Own greenhouse on the site is a good opportunity to provide yourself with early vegetables and high-quality seedlings of various cultures. It is possible to make such a construction in a matter of hours., thanks to the simplicity of design and compact size.
There are greenhouses in most household farms, many install them at summer cottages. Practically for every gardener, such a construction is one of the most important attributes of the site.
If the area is small, greenhouse can be arranged right at the wall of the house from the sunny side. When choosing a place you need to consider not only his illumination, but also wind protectionrisks flooding and rain erosion, soil quality.
The list of main crops that can be grown in greenhouses:
- onions on greens,
- salad turnip
- early cabbage
- parsley and dill,
- early tomatoes,
- various ornamental plants.
Cold-resistant crops can be sown directly in the prepared greenhouse soil., but tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers and others heat-loving species must be planted seedlings. To do this, their seeds are first germinated indoors using special cassettes or boxes.
When transplanting plants in a greenhouse is very important prevent thickened landingsAfter all, in close quarters, the stems are drawn out, lose their strength, and are more often subject to illnesses. Should be considered and open-air landing dates: overgrown seedlings obscure other cultures, complicates the care of plants, worse survives.
For the same reason greenhouse is not recommended to choose curly and tall species. For example, to get an early crop of cucumbers, give preference to better bush and low-grade self-pollinating varieties that do not need large space and do not require a garter.
Advantages and disadvantages
Film-coated greenhouses possess nearby advantages:
- the construction of such a construction requires minimum costbecause the film is one of the cheapest materials, and the frame can be assembled from wooden bars, fittings, metal pipes that are not needed in the household,
- to stretch and secure the film, do not necessarily have special skills,
- this coating is absolutely safely in operation, does not need special care,
- film greenhouse low weighttherefore it can be installed anywhere and does not require a solid foundation,
- film is great lets in sunlight.
It is possible to assemble and install a greenhouse alone. in a few hours. If necessary, the design is easily moved to another place at the end of the season, and as easily dismantled. To care for the plants and airing, the coating is simply rolled up on one side or tilted upwards on the frame.
There are film greenhouses and separate limitations:
- film ineffective with severe frosts and prolonged cold snaps, therefore, the greenhouse is used only in the warm season,
- this coating must be removed from the frame for the winter and completely change in 2-3 seasons,
- on bright sunny days in tightly closed greenhouses occurs overheating of plantsfrom which they can die. To avoid this, you should open the greenhouse for airing in a timely manner or shade the film from above,
- weakly fixed to the frame will be blown away.
The device greenhouse film type
Despite the simplicity of the design, a greenhouse with a film coating has its secrets. Very important right pick up the material for the frame and properly fix the filmto avoid its damage. The simplest option is polypropylene pipeswhich easily bend into arcs, keep their shape well and do not rub the coating. The ends of the pipes can be stuck in the ground, but more securely fasten them to the frame of the boards.
Wooden frames are more durable and resistant, but without special treatment, they do not last very long. If the choice fell on wood, you should take care of the purchase in advance. protective impregnation or paint.
In addition, all elements of the frame must be carefully sandedto avoid rubbing the film at the attachment points.
In the presence of fittings, steel angles or pipes You can make a frame of them, but such a greenhouse should immediately be installed on a permanent place or make collapsible. It should be noted that metal, unlike wood and plastic, heats up strongly under the sun and heats the film, which leads to premature deterioration of the coating.
In addition, the rough surface contributes to rubbing of a film in places of a prileganiye. Both problems are solved very simply: rubber is put on over the metal (hose pieces, plastic tubes) and painted white. Rubber and plastic do not tear polyethylene, and the white color reduces the heating of elements by almost two times.
To make the greenhouse stronger, you must install additional spacers at the corners of the structure and stiffening rib from each side. If the structure is tall and long, you can put several vertical props out of the timber inside. Some gardeners prefer to strengthen greenhouses with the help of stretch marks from wire, stretching it between the frame and the pegs hammered into the ground.
How is the film fixed on greenhouses and greenhouses? Having dealt with the frame, you should take care of film fixing methods. On small greenhouses, she just pounce on top. and is fixed around the perimeter with something heavy, for example, pressed down with stones, planks, bricks. For larger structures This method does not fit. There are several options for mounting the cover:
- beadings or wooden slats and nails,
- furniture stapler,
- special mounting profiles,
- plastic clips of various diameters.
Fixing film with the help of beadings and nails does not require much effort, but the quality of such attachment is noticeably reduced by the end of the season. The tree cracks in the sun, gaps appear between the frame and the film, the coating is kept only on the nails. Two or three windy days are enough for the polyethylene to break off. Similar problems arise and when fixed with staples: over time, gaps appear in the attachment points and the film has to be changed.
Factory mounting profiles allow you to quickly and accurately fix the coating on the frame. They are suitable for both straight and curved sections, so they are often used in the manufacture of arch type greenhouses.
Working with them is quite easy, and the only drawback is the high cost of fasteners.
The most convenient and practical option of mounting the film when mounting it yourself is plastic clips for the greenhouse.
They differ in diameter and length, are highly resistant to temperature effects, serve at least 5 years. If necessary, the clips can be cut into pieces 2 cm wide.
How to make greenhouses and greenhouses under the film with your own hands: consider the photo and step by step instructions? First you need to decide on the size of the greenhouse and find the optimal place for it. In the absence of experience, you should not immediately occupy a large area, it is better to add later. By the size of the future greenhouse prepare the site: it should be located from east to west, be illuminated by the sun most of the day, have protection from the wind. The selected area is cleaned and leveled, the fertile soil layer is removed and set aside.
Now it is necessary pick up material, prepare tools for work. The easiest way to do it yourself PVC arched greenhouse type of pipe, film and strengthen it with a wooden frame. During the construction process will require:
- 4 boards with a section of 40x200 mm
- rebars 70 cm long,
- PVC pipes
- metal fasteners for pipes,
- thick plastic film
- nails, screws and screwdriver.
Step 1. Boards soaked with antiseptic and dried in air. Further knock out a rectangular box the size of the future greenhouse and set it on the prepared site.
Step 2. From the inside at the corners of the box drive metal rods into the groundwhich will provide additional strength to the base.
Step 3. The length of the box from the outside drive in reinforcement every half meter. The rods must be buried not less than 30 cm. On the opposite side, they do the same, placing the rods parallel to each other.
Step 4. The pipes are cut so as to form pieces of the same length, after which they are put on the ends of the reinforcement protruding from the ground. Should turn out parallel parallel arc above the box.
Step 5. Take metal fasteners and fix the pipes to the boards with screws and a screwdriver.
Step 6. Fill the inside of the box with a layer of organic matter, then spread a layer of dry leaves or rotted straw, and on top of it pour a fertile soil with a layer of about 10-12 cm. Now you can cover the greenhouse.
Step 7. Unwind the film and stretch it on top of the arc. On both sides the film should hang down to the ground. With clips the cover is fixed on each arcwhile trying to maintain the same material tension. The bottom edge of the film around the perimeter powdered with earth or pressed down with boards.
So, with minimal cost, you can make a convenient greenhouse on the plot. Depending on the type of material (you can make a greenhouse with your own hands from a covering material), the assembly methods are slightly different, but the basic steps remain the same. If technology is observed, the greenhouse will last more than one year., providing its owners with environmentally friendly products.
Greenhouse and greenhouse differences
The visual difference of a greenhouse lies in small dimensions. Its height rarely exceeds 1.3 m, and the length can be 4 or 6 m. In the construction there are no doors, and heating is performed naturally. Most often, homemade greenhouse is used for growing seedlings and fast-growing greens: dill, parsley, spinach and various salads. Airing and access to plants is done through the side wall, which is just opened up.
Greenhouse can be portable or stationary.
Portable design is used for temporary shelter of transplanted seedlings from adverse weather conditions and night cold. Most often, the frame is covered with a film, which allows the air inside to warm up very quickly. This cannot be achieved in a greenhouse, where due to the large volume the temperature rises much more slowly.
Principle and design requirements
The design of the greenhouse is extremely simple. It consists of a frame and cover. Before construction it is necessary to choose a form that is largely determined by the material of the frame. Most often mini-greenhouse is made in the form of an arch, but rectangular and triangular structures are no less effective.
What to make a reliable frame
For the frame there are three suitable options:
- plastic pipe for plumbing.
The best option for the stationary frame - welded construction of metal pipes. This material is durable and has good technical characteristics. Making such a frame, you will have to make an effort, but do not forget that it will regularly serve for many years.
The main danger for metal is rust. To protect against the negative effects of moisture it is treated with a primer. Self-made greenhouses with a metal frame perfectly resist the wind, so the plants inside will be under reliable protection.
Wooden frames are most often made of window frames, which are customized to the required dimensions. It is clear that in this case we are not talking about an arched structure, but a rectangular or triangular greenhouse can be assembled in just an hour. The main problem is the fragility of the tree, which will quickly become unusable due to high humidity.
The modern option is a frame made of plastic pipes. It is often used for a portable greenhouse. Minus plastic is a small weight, because of what the design can not always withstand the wind.
What to use as a covering material
To cover a homemade greenhouse, you can use the following materials:
Each of these options has its advantages, but the first two are more versatile. Polycarbonate coating will last for several seasons. He is not afraid of rain and wind, and with a thickness of 8 mm - even hail. If the stationary structure is disassembled for the winter, this will increase the service life.
This can not be said about the film, which with proper care will last no more than two years. Its advantage is relatively low price and ease of installation. Film greenhouse heats up quickly enough, but the heat inside does not stay for long.
Glass is used exclusively on wooden frames. It is already present in the window frames, of which often make homemade greenhouses. But if the assembly is made from scratch, then the glass is fixed with the help of slats and small nails. Its advantages are good light transmittance, and cons in brittleness. Because of this lack, greenhouses are less and less often made of glass.
How to organize ventilation
A big problem for gardeners is ventilation. Windows and doors in greenhouses are not provided, so ventilation must be forced. Otherwise, the plants will not be able to grow normally and will soon die.
For admission to the inside of fresh air open up the side of the greenhouse. They do it in the early hours, preferably before noon. At outside temperatures above + 30 ° C, one side of the greenhouse is kept open until evening.
Construction of the frame and shelter film
If everything is ready, you can proceed directly to the construction. Consider the steps on the example of a greenhouse of arched shape with a frame of plastic pipes and a coating of film.
- For a small homemade greenhouse, you will need three standard pipes with a length of 2 m and a diameter of 0.5 inches. Bend an arc out of the pipe and stick it to the ground, noting where it touches. Do this three times at 0.5 m intervals.
- In the marked places, drive in metal stakes, the diameter of which is less than the internal diameter of the pipe.
- Slip the ends of the pipes onto the stakes in such a way as to form an arch.
- Cover the arc with a film, leaving a small stock on each side. Press the film to the ground with boards or bricks.
Such a homemade greenhouse is perfect for growing seedlings or early greenery. At the same time, you will not incur serious financial costs and will not lose a lot of time for assembly.
Soil preparation for beds
Regardless of what you decide to grow in a greenhouse, it is important to take care of quality soil. It must be fertile, otherwise your efforts will not bring the expected result. In order for the root system to grow rapidly, rather than penetrate through a “concrete” barrier, the substrate must be loose and light. Sand impurity is also obligatory, due to which moisture will be easily absorbed.
Growing early vegetables in the greenhouse occurs in an intensive pattern, so before each new batch it is necessary to update the soil. This will not only help maintain fertility, but also be able to protect against the occurrence of various unpleasant diseases.
The substrate is prepared according to the following recipe: 2.5 buckets of sod land, 1 bucket of leaf compost, 1 bucket of humus, 0.5 buckets of sand, 1/3 buckets of wood ash. All this is thoroughly mixed and sent to the greenhouse in place of the excavated soil.
How to make a warm garden bed
Only with the proper organization of the beds inside a greenhouse without heating a special microclimate is established in which plants develop much faster than in open ground. To do this, make warm beds. This scheme is easy to integrate into a home-made greenhouse and start the garden season in early March.
For a warm bed you need fresh manure, plant residues and any organic matter.
All this is laid in a layer of about 40 cm to a depth of 70 cm and watered with hot (70-80 ° C) water. The remaining 30 cm to the soil surface is filled with a nutrient substrate. After a couple of days, the lower layer will warm up the upper layer well and you can start sowing.
A simple set of available materials and a little effort put together will give you a good greenhouse, which will bring a lot of benefit to the economy.
The second design differs in the type of door opening. Its arch is also made on arcs, but opens on loops up (see picture).
Greenhouse-butterfly: in the open position of the lid resemble wings
They can be installed directly on the ground or on a prepared base of bricks or timber. In some cases, the lids do not open immediately from the ground, but there is a small side of 15-20 cm.
How to make a beautiful garden (decorative and functional), read here.
From scrap materials
To turn unnecessary things into useful products - in this our people have no equal. They make greenhouses from such things, of which you will never think.
For example, you can easily make a greenhouse with your own hands from the old window frames. When replacing windows do not rush to throw them away. Of these, you can make a great greenhouse. And the designs may be different.The simplest is the case, shot down from planks, to which a window frame (with glass, of course) is attached to the top as a cover.
A simple frame greenhouse: a wooden case to which the old window frame is hinged
To get the plants maximum light, one of the sides of the frame is made higher (which faces south or east). There are different frames, any of them can be used for these purposes. As proof - a photo gallery of greenhouses from frames that were made with their own hands by zealous owners.
Two frames made by the house: the plants are covered from drafts, and the sides can be closed with a film
Is there a frame assembly? Why disassemble it? Just make the case under its dimensions
And you can install two nearby. Get a long bed
And you can also make an accordion so that the frames do not stick out too much
Make greenhouses out of barrels. Cover with an old umbrella of a transparent film or cut plastic canisters for water.
Greenhouse from the old barrel
A way to grow cucumbers
Homemade greenhouse can be made of plastic or foam box. Although "do" - it says loudly. All you need is to stretch the film.
All ingenious is simple
Is there a plastic box? Can be adapted for seedlings
Mini-greenhouses for seedlings
For those who grow seedlings for their own garden or flower garden, large volumes are useless. Looking for small greenhouses. And many grow seedlings on the balconies. All the above designs can be used for a balcony in a reduced size. For very small landings, you can generally take plastic trays for eggs. On the one hand, there will be a tank for the soil and, and the lid will be instead of shelter. Consider the rest of the ideas in the photo.
From wooden slats to make such a cabinet-greenhouse and sew it with polycarbonate
Tray for eggs made of plastic can also be used as a mini-pot for seedlings
A box is assembled from slats, glass is inserted, a film or spunbond is stretched, and polycarbonate is attached. Mini greenhouse for seedlings ready
Arcs of thick wire attached to the box, on top of the film. Greenhouse on the balcony is ready
The use of plastic bottles is already familiar, only form is non-standard. The bottle is only incised and a glass of seedlings is inserted inside, or you can plant it right in the lower part ...
Another way to make a small greenhouse
A tray of their plastic can be an individual greenhouse for seedlings planted in the ground.
Another design of a small greenhouse on the balcony of the arcs
And this is a portable mini-greenhouse for plants.
Greenhouse with his hands can be collected in a few hours. No complex structures will not have to build. Everything is very simple, economical and practical.