On private plots and garden farms in Russia, an apple tree is the most common fruit tree. Thanks to the art of breeders in the northern regions, and in the steppe zone, today you can get decent yields, laying the garden on the basis of zoned varieties.
Planting seedlings, which are abundantly offered by nurseries, has become the main breeding method for the cultivated apple tree. And many do not even think about the possibility of how to grow an apple tree from seed. And after all, this method gave an impetus to the emergence of a modern variety of varieties and types of cultivated apple trees, bred through popular and directed selection. At the same time, saplings obtained from seeds are not only working material for breeders, but also excellent seed stocks, which are distinguished by their long lifespan, winter hardiness and endurance.
In order to grow an apple tree from a seed at home, you will have to choose a suitable planting material and have patience, because the first ovary on a tree can appear only after 5–10 years.
How to prepare seeds to grow an apple tree
Since a seedling obtained from a seed will not bear the features of a “parent” variety, it is better to germinate to take well-ripened brown bones from an Antonovka ordinary apple, Cinnamon striped, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Pepin saffron, Chinese, or wild forest apple. In this case, the developed plant will not give fruits of excellent taste, but only proves to be vigorous and strong.
Before planting seeds extracted from an apple:
- to remove inhibiting germination inhibitor washed in warm water,
- they are soaked for three days, regularly washing the bones and changing the water,
- on the third day a growth stimulator is added to the water, for example, sodium humate or Appin.
During the time spent in a humid environment, the seeds swell. To imitate the onset of winter, harden the seeds and get the developing sprouts at the right time, planting material is poured with sawdust, sphagnum moss or sand mixed with crushed activated carbon, well moistened, covered with perforated film and subjected to stratification, sending for 90–100 days for cold.
At home, apple seeds can be kept at a temperature of about +4 o C in the refrigerator, regularly checking the level of humidity, well-being and the degree of germination of seedlings.
Ways to sow an apple tree from seed at home
Some gardeners, in carrying out preliminary preparation and stratification, adhere to the old-fashioned method, when the seeds from ripe, just taken from the apple branch were washed and planted in the soil. During the autumn and winter months, the seed is acclimatized, swells and hardened, and in spring gives good shoots. The main thing is that from the moment of seeding the seeds into the soil and the onset of stable cold weather there should be no less than 21 days, and soaking, before growing an apple tree from a stone, will only increase the number of shoots.
In nurseries for producing rootstocks, seeds are soaked, stratified according to the first method, and then sown in the spring in the spring. Therefore, the question: "When is it better to plant an apple tree in spring or autumn?", In both cases, you can give a positive answer. The soil for sowing in the ground or in a tank for home cultivation is enriched with mineral additives. For every 10 kg of a mixture of garden soil, chernozem and peat add:
Apple seeds are planted in the ground to a depth of 15 mm, while the distance between plants should be no less than 20 mm, and between individual rows - 15–20 cm.
After planting, the plot or containers are watered abundantly, being careful not to wash the soil over the seeds that are close to the surface.
When four true leaves are revealed on the seedlings, the plants are sorted, removing notorious willows, and thinning, increasing the distance to 6–8 cm. If the gardener has thought about how to grow an apple tree of a cultivar, it’s important to remove those that show signs wild species. It is possible to distinguish dikarku from a cultivated plant by smaller, brightly colored leaves and the presence of thin straight spines on the stem. In varietal apple trees there are no spines, and the leaves are larger, often pubescent, with a curved leaf blade.
What to feed the apple tree in the summer and the care of the seedling
In spring and summer, apple seedlings are actively developing, so the gardener needs to take care of the seedlings fertilization.
What is the apple fed in the summer? If during planting active organic fertilizers, for example, manure or bird droppings that can burn delicate sprouts and become a source of bacterial contamination of seedlings, are not used, then in the summer an organic top dressing is needed. But in the first year of growth, it is better to refuse to apply manure again, replacing it with the extract of humus or other humic additives that are safer for young plants.
As in the case of adult apples, in August, seedlings receive phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, aimed at better aging of the shoots and the cessation of the development of green mass. Per meter square will require: 15–20 grams of potassium chloride and twice the amount of superphosphate. Top dressing is introduced during soil loosening. Fertilizers sprinkle with soil and the plantation is plentifully watered. Watering for seedlings is just as important as feeding. While the apple tree grown from the seed has not formed a strong root system, seedlings are watered after 7–10 days, making sure that a dense earth crust does not form.
If the grown seedling is used as a stock, in October the plant is dug out, the rest of the foliage is removed and the central core root is cut off at a distance of 20 cm from the root collar. This measure will allow branched fibrous roots to form and somewhat limit the growth of the seedling itself. Until spring, when the vaccination is carried out, the seed stock with a covered rhizome can be stored in a cool basement.
How to plant in the ground and grow an apple tree from a seed?
A young apple tree is planted in a spring or autumn place, having picked up a well-lit, dry place for a large tree with a strong root system.
Planting a seedling and caring for it in the first year after planting is no different from those events that are held with an ordinary apple tree seedling. Returning to the question when it is better to plant an apple tree in spring or autumn, it should be noted:
- if the apple tree from the seed grew at home, the ideal time for transplanting it into the ground will be the period from April to May or early autumn,
- seedlings, originally grown in the open field, are transplanted to a permanent place from spring to late October.
It should not be forgotten that seedlings growing under room conditions as they grow require transplanting into larger tanks, and in this case watering is more frequent. When the apple trees, especially the first year of life, fall into the open ground, they are very gentle and are often affected by pests and diseases. Young seedlings are desirable prey for animals. Therefore, the future fruit tree or rootstock in the first years will surely provide reliable protection against these enemies and frost.
Grow a large apple from a small seed - is it possible?
Of course, it will be much easier to buy seedlings in a gardening shop and plant them - then the apple tree will definitely grow. Seed is much more difficult and takes longer. However, if you try, you will be able to carry out the started.
But you must understand that the taste of apples can be very different from the one from which the seed was obtained. Tasteless fruits can be obtained even from the sweetest apple. It will be possible to find out the taste of apples 5 years after planting, when the apple tree will bear the first fruits.
As a result, you can get:
- Apple tree with delicious and large fruits, which you expected.
- Apple tree with small fruits that are suitable only for jam, pies and other processing.
- Decorative apple tree with large, but tasteless fruits.
Apples may differ in taste from the original apple, from which the seeds were taken
But do not be discouraged in advance and do not give up your undertakings, because if you properly care for the future tree, you will get deservedly tasty apples.
If, nevertheless, you get quite tasty fruits, then an apple tree can grow tall and not very convenient for picking apples, unlike store seedlings that are pre-grafted for small growth.
It should be prudent: germinate several seeds at once, extracted from different varieties - some may not germinate.
Choosing suitable for growing seeds
The correct selection of seed - the foundation in the cultivation of apple trees. Therefore, take this case very seriously.
For good fruiting, the seeds must be dense, large and ripe. You can understand this by a dark, saturated color that evenly colors the seed.
Another important element is the integrity of the seed and the absence of mechanical damage. To do this, remove the seeds with care, so as not to break them and not open.
Select only the largest and healthiest seeds.
Seed preparation for cultivation
To properly prepare the bones, you need to move according to some instructions:
Step 1. Wash the seeds. Seeds in apples are dressed in a thin layer, which is called inhibiting. It prevents seed germination. To remove this layer, you need to dip the apple seeds in water and stir them with a wooden spoon for about 5 minutes. Repeat this procedure 2-3 times and drain the water through a strainer or gauze.
Step 2. Soak the seeds. Put the seeds in a plate and cover it with warm water. Put the plate in a warm place and leave to soak for 3 days. On the third day, add any growth promoter to the water.
Step 3. Perform the stratification procedure.. This will help harden the seeds and prepare them for their future living conditions. Put the seeds on a pot tray, along with a mixture of wet sand, activated carbon powder, sawdust or moss. Leave the tray in the room for a week, then cover it with foil and put it in the fridge for 2.5 months. The temperature should be about +5 degrees.
Let the seeds brew in the heat before leaving for the fridge.
What is seed stratification for?
Apple tree from seeds - grown at home
Growing a whole apple tree from pits is a rather long and difficult process. But if you are determined to do this, you need to follow a certain system. Below we analyze each action, after you have prepared your seeds for growing.
Sprout of apple from home-sprouted seed
When you have prepared the seeds and the first sprouts began to appear from them, you need to select the strongest, largest and healthiest of all.
After selecting the best seeds, follow these steps:
- Prepare a small box in which you will plant your plant. Make sure that the bottom were holes for excess water.
- Place a drainage layer of pebbles or other similar materials in the drawer.
- Gardeners are advised to use black soil as land. It is rich in all the necessary elements that will be necessary for the young plant.
- When bones are planted, keep small distances: a couple of centimeters between the bones and 15-20 cm between rows.
- Seeds set at 1.5-2 cm in depth.
- Carefully water the ground. Here it is necessary to be extremely careful: it is impossible that the water washed away the soil and exposed the seed. Therefore, watering the soil, carefully watch what is happening.
- Sort sprouts. When you have small shoots with petals, should be selected. Remove the weakest and most immature sprouts. Also, wild apple trees should be removed. Recognizing them is not difficult: in wild apple trees there are small pale leaves and small thorns on the stem of a sprout. As a result of the selection, the distance between the shoots should increase to about 8 cm.
The pot should be increased once a year, as the apple tree will grow in size. This will contribute to the proper development of the root system and make the apple tree stronger and more resilient.
Change pots as the tree grows
In such conditions, the apple tree should be kept for about 4-5 years and only after that it will be ready for transplanting to the garden.
Apple tree conditions
- Water the plant regularly. Water is the source of the healthy existence of a young plant. If she does not get enough water, the tree is likely to die. You need to water about 1 time per week. The main thing is to prevent the appearance of a dry crust of the earth.
- Feed the plant. However, keep in mind that the wrong fertilizer can damage your apple tree. For example, manure can cause burns in a plant, and also cause fungus. In the last days of August, give the apple potassium-phosphorus solution. It will help to stop the growth of leaves and direct energy to the ripening of wood.
Watch for abundant watering and regular loosening when fertilizing apples
Planting apple trees in open ground
You can move seedlings to the site after 4 years of age. The best time for this is May or September.
Plot for growing must also choose the right. Keep in mind that in the future, the root system will begin to grow and the apple tree will take a lot of space under the ground.
Choose a site under the sun so that a large amount of light falls on the apple tree. This contributes to the rapid and proper development, as well as good ripening of future fruits.
After you have chosen a plot for your future tree, dig a hole and place your small tree there.
Planting apple trees in open ground
That's all. Your apple tree is planted. It remains only to continue proper care so that she can survive after frost.
There is another way to grow apples from seeds, more simple.
How often did you notice apple sprouts in your garden that were not entirely appropriate? Sometimes the apple trees begin to germinate on their own when the seeds fall to the ground.
Apple tree that grew independently
According to this method, you can sow several seeds a month before the frost on the selected area. In spring, about half of all seeds will most likely rise. With proper care of the plant (regular watering, weeding and loosening), by the year of its life the plant will reach a height of 50 cm.
To start the process of branching apple trees, you just need to carry out the procedure for pinching the tops. To do this, trim the top of the stem, which is below several levels of leaves. As in home cultivation, you need to remove the weakest shoots to enable the stronger to give roots and form your own root system.
Growing apple from a branch
If the above method of growing apples from a stone seemed difficult or you could not grow healthy seedlings, you can try to grow an apple tree from a branch. It is much easier to grow apple trees with this solution than to plant seeds.
Selection of planting material
Preparation for growing apple trees from cuttings
Start preparing for this method of cultivation is needed in the fall. How to choose the right branch?
- You need to choose a young branch, which is about 2 years old.
- Break the branch in the middle a bit until you hear a crunch.
- Rewind the fracture site with tape or any other adhesive tape.
- Install a support for a broken branch. Any other stick can serve as it, the main thing is to prevent a broken branch from falling.
We plant an apple tree from a branch
When you break a branch, the tree will direct all its forces to the broken place to restore it. Thus, in April you will be able to collect cuttings for reproduction.
- Remove the tape with which you wrapped the broken place, and carefully cut the branch.
- Take a plastic bottle filled with settled water and dissolve 3-4 tablets of activated carbon in it.
- Place the cut cuttings in the bottle.
- Roots should appear in the water around the end of the month. So branches better to allocate a place on the windowsill.
- When the roots reach 7-8 cm, they can be planted on an open area.
- Water your plant regularly and protect it from direct sunlight.
To grow an apple tree from a stone, you need a lot of time and effort. Ideally, an experienced gardener will be able to do this, but for beginners, the cutting method of apple propagation is more suitable.
Pros and cons of growing apple from seed
The main disadvantage of growing an apple from a seed is not knowing the final result. The seed does not inherit all the genetic information of the apple. Even if the gardener chooses the most fertile apple tree to collect the seeds, out of ten, there will be only three. Three types of apple trees can grow from seed.
- Apple tree, giving a good harvest.
- A beautiful plant with juicy, but completely tasteless fruit.
- Apple tree, bringing small apples, suitable only for jam.
Для выращивания удачной яблони опытные садоводы предлагают использовать метод прививания ростка к взрослому растению. При такой методике восемьдесят процентов растений вырастают плодородными деревьями. Если не использовать прививание, вероятность получения хорошего урожая от яблони из семечка очень мала. При выборе дерева для прививки лучше использовать низкорослые сорта. Например, сорт «Услада».
The second minus is a troublesome growing process. But very exciting.
Vegetative growing method has its advantages.
- The plant grows strong and frost-resistant, compared with other representatives of apple trees.
- A great way to grow indoor plants. A small apple tree fits perfectly into any interior.
This method of cultivation is absolutely not suitable for farmers who want to grow a lot of fertile plants, it is more suitable for apple lovers or caring housewives who want to try themselves as gardeners.
The process of growing an adult apple from seed
To obtain a fertile apple you need patience, time and knowledge of important information. Without it, growing a tree will not be easy. Planting in the garden is only healthy, frost-resistant, strong shoots. In the future they will produce a good harvest. Trying to plant sluggish, half-dead shoots are not worth it. The probability of successful cultivation is low.
Seeds: selection and preparation
From the choice of seed depends on the whole outcome of a long work. Seed must be of high quality. Basic rules for the selection of seeds.
- Collect the seeds better in late summer or early autumn.
- The apple from which the seed is selected is juicy, with a pronounced taste.
- It is better to use apples that are in a well-lit place.
- The seed has the correct form and dark brown shade.
Seed preparation for sowing is an important process that does not require much effort. It is necessary to create an environment similar to the environment in the soil during the cold weather in winter. The procedure is very simple.
- Carefully wash the seed.
- Dry with a hair dryer or put on the windowsill.
- Put in warm water for three days. Daily change it. For better results, use efin.
- We collect a few cones and moss in the forest and make a solution of them. For the prevention of mold use activated carbon.
- After the seeds swell, we place them in the mixture.
- Put in the fridge for a period of three to six months.
Some gardeners use traditional preparation methods. Having taken the seed of their juicy apple, they carefully wash it and plant it in the ground. For autumn, the same thing happens with seeds as with seeds in the first case. In the spring they sprout successfully. Planting costs twenty days before the onset of sustained frost.
Both methods bring the same effect. Each gardener chooses the method that is more convenient for him.
Planting in a pot
After seed preparation, it is time to plant. At the bottom of the proposed capacity for planting drainage installed. The ground is laid on top. Only healthy shoots are planted. The earth should contain beneficial minerals.
- Two hundred grams of ash, preferably wood.
- Twenty grams of potassium.
- 30 grams of phosphate
Landing depth - no more than fifteen centimeters. The distance between the plants is at least twenty millimeters, between rows - up to twenty centimeters.
Prior to growing healthy sprouts, stick to standard care: regular watering and monitoring of the condition of the plants.
If the plant ceases to fit in the pot, it is time to transplant to the garden. The place is to choose a sunny, windless. It is worth remembering that in open areas apple withers. The time of year is the middle of spring.
When four leaves appear, it is possible to select and discard wild plants. They can be determined by the smaller size of the leaves compared to other shoots. They also have spines with straight spikes. The distance between plants increases to eight centimeters. Cultivated apple trees lack signs of wild apple trees, and the leaf shape is more curved.
During the entire period of apple cultivation, the plant is transplanted several times.
- From the common seedlings to the pot to form a taproot.
- After a year and a half, when the plant does not fit in the pot.
- Last time. The plant is transplanted to the garden or garden, where it grows all the remaining time.
More information about landing can be found in the video:
Growing an apple tree from a seed is a rather troublesome and time consuming, but interesting process. This is a natural way of growing apple trees, which means that seedlings will be strong and resilient. Viable and strong young saplings can be used as a method of stock for other varieties. With quality care, a grown tree can bear fruit for up to 40-50 years.
Sowing technology, how to plant an apple tree from a stone at home
They take a pot or a box, they must have holes in the bottom, put drainage from broken bricks, pebbles, rubble in the bottom. Poured into the box soil taken from where you plan to plant a tree in the future.
For every 10 kg of land they pour in:
- 30 g of superphosphate,
- 200 grams of ash
- 20 g of potassium sulfate.
Further select the best and strongest sprouts. The seeds being hounded are placed in the soil at a depth of 15 mm, watered, but so as not to deepen the seeds.Select the strongest sprouts for planting.
Technology of growing apple trees from seed at home
Landing put on the south window sill, required to be well lit. They need to constantly moisturize.
When the first sprouts appear, they are transplanted into large-sized pots.
If sprouts are planted directly on the garden bedthey leave a space of 20 cm from each other and make a distance of 15-20 cm between the rows.
If the shoots are powerful, then they can be transplanted to a permanent place.Growing apple seedlings.
If the shoots are tinyfirst transplant them into pots, and then plant them in a permanent place in the country.
An apple tree grown from a seed needs to be replanted three times in 4 years:
- 1st time - from a bowl where a seed was sprouting into a pot or box. It is necessary for the growth of the core core root,
- 2nd time - then the apple tree grows in a pot a year, and after it is transplanted into a pot larger. It is required to trim the central root when transplanting (or bend the root at a right angle),
- 3rd time - planted in a permanent place.
Transplants are made so that the apple tree starts to bear fruit earlier, otherwise it will fill up with apples only after 15 years. And the further competent leaving is very important.
After each transplantation, sprouts are carefully watered.Mandatory watering after each transplant.
When the sprouts grow on 4 true leaves, you can sort the future apple trees, removing those that grow wild.
It is possible to distinguish a wild-type apple tree from a varietal tree by the fact that the wilderness has smaller and brighter leaves, thin and straight spikes on the trunk, and short shoots.
Cultivated apple trees do not have spines, their foliage is largerit is dark green or greyish in color, with pubescence from below, the leaves are wavy or curved, their stem is thicker and the buds are arranged symmetrically.
How to grow an apple tree from seeds at home: further care
The trees grown at home are transplanted to a permanent place. From mid-April to late May and in September and October.
If the apple trees were originally grown in the open field, then they can be replanted to a permanent place during the whole summer season.
Try to choose a place that is brightly lit by the rays of the sun so that there are no other trees nearby.
Before planting in the soil, humus, ash and mineral fertilizers are filled up.
In addition, this organics often cause bacterial infections.
In August, the seedlings stop feeding with nitrogen and feed them with phosphorus and potassium, so that the shoots are ripe for winter, and the development of leaflets has ceased.
15–20 g of potassium chloride and 30–40 g of superphosphate are poured into 1 m² of the trunk circle; after the earth is loosened and plentifully watered.
Water the tree in the first year of cultivation every week, and then shallow loosely.
If you want to to make a seedling stock later, in October, dig it out, tear off all the leaves, and stepping 20 cm from the root collar, cut the central taproot, then the seedling will not grow so intensively and its branched, fibrous roots will grow.
For the whole winter, a seedling with a covered rhizome can be put in a cool basement room.
BUT a vaccination is required in the spring.
It is best to plant stock after 1-2 years of cultivation. After vaccination, it is required to constantly water the apple tree so that the soil does not dry out.
Cultivation of a columnar apple from a seed
For planting it is required to use fruits grown on a columnar apple, but those varieties that adapted to your area.
The best varieties of the columnar apple include: President, Medoc, Ostankino, Vasyugan, Moscow Necklace.
You can also grow an apple tree from a seed at home, just like an ordinary apple tree, it is first picked, soaked for 3 days, then stratified.
For obtaining a columnar appleHaving excellent characteristics, an apple-tree grown from a seed can be used as a graft, grafting it onto a dwarf clone (vegetative) stock.