Good day, dear friends! Talk about bread today. Are you satisfied with the modern quality of bread? Do you remember the taste of bread from childhood?
Rosselkhoznadzor announced that the quality of our bread is degrading every day and will soon reach the very bottom. Grain Union asks for the baking of bread to allow the use of flour grade 5. This class of flour is used to prepare animal feed or technical purposes.
In the 90s, in secret from the public, the government made a reinsurance and decided to consider the 4th grade wheat grain as food.
But even in the most difficult years, this grain was not involved in food resources.
To improve the quality of bread flour improvers began to be used, we even had our own production, our own enzyme industry. But, unfortunately, everything was covered and we began to use ready-made improvers from the West.
It turns out that the use of 4-5 class flour dramatically reduces the protein content in cooked bread, and we already do not get enough protein, because there are a lot of surrogate products.
Comparison of the compositions of the loaf
Sliced loaf - soviet time. It is prepared according to obligatory GOST 27844-88, wheat flour of the highest grade (gluten not less than 28%), water, sugar, margarine, salt, yeast.
Sliced loaf today. It is prepared according to the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "On Food Safety", added to GOST 31805-2012 - general purpose wheat flour, water, sugar, margarine, antioxidants, moisture reagents, thickeners, protective gases (for long-term storage of loaf), intensive sweeteners, preservatives , dyes, acidity regulators, baking agents, enzymes, improvers.
How did the requirements for the quality of the loaf, and of all the bread, have changed! Russia gives all high-quality grain for export.
And that which did not fit other countries in quality is given to our milling companies. Millers whiten the 1st and 2nd grade flour with bleaching agents and sell them at the bakery, it’s not really possible to get high-quality bread from such flour, even using fast technology.
What is kneaded in bread
Pressed yeast is often replaced by dry, and dry yeast is made from different genetically modified products. What often leads to allergic reactions, rashes.
When mixing, vitamins are often added, they help speed up the fermentation process.
Starch is added to some types of bread, it is useful for diabetics and fat people, but it is not suitable for constant consumption.
The remaining store bread, returned to the bakeries, soaked and processed there again. There is a rule of soaked bread, but they are often violated and such bread is absolutely useless for our body.
Bakers in a vice
The reason for this, as well as the poor quality of bread, Zlochevsky sees in the grip in which the bakers are squeezed. “They cannot afford anything except to sacrifice quality,” he said. “And these clutches are formed of two factors. On the one hand, there is an absolutely uncontrollable, very dynamic increase in costs for bakers, connected primarily with high energy costs in bread baking. On the other hand, the traditional Russian practice of suppressing pricing in the bread and bakery market. "
“Administrative pressure on prices is exercised in all regions, without exception, and at all levels of government,” he said. “This leads to the fact that we have the lowest bread prices in the world. Only bread in Egypt is cheaper, where bread is subsidized by the state We don’t have any subsidies to the bakers. "
According to him, the price of bread in Russia is 4-5 times lower than in Europe and the USA.
At the same time, Zlochevsky assured that, despite all the innovations discussed, grain buyers, both domestic and foreign, will primarily look at quality indicators.
5th grade wheat to be used in bread
According to the transcript of the round table on food quality, held in the State Duma last week, the President of the Union of Bakers Anatoly Kosovan said that at present, the GOST project, which allows the use of fifth-grade wheat for the production of bread flour, in which the main indicators and, above all, protein are regulated. "
According to him, flour improvers flow into the country. "Echelons come with these improvers, with additives, with different substances that bleach or flour, for example, second grade in color to the highest grade flour," he said. "The worse here, the better there, because the production of improvers in Russia There is no federation, the enzyme industry was ruined in the early 90s and not restored. "
Kosovan stated that good condition flour can only be obtained from wheat of the third class. Its resources in the country are sufficient. "However, today flour is produced mainly from fourth-grade grain," he said.
It looks like advanced technologies, and there is no flour, but the bread is inferior to what our grandmothers baked, even though neither baking powder, nor baking powders had it, but there was the usual meal, salt, water, and the Russian oven. “In Soviet times, there were only two or three varieties, but what kind of bread it was,” recalls the buyer, Anatoly Yermolov. “I remember the wheat brick for 24 kopeks, which I had eaten all the ruddy, crisp on the grain road.”
The quality of bread is reduced because its baking uses flour from lower grades of grain with a low protein content, experts say. The situation is aggravated by the fact that some representatives of the grain market are working to create a new GOST, which can cancel the division of wheat into classes, and then it will be difficult to control the quality of bread. "For the first time, the quality of bread deteriorated in 1997, when food was attributed to fourth-grade wheat with a reduced gluten content, that is, protein. Before that, such grain was considered fodder. But then there was a difficult period, the country did not have enough quality grain," RG "Director of the Research Institute of the Baking Industry Anatoly Kosovan.
Meanwhile, the amount of protein in bread flour is the main indicator affecting the taste and, most importantly, the quality characteristics of the product. While only the grain of the first three classes was used, the resulting bread contained an average of 12% of the biologically active substance. After mixing flour of the 4th class, the proportion of important for human protein dropped to 10%.
Since then, according to GOST, wheat is divided into 5 classes. For baking bread, it is allowed to use wheat flour from the 1st to the 4th. 5th grade feed grain goes only for technical purposes and feed for livestock.
Does not stick together without gluten
“The developed project of the new GOST assumes to allow the use of grain in the production of flour already of the 5th, lower class. The amount of protein and other indicators are simply not established, that is, any grain can be used to produce bread flour. It is difficult to say how much protein will be in the final product maybe 8%, and maybe even less, "says Anatoly Kosovan.
The idea to change the GOST is connected with an attempt to expand the possibilities of using feed grains, which have been grown a lot in the country in recent years. Abroad, it is taken reluctantly, and domestic livestock also does not increase the demand for feed, experts say. Interestingly, the grain of the upper classes in Russia is also produced in sufficient quantities. But such a product, especially at current exchange rates, is beneficial to send abroad. Therefore, the idea of replacing a part of high-quality grain with feed grain in bread-baking becomes attractive for businesses.
By the way, to give the final product an attractive look, manufacturers also use special additives. The active component of such "improvers" flour are enzyme preparations. Both before and now they are imported from abroad, since there is no domestic production in Russia. And it is possible that in the near future, additives for the "adjustment" of the quality of flour may require much more than now.
Truth in price
Another reason for lobbying the new GOST may be the desire to restrain the price of bread, which is limited by law, because the price of bread is an important tool.
The cost of bread can be controlled by increasing the proportion of cheap flour made from low-quality grain in its composition, said Viktor Semenov, chairman of the Committee for the Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. However, the feed grain in its properties is generally not suitable for the production of bread. “If we eliminate the division of grain into classes, unscrupulous manufacturers will feed people with pseudo-bleb. Then we will again deal with this,” the expert notes.
By the way, according to experts, some small mills, where quality control is weaker, already partially use grain of the 5th class for baking flour. But if today this practice violates a direct ban, then if the version of the discussed GOST is adopted, it will be possible to do it legally, says Viktor Semenov.
"For consumers, this will mean that the glory of Russian bread will finally die. Unscrupulous manufacturers will mix fodder grain flour with baking flour, offering cheap bread, and bona fide producers will have to leave the market," the expert emphasizes.
However, the use of grain not lower than the 3rd class for the production of bread flour is spelled out in the "Rules for organizing and conducting the technological process at flour mills". But this protective barrier will not help, indicates Anatoly Kosovan. “The document is of a sectoral recommendation, that is, it is not mandatory,” he says, and insists that the mandatory quality control of bread must be maintained. To get out of this situation, the baking industry experts suggest that a separate GOST should be developed for baking flour, where the standard for using grain of at least grade 3 will be established.
With regard to the regulation of the price of bread, direct administrative measures that would not lead to proper effect could be replaced by other mechanisms. One of these could be a food aid program for low-income citizens. By the way, the idea of such assistance, by analogy with the Food Stamps system operating in the United States, has already been initiated by the Russian government.
What will happen to the price of bread
Now there are no prerequisites for the growth of prices for mass sorts of bread, said experts polled by Rossiyskaya Gazeta.
"Grain is more than enough. Moreover, weather and other conditions are such that a good harvest is expected in the country. In addition, current technologies with the use of various additives for baking bread make its production profitable. There are no grounds for price jumps. The main thing is not There was a deliberate informational stuffing about the rise in price of bread, as was already the case on the food market with other goods, "said Alexei Alekseenko, an official representative of the Rosselkhoznadzor, in an interview with RG.
“Despite the fact that the components of bread production are becoming more expensive, whether they are energy tariffs or directly ingredients, the price of mass varieties is traditionally kept. I don’t think this year will be an exception,” said Anatoly Kosovan, director of the Research Institute of the Bakery Industry.
Ivan Sergeevich, the cry of the soul - why do we have such bad bread?
The fact is that the mode of production is changing. of bread. People want to buy hot, fresh bread and preferably near the house. That is why small bakeries are so popular in Moscow now, almost every metro has them. In this process of production of bread speeds up, everyone saves - fast baking of bread reduces the cost of its cost. But after all, first of all it is the method of test conducting that affects the quality of bread. The traditional method is long and expensive. Therefore, manufacturers go to economically more profitable production methods. of bread - accelerated, safe. In this case, during one shift bread have time to bake 3-4 times, instead of one. Accordingly, the volume of finished products increases.
The state is trying to regulate prices breadwithout delving into the problems of manufacturers. This is more about social of bread, all the usual white and black. Quality also suffers from this: the manufacturer, trying to meet the low cost, is forced to reduce the amount of sugar, butter or replace them with cheaper components. Manufacturers working on traditional technologies in these conditions, units.
Excuse me, but what about the guests?
IN USSR GOSTs on bread clearly standardized raw materials. For example, was GOST 27844-88, which indicated from which flour should be made loaf wheat cut - from wheat flour of the highest grade, first grade or second grade. Modern GOST R 52462-2005 on bread - common to all bakery products made from wheat flour, includes both molded wheat bread, and sliced loaves, and buns. This GOSTin particular, it permits the use of wheat flour of general purpose (M55-23, M75-23, M45-23, etc.). In such flour, the gluten index is undervalued: it is 20-25%, while the old GOST This indicator normalized at least 28% for wheat flour of the highest grade and at least 30% for wheat flour of the first grade.
And what does the gluten index affect and, in general, what is it?
Gluten is a plant protein that, when fermented, creates the framework for the future. of bread. In the process of fermentation and proofing, the protein is stretched into a “grid”; such pores are obtained, around which the grid of vegetable protein is built. Therefore, the amount of gluten in flour primarily affects the quality of bread. If the percentage of gluten in flour is low, bread It has a smaller volume, it has no elasticity, it crumbles. In order to increase the volume, manufacturers use improvers.
Why are flour producers interested in reducing the amount of gluten in it?
They make their products cheaper in this way. And the price difference is decent. A kilogram of wheat flour of the highest grade costs 12-13 rubles, general-purpose flour is cheaper by about 3 rubles per kilogram. So if a bakery plant produces 150 tons of products per day, then this requires 100-110 tons of flour per day.
And here is another example: gluten is artificially added to general-purpose flour at flour mills or, as it is also called, dry wheat gluten. The bread factory buys such flour: a good gluten figure of 28-29%. But when such flour begins to be processed, the result is completely different: bread goes poor quality.
How did such freedom with GOST and TU affect the quality of bread in general?
There used to be a rifled loaf and everyone knew that if there were five cuts on it, then this is 500 grams breadand if there are four notches, then it is 400 grams. It was all written GOST. Now you can make as many incisions on the loaf, call it as you please, develop your industry standard and prescribe in it everything that is convenient and profitable for the manufacturer. In this case, you can use flour of general purpose, and to increase the volume instead of gluten add improvers or enzymes. As a result, a loaf, really weighing 350-370 grams, will look like 500 grams.
In addition to raw materials, how have the bread production technologies changed?
Earlier bread done in the traditional opar way. To do this, take pressed yeast and part of the flour from the dough, fermented all together. Then, the remaining flour and the rest of the raw materials put in the recipe - margarine, sugar, salt, and other ingredients were laid there. This traditional sponge method gives bread more pronounced aroma and taste - with a slight sourness. Due to the fact that natural fermentation gives a higher acidity, the crumbiness decreases of bread.
But the traditional method of preparation of the dough is a long process, from 2.5 to 4 hours. And this is not ready dough. Then the rest of the raw material is laid, and then fermentation takes another hour, after that the dough is cut, it is proofed and then baked. Thus, from the time of kneading the dough to baking, it takes about 7-8 hours. For baking of bread According to this method, there should be a sufficient number of production areas, special equipment. And this has, alas, not every manufacturer or bakery.
How is it now?
Now the so-called accelerated method. This production of bread using improvers. With this technology from the time of kneading the dough to its readiness takes 30 minutes, maximum - an hour. All the ingredients are immediately poured into the bowl in which the sponge is fermented, add improver, mix - and after 20 minutes of fermentation, the dough is ready for cutting. Then the dough is molded, sometimes settled (now there are ways to bake of bread and without proofing) and bake. In an hour and a half bread is ready. Outwardly, he looks like bread, выпеченный опарным методом, но в нем нет вкуса и аромата - есть его можно только пока он горячий. Через сутки он начинает крошиться, середина вываливается…
Улучшители искусственно поднимают кислотность в тесте, ускоряя его готовность. In sponge acid, it is naturally recruited during long-term fermentation and ripening, and in accelerated ascorbic acid is contained in all improvers. If you specify the full composition of enhancers, the list on the label simply does not fit.
But in addition to acid, any improver also contains substances that, to a certain extent, increase the volume. For example, the mass of the finished product is only 300 grams, and it looks like a 500-gram. Porosity in such bread uneven - large and small pores throughout the volume. And yeast, as technologists joke, with the straight-on method, wander not in a dough, as it should be, but in the stomach.
In the shops, is bread somehow checked?
Because bread - the product is perishable, no store will keep a laboratory. And laboratory tests are a lengthy process. For example, if bread determined for "potato disease", then the analyzes are viewed after 48 hours, during which time the expiration date of any of bread will expire Therefore, in chain stores, receivers control the quality of bread according to external signs and shelf life on the label.
How can the quality of bread be determined by appearance?
Bread - such a product that if something was not put there or not reported, it is immediately visible on the finished product. If you forgot to put salt, then of bread small volumes, it is vague (salt strengthens gluten and gives the skeleton to the dough). If the dough does not have enough sugar, the crust will be pale, and from an oversupply, the crust will turn out dark. If the violations were technological in nature and the production regime was not observed, then this bread will be burnt or with explosions on the crust.
Are there any ways to fake bread?
Today, there is no flour substitute, therefore, falsification of bread is mainly technological in nature. For production of bread can use wheat flour of general purpose M55-23, and in the composition on the label indicate that wheat flour of the highest grade was used.
Or, for example, in Borodino bread It is necessary to use rye fermented malt, and the manufacturer uses malt extract. At the same time on the label indicates - malt. And no ordinary production laboratory will determine this.
And the producers can increase the time of freshness of bread?
There is a traditional way to increase the duration of freshness. of bread without the use of preservatives - brewing flour, adding sourdough. The brewing process increases the shelf life of the product in a natural way. So baked bread Karelian, Borodino and other custard bread. A piece of flour for this kind of bread brewed in a special way.
The brewing should be not only done, but saccharified for several hours, then cooled to the desired temperature to use in the dough. For such production requires large areas, additional equipment and, of course, specialists. Such production, and as a consequence, the price of breadIt turns out a half to two times more expensive. Therefore, in order to increase the shelf life of the product, many manufacturers go by a simple way - they use improvers and preservatives.
Does the presence of preservative in bread affect health?
Preservatives added to bread, inhibit the development of microflora in it. Of course, such bread adversely affects human health: with constant use of preservatives contained in bread, kill the beneficial microflora in the stomach.
And although manufacturers of food additives claim that preservatives completely decompose during baking and are not present in the finished product, a number of questions arise. How do preservatives decompose? If after baking all the properties of preservatives are lost, then there is simply no point in using them.
Bread: who is to blame and what to do