lazy gardeners,” because it does not require special privileges in care and can grow up to 20 years without problems in one place. By the way, the plant does not like transplants, so the place must be determined immediately.
The plant does not like transplants, so the place must be determined immediately.
You can plant black cohosh in shade or partial shade and in the sun, provided there is enough moisture. Keep in mind that in sunny places the plant will bloom more magnificently than in deep shadow. To retain moisture, hold the tree's pristy circle.
The soil is preferred loose, moist, fertile, generously fertilized with organic matter. Acidity does not matter.
Klopogon is a powerful plant, with high peduncles up to 2 m, therefore, in order to avoid breakages from wind gusts, it is necessary to plant it in protected places or use a garter on a support.
This is the end of the care tips for black cohosh, it remains to find out where to apply this beautiful flower in the landscape.
Where to apply black cohosh in the garden
Black cohosh is beautiful as a solitary plant, and in a group, and even when cut. This is one of the favorite plants of the "New Wave" landscape designer Pete Udolf. He uses it in natural plantings, combining with cereals and resistant perennials, decorative from mid-summer to late autumn.
Klopogon is a textured plant with vertical candle-like inflorescences, which can be profitably presented in any garden composition.
Shade-loving mixborder with black cohosh
Range of plants: Black cohosh, Volzhanka, Loosestrife, Miscanthus, Veinik, pink and white astilbe, fern, Badan, geykher, host, spartina comb.
Klopogon can enter into a lucrative partnership with all the plants that, like him, love raw penumbra. Therefore, it can be successfully planted along artificial ponds.
A majestic plant in scope with bright, large leaves and tall fluffy ears will look great both in solitude on the background of the lawn, and in the composition of their own kind. The choice of partners is very large, ranging from ground cover (zhivuchka, klyufo, shadow shingles, point sacks) and continuing the list with all known shade-loving plants - bergenia, hosts, fern, geyher, volzhanka, astilboy, melluna, etc. The choice is yours!
Black cohosh: varieties and varieties
This perennial plant owes its unattractive name to the fact that it was previously used as an insecticide. It was believed that the unpleasant smell, which is emitted when the leaves are rubbed, drives away the bugs.
The scientific name - tsimitsifuga - translated from Latin, also indicates this property. And only the poetic expression “silver candles”, popular with the Germans, reflects the beauty that black insect is endowed with. Planting and maintenance do not require special skills, so he deservedly won the love of gardeners.
Attention! Black cohosh is considered a poisonous plant. After contact with it, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
In ornamental horticulture and landscape design use 10 of the 15 currently existing varieties of black cohosh:
These varieties have varieties. They differ in shades not only of flowers, but also of foliage, for example:
- James Compton is a combination of cherry leaves and white flowers.
- White Pearl Leaves - light green shade. Inflorescences of snow-white color.
Depending on the species, cimicifuga blooms in summer or autumn.
Planting a plant
Black cohosh feels better in the shade or partial shade than in the sun. Contrary to popular belief, do not plant it under the trees. Perennial prefers rich in humus soil. The place should be protected from strong winds.
Planting time, select fall or spring. The depth of the hole is about 30 cm. Loosen the soil on its bottom and add organic matter there. Distance between plants make at least 60 cm.
Black cohosh care
- The soil should be wet. Более частый полив необходим в засушливые периоды, осенью его сокращают.
- Замульчируйте клопогон листьями. Так вы не только сохраните влагу, но и защитите цветы от сорняков.
- Соцветия, которые увядают, следует обрезать.
- It is better to tie up fragile black cohosh stalks. This is especially true in the care of tall varieties.
- In winter, the plant is covered with fir branches or foliage. Before this, its stems must be completely cut off.
Fertilizer and feeding of black cohosh
Tsimitsifuga loves fertile land. During planting, add compost (7 cm layer) and sand (3 cm layer) to the hole. In the future, to feed the black cohosh need for more lush flowering. It will be enough once a season.
Fertilization time - early spring. Need to start from the third year after landing. Choose complex mineral supplements. They must contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For example, Kemira or Aelita Flower-1 fertilizers are suitable for nutrient irrigation.
Black cohosh reproduction
At cultivation of a flower for an open ground it is possible to use division of a bush, cuttings or reproduction by seeds.
- To divide take a bush that is at least 5-6 years old. An escape or bud is separated from it, and the mother plant is planted back. The scion is soaked in a stimulator, and then planted in a container and kept in a warm place. When he begins to grow up, he is rooted in a permanent place in the open field. Better to do it in the spring.
If you did not use the planting material immediately, then it is better to postpone the procedure for 6 months. During this time, provide seeds with special care that will facilitate growing. Klopogon before future sowing should be kept in such conditions:
- first 3 months - at a temperature of +20 ˚C,
- next 3 months - at a temperature of +4 ˚C.
The plant, which is grown from seeds, blooms in 3-4 years.
Diseases and pests
The undeniable advantage of Klopogon is its resistance to diseases and insects. Sick flower is visible immediately. It fades, the leaves turn yellow, become spotty, flowering is not so abundant. If you notice that this is the result of pests, treat cimicifugu with a normal insecticide. The method of application of all fertilizers and preparations is usually indicated in the instructions.
Black cohosh can also suffer from rotting. But this is only the result of improper care. Do not zealous with watering and do not mulch the ground at the base of the flower. Inspect your plants regularly to identify problems on time.
Black cohosh in combination with other plants
Landscape design specialists recommend choosing neighbors for tsimitsifuga who also like shade and moist soil. Growing conditions similar to black cohosh have hosts, aconite, buzulnik, Japanese anemone, astilba. A great addition to the landscape will be a fern and sedge. Harmoniously, as if in the photo, the combination of black cohosh looks with red and purple flowers: columbine, lily, and bath.
Climbing brunner or lungwort, perennial moss and maple leaves can fill in the empty spaces on the plot with this plant. They will not allow rapid drying of the soil, which is undesirable when growing black cohosh and caring for them.
Stunted saxifrage, zhivuchka or claw will also preserve the moisture of the soil after watering or rain and create a good ensemble with tsimitsifuge. A beautiful composition with it consists of short stalks and badany, which will serve as a good background.
Klopogon in landscape design
It is possible to plant a cimicifugu either alone or in a group, on a lawn or in a mixborder (mixed flower garden). With a single planting is better to choose tall varieties. For example, a Dahurian or European cimicifuga will suit, atropurpurea, etc. For a rock garden, take spicy klopogon, which rarely grows above 80 cm.
In landscape design, these plants are also used to design borders or flower beds. To this end, take low-growing varieties of black cohosh (for example, Frau Herms). Often "silver candles" planted in open ground near ponds, walls or fences. It should be borne in mind that they look especially attractive in the middle part of the flower garden. Florists are interested in the cultivation and breeding of black cohosh, for it looks great in autumn bouquets.
If you had time to appreciate the beauty of black cohosh in the photo, then you will like it even more on your own site. The effort expended in planting and caring for him will not be in vain. After all, tsimitsifuga is beautiful not only during the flowering period, but also after it. And with age, she, like a real woman, only becomes more attractive.
Despite the repulsive name, black cohosh is a prominent and spectacular flower. The plant received its name in ancient times because of the sharp smell of juice, when bugs were driven off from its roots.
Today the flower was given a more beautiful name - cimicifuga. Residents of the eastern United States, North China and the Far East know this plant under the name of black cohosh or black snake root.
In Germany, the flower is called Silberkerzen (silver candles) for its long fluffy inflorescences with a silvery sheen. There are many names, like plant species.
Among the features and characteristics of the plant are:
- refers to perennial (can grow 15-20 years in one place),
- Black cohosh loves moist soil rich in nutrients, grows in the wild in half-shaded areas,
- Usually the plant zimitsifuga grows in the Northern Hemisphere (there are more than 10 species),
- the flower has a strong root system, which ensures its survival at low temperatures,
- leaves are located at the very bottom near the roots, large in shape and with jagged edges, have burgundy overflow,
- small flowers of white color with a silvery tint gather into inflorescences and in form resemble a candle,
- sometimes the black cohosh plant blooms with yellow, red, pale green, pink or cream flowers,
- the inflorescence has a cylindrical shape, but more often it is brushy (hence one of the names of the flower),
- in the wild, perennial can reach from 1.5 to 2 m in height (American and Siberian species),
- due to the rarity of the inflorescence, the Siberian maple leaf grows in the Siberian species; it does not have external attractiveness, but it is drought tolerant and is found everywhere in the forests and forest edges,
- some species have an unpleasant smell,
- black cohosh flowering blooms in the summer-autumn period, starting in July,
- bloom lasts from 30 to 45 days,
- fruits of the plant - small oblong seeds - can be used for further sowing, they are not suitable for food,
- in folk medicine, only roots are used, which are harvested after flowering and ripening,
- The juice contains toxic substances, so after working with a flower should be thoroughly washed hands.
Such a beautiful plant, such as black cohosh, will become a real decoration of the garden.
Which grade to choose?
Not all plant species are suitable for the backyard plot, therefore it is required to consider the description of the main varieties that can become a real highlight of the landscape:
- Behind the name American cultivar hides a cimicifug (black cohosh) with dark green leaves and small greyish flowers forming cylindrical tassels. The plant grows up to 1.5 m in height. Flowering time is mid-end summer.
- Kaupogon Dahuri can be found in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai. The foliage of the plant is colored dark green. Black cobweb Dahuri blooms in the period from July to the beginning of autumn with small beige flowers gathered in tassels.
- Hearty variety has such characteristics: height 1.5 m, heart-shaped leaves, small flowers form a flowering inflorescence, leaves colored green, and flowers gray-beige. The flowering period is July-September.
- Japanese variety. The plant can grow up to 1.5 m in height, characterized by frosted leaves of dark green color and small gray flowers. It blooms all summer.
- Black cohosh, or cimicifuga racemosis. The main feature of the flower is the racemose form of the inflorescences and the honey aroma that they exude. Flowering period: July-September.
- Klopogon is simple. This low plant (up to 1 m) has a thick root and a bare stem. The leaves have a sharp shape, and the flowers are gathered in a tassel. Among the varieties of varieties the most popular is Black Coot Brunette. The peculiarities of the subspecies include brown-cherry color of leaves and stem, snow-white flowers have a burgundy receptacle. This combination looks very impressive. In height the plant can reach 3 - 4 m.
- Black cohosh varieties are the most common species. Of the features can be identified: a branching stem, late flowering and the lack of flavor. The most well-known representatives of the variety are Atropurpurea (Atropurpurea) with red-brown leaves, which turn greenish by autumn, and the flowers from snow-white become pale pink, and Pink Spike (Pink Spike). The peculiarity of the latter are beet-colored leaves and pink and white flowers.
- Black Negligee (Black Neglizhe) is characterized by dark leaves with burgundy accent, and the flowers have a scarlet or blue tint.
By combining different varieties of plants, you can create a uniquely beautiful landscape.
Tips for novice gardeners on growing and caring for a plant
If you use black cohosh in landscape design, you need to know the features of planting in the ground and the main rules of care.
Main cultivation guidelines:
- The soil should be hydrated and fertile. In arid climates, areas are covered with mulch.
- When choosing a place to plant, it is better to stay in a plot that is protected from drafts and a strong sun, since blackbird Carbonela (the most common variety for summer cottages) does not like winds, and because of the abundant sun, the foliage dries out and the plant stops growing. Black cohosh grows well in the shade.
- Also do not recommend planting under trees.
- Seeds for sowing are taken only freshly harvested, which will provide quick seedlings of seedlings.
- In winter, black cohosh is sown in special containers. To grow seedlings, you need to strictly control the temperature regime.
- It is better to plant the saplings in early spring.
- Adult shrub 5 - 6 years can be divided into cuttings with a sharp knife. Before planting, the cuttings are kept in a greenhouse, having treated them with a special mixture to stimulate the roots.
- Seedlings are planted at a distance of 80 cm from each other, not forgetting about abundant watering, so that the klenolistnik will begin more quickly.
- After sowing, seedlings are better not to be disturbed, since black cohosh does not tolerate transplants very well (young plants may take root after transplantation, and older ones will most likely die).
It will not be difficult to care for the plant, as the flower is not capricious, but still there are general recommendations:
- organic soil fertilization is one of the main conditions for a flower to enjoy an abundance of foliage,
- in the spring, a klenolistnik is fed with nitrogenous fertilizer (urea, for example), in the summer a complex feeding with microelements is recommended,
- before the frost, the entire above-ground part of the plant must be cut off and added to compost,
- abundant watering is recommended,
- Black cohosh well tolerates cold (in case of weak frosts it is not necessary to cover), and it blooms early in spring.
When breeding a plant such as black cohosh, planting and care are very important, therefore, to grow a beautiful and healthy flower, you will need to make a little effort and follow all the recommendations.
Description of black cohosh and his photo
Klopogon is a very large flower up to two meters high with white fluffy flowers and leaves of red shade. Perennial herbs with heavy, long-lived rhizomes. The leaves are basal and stem, connected with the stem with basal wings, encircling the trunk. Stem leaves alternate. Blade has 1-3 (ternary) compound. Leaflets ovoid with a wide reverse side of the same shape. The edges of the foliage have a notch across the surface. Look at the flowers of black cohosh presented in the photo in a wide variety:
The inflorescence in the panicle shape with spines varies from 7 to 60 centimeters (depending on the species). There are also one - three bracts with an alternative, stinging stem. The flowers are bisexual and absolutely symmetrical in size and shape. Sepals are not resistant. Possible shades - cream, greenish-white, greenish-yellow, pinkish or red. Black cohosh flowers are very small and are collected in inflorescences of paniculate and racemose forms up to twenty centimeters in size. The seeds of the plant are small, oblong. The following are photos of black cohosh in different vegetative periods of plant development:
Planting and growing black cohosh
For starters, you should know that the stems are necessarily cut for the winter to the surface of the earth. It is not recommended to replant black cohosh, as it tolerates it very poorly. If you manage to avoid this procedure, then you will become the owner of a beautiful flowering plant, whose beauty will grow from year to year. Therefore, the landing of black cohosh should immediately be carried out to the place where you would like to see it over the years.
Black cohosh flowers like shade and penumbra, but it is better not to plant them under the shade of the trees, as there he will have to compete for moisture. You can plant a flower both in spring and in autumn. If you plant the bare roots of a flower, then place the crown of the roots 10 centimeters below the surface of the soil. Thus, the plant is easier to transfer the transplant process. Read more about the cultivation of black cohosh to read later in this article.
The cultivation of black cohosh is possible by several methods: using cuttings and seeds.
If you decide to use the cutting path, then once in five - six you can divide a bush, a bud or a basal shoot. Hold for a few days a process in the root-forming mixture, so that the flower is better settled already in the open field. After that, you can hold a few days in a warm place, well, if it is a greenhouse. If there is no greenhouse, then we recommend the easiest way - to keep it under polyethylene or glass until black cohopeum is rooted. Then you can already repot the flower in the open ground. Further cultivation of black cohosh in this case consists in timely care, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers and loosening the soil.
It is better to sow seeds of black cohosh for cultivation immediately after harvest, then the probability of germination equals 100 percent (although some scientists believe that this method may lead to their decay). By the way, they can also germinate unevenly, so be sure to consider this fact when you first and subsequent crops. Germination after six months while maintaining the temperature: the first three months +20, the remaining +4. At observance of a dry mode and necessary temperature mode - the embryo will have time to be developed, and the level of germination rises sharply, and the probability of decay equals zero. After sowing, seeds are given flowers in the third or fourth year.
The ideal soil for planting black cohosh is wet and sour (preferably). If you keep the bush in a cool place, the chances are great that it will be more lush and flowering. By the way, most black cohosh bloom from late summer to early autumn, although for example the Misty Blue variety blooms in spring. The soil should be rich in fertilizer - add leaf land, rotted manure or compost. If you add fertilizer to the soil every season, then you definitely will not need extra.
For growing black cohosh in the garden, experienced landscape designers recommend combining black cohosh with bright red and purple colors. Recommended varieties of flowers - Columbine, Solomon print and lily.
The black cohosh is a species of flowering plants of the buttercup family. He hails from eastern North America, as well as from the extreme south of Ontario in central Georgia to the west in Missouri and Arkansas. It grows in various places of the forest and is often found in small forest glades. Roots and rhizomes have long been used in medicine by Native Americans. Juice from this plant material has analgesic, sedative and anti-inflammatory properties.
Black cohosh is a smooth, grassy perennial plant that produces large leaves of complex shape directly from the rhizome. Its height can reach 60 centimeters, basal leaves - up to one meter in length and width (thus, they form repeating groups of three leaves with large jagged edges).
Flowers grow in late spring and early summer on a high stem from 75 to 250 centimeters in height, forming inflorescences up to 50 centimeters long. The flowers have no petals or sepal and consist of dense clusters of 55-110 white long stamens with a diameter of 5-10 mm. The flowers have a distinct sweet, fetid odor that in a large number attracts flies, mosquitoes and beetles. Fruit is 5-10 mm long with one pistil containing several seeds.
The plant species has a history of taxonomic uncertainty, rooted in Carl Linnaeus, who, based on the morphological characteristics of the inflorescence and seeds, placed the species in the Voronet family. This definition was subsequently revised by Thomas Nuttall, reclassifying the species to the Klopogon family. The classification of the latter was completely based on dry follicles typical of the genus. Тем не менее, последние данные от морфологической и генной филогении демонстрируют нам тот факт, что воронец более тесно связан с видами рода Воронец, чем другими разновидностями рода Клопогон.
Клопогон кистевидный растет во влажной, достаточно тяжелой почве. После расцветания нашему вниманию предстает высокое сужающееся соцветие белых листьев на жилистом черно-фиолетовом стебле. Цветок дает неприятный запах. Even with a dried head and seeds, the plant retains its beautiful view for several more weeks. Its carved burgundy leaves add interest to the general look of the garden. It is very popular among gardeners due to the fact that neither heat nor drought will lead to the death of black cohosh. Proper care for black cohosh of this variety is reduced to timely watering and fertilizing. Look at the photo black cohosh tassel and appreciate the beauty of this plant:
Black cohosh is also known as black cohosh. Plant height can vary from four to six meters. Flowering time - June or July. The flower is white.
Black cohosh grows best in soil with an average level of moisture in full shade. Prefers humus (organic matter completely or partially decomposing, almost synonymous with compost, used as a fertilizer for the soil), an organically rich soil that retains moisture. If the soil dries up, the foliage begins to fade. Place the shrub with a flower in a place well protected from the wind.
Further, some photos of black cohosh branching with variations of tint inflorescences:
Black-headed black cohosh is a rhizomatous, grassy perennial with compound leaves and small creamy white flowers with a short, straight, simple or branched apical brush with poisonous red, black or white berries. The brunette is distinguished by brownish-purple stems and leaves and a white, dense inflorescence of petals, which in the embryo have a purple hue.
In height, the flower can reach three to four meters. Flowering time - the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Prefers sunny places with well-drained soil. It is grown by gardeners because of their tall growth and impressive flowers. It will be a great backdrop for your garden at the end of summer. Very hardy.
Klopogon Dahuriian perennial herbaceous plant, common in Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, China and Japan. Flowering time - from August to September.
The plant has deeply carved, dark green, two and three trifoliate leaves on a branched stem, which forms a deciduous crown up to 3-4 meters tall. The variegated klopogona Daurian has inflorescences in the shape of a heart. Flower stalks with tall, fragrant and fluffy creamy white petals grow well above the foliage.
Easily grown in medium soil with moderate levels of moisture in the shade or partial shade. Prefers humus as well as organically rich soil that retains moisture. If the soil is too dry, then you risk burning the foliage (as a result, the flower depreciates).
Klopogon black negligee
The variety black cohope black negligee is a perennial flowering plant, usually planted in rich moist soil. This is one of the most popular forms today. Curved fragrant sticks or spikes of white hue rise above the bush in the middle of autumn. It is best to keep the flower in bright sun or in partial shade, but the soil should always remain wet. For full maturity the plant will need at least three years. Black cohosh can be divided every five years.
Klopogon cordifolia differs from other varieties in its unprecedented longevity - for about 25 years it can live in one place. At the same time it is very unpretentious and has an incredible vitality, even in winter. The flower will decorate the shady areas of your garden and give them a bit of chic. Klopogona inflorescences are a fix idea for all not indifferent florists, because thanks to the unusual petals and inflorescence of the plant, extremely light and airy bouquets are obtained for any occasion.
Choosing ornamental plants for the design of the dacha, the gardener wants them to help achieve the most striking effect. Therefore, it is not uncommon to find a plant such as tsimitsifuga in home gardens. It can be described as a spectacular and airy flower, which can present even the most common flower garden in a new light.
No less attractive, it looks and in those cases when grown single. This plant can be considered a “muse” for a gardener, therefore, in recent years, it has been widely used in landscape design.
This perennial, familiar to many experienced flower growers, is one of the brightest representatives of the buttercup family. At this moment 15 species of this culture are knowneach of which begins to bloom at different times. Wild species of black cohosh can be found in Siberia, European mountains, as well as temperate latitudes of North America, China, Mongolia, the Far East and the Japanese islands. Any species of black cohosh get along perfectly in our climate. After all, they are not afraid of not only the spring frosts, but also the severe winter cold.
The origin of the name “cimicifuga” is interesting: this word is translated from Latin as "Shooing bugs". The name of the plant, so unpleasant at first glance, was due to stinky black cohosh, which became widespread as an insecticide.
Just a little damage this perennial plant, and the air immediately begins to be saturated with an unpleasant-smelling substance. It is therefore not surprising that in the people it is often called the "stinker ordinary" or "stifling root."
This variety has not received much distribution for decorative purposes. Usually gardeners prefer varieties that have a more pleasant aroma. More accurately conveys the meaning of the name of this plant the German version, which sounds like "silver candles".
Klopogon attracts attention not only with its elegant appearance, but also with its structure. Leaves that look like big parsley have decorative properties; they form immediately from a thick, tall stem. Inflorescences usually have two forms - spiciform and racemose.
In those years when summer is cool, bloom of black cohosh may not occur. However, it still has a considerable number of advantages that are valued in landscape design: vitality, unpretentiousness, cold resistance and durability. It can be grown in one place without transplanting. for 25 years. And from year to year it will only add to the attractiveness. And even if the name does not sound so beautiful, it does not apply to its decorative properties, because the black cohosh is a very colorful and spectacular plant.
Popular varieties of black cohosh
Genus of black cohosh includes many species, each of which has its own characteristics, so it is on them that you need to pay attention when choosing an option to create flower arrangements.
- Black cohosh branching. This is a tall plant that can reach a height of 2 meters. During the growing season forms small flowers of cream shade, forming large elongated inflorescences. The leaves of this species of black cohosh, which can be red-chocolate, bronze or dark cherry, have a variety of color. Flowering occurs unusually late in contrast to many plants - in September. However, if a lot of rain fell during the season, the plant may not have enough time to form inflorescences. Therefore, it is undesirable to choose a landing area in the shade.
- Klopogon is simple. The characteristic features of this plant are small drooping inflorescences, which are formed by small flowers. Worst of this species of black cohosh is cloudy in summer, since under such conditions it is highly likely that it will not bloom. Within this group it is worth to highlight the variety “Brunette”, which is in demand among many gardeners. It differs in bronze-chocolate foliage, which retains a rich shade throughout the season. No less attractive look and his white flowers, which at the time of blooming turn purple.
- Klopogon racemose (cimicifuga racemosis). This is a tall perennial plant, which usually reaches up to 2 meters in height. It is decorated with fragrant inflorescences, having a candle-like shape, which open upwards. Flowering occurs in July and lasts until September. At this time of year, the plant is transformed as flowers with a white or cream shade begin to bloom.
- Black cohosh stinky. This species is distinguished from other species by an unpleasant smell that comes from the aerial part of the rhizome. Many people know this variety under the name “Adam's rib”, and it is not accidental that it wears it, because its lower sheets strongly resemble ribs. The tallest are adult specimens, which can reach a height of 2 meters. Black cohosh leaves stinky. Small flowers with a light green color are presented in the form of paniculate inflorescences.
- Klopogon American. This plant stands out in impressive size, as it can grow up to 90-150 cm. In the process of growth forms thick bright green leaves. Flowering occurs in July and lasts until the end of August: at this stage it appears bud-shaped inflorescences, having a cylindrical shape, which form flowers of a gray-beige shade.
- Klopogon Daurian. Adult plants usually do not exceed 1 meter in height. Inflorescences have signs of pubescence, are presented in the form of branched long candles. As a rule, they look a little wilted due to small white flowers.
All varieties of black cohosh have their own characteristics, differing from each other in terms of flowering, size and shade of inflorescences.
Secrets of plant care
When growing black cohosh, experience is not particularly important, so even a novice gardener can enjoy the flowering of cimicifuga. but need to take into account certain pointsso that the flowers remain bright and saturated every season.
- This plant is equally comfortable in open space and in the shade. But in any case, it is recommended for him to choose a place protected from drafts, otherwise this plant will not survive. Black cohosh grows poorly if it is planted too close to the trees. The fact is that their roots will consume a certain amount of moisture and nutrients that are applied during the care of perennial.
- When growing black cohosh, it is necessary to remember that this is a fairly dimensional plant. Therefore, adult specimens require much more space than for young plants.
- Tsimitsifugu recommended to grow on moist soil rich in humus and having a loose structure. It is useful to regularly carry out mulching, which will reduce the evaporation of moisture. However, it is undesirable to lay the mulch near the base of the plant, otherwise moisture will start to stagnate there, and soon the stem will begin to rot. During dry periods, irrigation alone is not enough, therefore, in addition to them, it is necessary to spray.
- During the growing season are mandatory feeding. To do this, use mineral fertilizers that must be applied to the soil in accordance with the instructions.
- Although black cohosh is a powerful plant, any strong wind can seriously damage it. A garter is recommended to protect its peduncles. First of all, this operation is necessary for tall specimens.
- During the season, black cohospods grow dense leaves that limit the spread of weeds. Therefore, when the bush becomes an adult, the need for carrying out weeding will disappear by itself. Also this plant is well protected from diseases and pests.
- The plant requires care throughout the season: in the fall it is necessary to prune wilted panicles. This will help maintain an attractive bush of black cohosh. This is especially important for those varieties whose leaves have an unusual appearance.
- In order for black cohope to endure the winter, in the late autumn they carry out full pruning of the stems.
- You should not rely on the cold resistance of the crop, because even in this case the plant cannot do without shelter from fallen leaves. In the first place, rhizomes, which have grown strongly upward, need such protection. However, if tender species of black cohope are grown on the site, they, as a rule, die after a severe winter.
Until now, there are disagreements among specialists regarding the first method of reproduction. Some say that it is best to sow the seeds after they are harvested.
But there is a different opinion on this matter: before sowing seeds, it is imperative to temper by stratificationwhich is carried out within 6 months.
- during the first three months, the seeds are kept in a dry room at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius,
- the rest of the time, the seeds should be kept in a refrigerator at 4 degrees Celsius.
Usually these measures allow for the full development of the embryo, as well as increase the germination rate. When the seedlings become adults, they are transferred to a permanent place, be sure to capture along with the plants and earthen room. When using this method of growing flowering occurs in two or three years.
Division of rhizome
Propagated by dividing plants best in early spring. Best for this operation use seedlings at the age of 5-6 years. However, keep in mind that the rhizome of black cohosh is very stiff, so a sharp ax or shovel will be required to obtain the planting material.
In search of an unpretentious plant to decorate the backyard, many owners often choose black cohosh. This plant fully justifies the expectations: it is very simple to grow it in our latitudes, including due to the fact that it perfectly tolerates any cold. Therefore, tsimitsifugu can be planted in open ground in early spring, without fear that frost will damage it. However, she still has there are certain featuresconcerning growing under conditions of open ground. It must be remembered that black cohosh needs regular watering. Moisture should not stagnate in the soil, otherwise the plant may die without waiting for the moment of transplanting to a permanent place.