Manchurian Apricot is an incredibly beautiful plant that can become the pride and the centerpiece of the garden. An exceptionally beautiful tree during the flowering period is completely covered with large pink flowers. It is no less elegant in the autumn decoration of bright foliage, as well as at the time of fruiting. Characterized by durability (life expectancy of more than 100 years), a Manchurian apricot is planted in garden plots, used to decorate parks and squares in both single and group plantings. Due to the deep root system, such a tree is used for fixing river banks, slopes, watering systems. Under natural conditions, it grows in the Far East, in Eastern Siberia, and northeast China.
Breeders cultivated decorative varieties of apricot Manchu. In particular, the East Siberian apricot is a derivative of common and Manchurian apricots, characterized by fragrant tasty fruits.
Manchurian Apricot: landing
The bones of such a plant remain viable for several years and from 50 to 90% of young plants are produced during autumn planting. It is recommended to lower the bones into the water: the floating specimens must be removed, since they are not suitable for planting. It is useful to make stratification. When planting, the depth of embedding is 1 cm. Emerged shoots need careful maintenance: watering, loosening, removing weeds, mulching the soil. After 2 years, young plants can be transplanted to a permanent place of growth.
In the care of such a tree is not capricious: it is important to provide him with regular watering, especially after transplantation and in the process of growth. In the second half of the summer, the supply should be made only during the drought. Excessive watering can lead to prolonged growth of shoots, which by the winter will not have time to mature and freeze.
Manchurian apricot (photo in the article) is a cold-resistant plant that can survive temperatures below 30 o C. It grows on all types of soil and gives abundant growth, likes the abundance of light. With a close location of groundwater, the plant should provide good drainage. This may be a 20-centimeter layer of rubble.
Pre-winter preparation includes the shelter of young plants with spruce branches near the root collar. If frost damage annual shoots, the latter must be cut.
Twice a year is required to whitewash the tree trunk. In the presence of damage such places need to be cleaned up to the living area and put on them garden pitch.
It is recommended to remove dry and diseased branches from a tree in a timely manner. It is also worth bearing in mind that the Manchu apricot does not have the ability to control its own crop: almost all normally formed ovaries will turn into fruits firmly attached to the branches. The plant can be overloaded with harvest, which will weaken the growth of new shoots. Therefore, the annual rejuvenating pruning is a necessary factor in plant care.
Manchu apricot pests can be affected by spider mites, cherry elephants, and aphids, and among the diseases, perforated spotting and verticillus.
Abrikos Manchurian, in Latin - Prúnus mandschúrica, belongs to the genus Slivovyh. This tree is up to 15 meters in height, with filigree foliage and lush crown, throwing out a lot of shoots. The bark is dark gray, cracked by deep furrows. Flowers pink, more than 2 cm in size, on branches are arranged in groups or singly, on short pedicels. The tree blooms profusely, every spring from April-May, about 12 days.
Leaves grow up to 12 cm, have a wide oval, biconicular shape, pointed tops.
Fruits are small, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, yellowish-orange, velvety pubescent. Ripening time - from the end of July. A tree that easily can live for more than 100 years easily grows from a fruit seed.
Distribution and ecology
Manchurian apricot is a rare Red Book plant. It grows in China in the northeastern provinces, in the north of Korea, as well as in the vast southern territory of Primorsky Krai in Russia. This tree is able to tolerate both drought and low temperatures. He likes a fair amount of light, but is not demanding on soils: it can grow even on dry mountain slopes.
Manchurian apricot has a large and extensive root system, so it is good to plant it along reservoirs to strengthen the coastline, as well as the slopes, to protect them from landslides.
Application in landscape design
When planting these decorative fruit trees on your plot, you will need to decide on their purpose: these will be trees in the form of a hedge, a single planting or a whole garden.
You will be the winner in any case: these trees from April to October will decorate the compound and please the eye with a riot of colors.
- Since the flowers of this tree are of a delicate pink color and more than 2 cm in size, these are the very first spring honey plants, spreading their honey aroma far beyond the gardens.
- When the fruiting period comes, among the bright greens of the openwork foliage, small golden fruit-lanterns will shine.
- In the autumn, the leaves will become a blood-red hue and will burn on the tree until the first frost, highlighting the empty garden with its radiance.
If this spreading tree is used as a tapeworm in landscape design, it will attract all the attention and dominate against the background of the facade of the building, gazebos or decorative fencing.
In green construction, apricot trees of this variety are well planted along with other trees. They are perfectly combined with the Manchurian birch, Mongolian oak, juniper and spruce, Amur linden, dimorphant and other trees and shrubs.
The first harvest of fruits from apricot trees can be waited in 5-7 years after planting. They begin to ripen in late July or early August.
Apricots have a flat-oval shape, yellowish, with orange splashes. They taste not very juicy, more acidic than southern varieties, and give a bitter taste. Because of such taste, not everyone likes to eat them in their natural form.
But they make fragrant jams, preserves and compotes.
Features of planting and breeding
The most suitable time for planting Manchurian apricot is the end of April. Due to a sufficient number of sunny days, the soil warms up well and persistent frosts do not threaten. The main landing requirement is to do this before the fruit buds begin to swell.
If you purchased seedlings in the autumn, you should take them more seriously. During the winter frosts, the fragile root system can be damaged, so be sure to mulch the soil around the trunk. What means to use - let's talk about it below. When planting, it is imperative to make sure that the seedlings are provided with good air drainage, due to which in the spring the trees will be better heated by the sun. To do this, you need to carefully consider which place is best for them.
Having decided on a place for landing, you need to prepare a landing hole. The optimal size is 70 cm deep and the same in width. For spring planting such a pit is prepared in the autumn and is filled with compost, the composition of which will be described below.
When planting, the presence of two people is desirable: one of them should hold the tree behind the headquarters, and the other at this time will sprinkle it with earth, compacting it around the roots. After planting, it is necessary to water the saplings with enough water and cover with mulch. There are two ways to grow this wonderful tree in your garden: from a stone and grafting. Below we give a detailed description of these methods.
There are some features in planting an apricot seedling tree. Planting them in the fall, you can expect a different germination result: from 0 to 90%. This planting material can be stored in the soil, maintaining its germination for years, and can abruptly wake up in any season, even if it is not suitable for the growing season.
In order to act for sure and get the maximum result, it is better to plant the plant just before the winter cold, otherwise, during the autumn thaws, the seeds planted before this period can rise early and die at the very first frost. By the way, this can happen in the spring.
First of all, you need to fill in the water selected for planting the bones and remove all the surfaced - so there will be a culling of poor quality material. Then, quality seeds should be planted at a depth of about 1 cm, not allowing the root collar of the seedling to be under the ground and rot.
Before planting, it would also be good to carry out a 3-month stratification: hold the bones in a cold room or refrigerator at a temperature of about 0 ° C, having previously placed them in a container with wet sand, without covering it. Such freezing will additionally provide them with good germination.
After planting and germination of the seedlings, careful care is needed: they should be watered, loosened around the soil, removed weeds and mulched. At the end of the two-year period, young trees are ready to transplant to a permanent place.
Planting apricot pits
For reproduction of Manchurian apricot, cuttings must be prepared in late June - early July, and planted in the last decade of September.
To prepare the future planting material, you need to cut a cutting with two or three internodes, on which a couple of leaves grow, from the most powerful and sturdy branches of the parent tree.
From above, the stalk is cut perpendicular to the growth of the trunk, about 1 cm above the bud, and from below the cut is made beveled. The cuttings prepared in this way are placed in a vessel with a liquid growth stimulator and brought into a warm room (at a temperature not lower than 24 ° C) for 15 hours.
It is very important to consider the level of water in the tanks with cuttings. So that the roots are actively formed, you need a sufficient amount of oxygen, because they are formed in the place of the cutting, where the boundary of air and water passes. If the tank is deep and filled with water more than necessary - it means that there will be little oxygen below, and this will lead to rotting of the planting material.
Place of planting need to prepare in advance. To do this, you need to make a small rut of the desired length, depth up to half a meter and a width of 85-90 cm. Lay out the bottom of the rut with broken brick and sprinkle it with river sand on top. The height of this layer should be up to 5 cm.
The next layer in the track will be a soil mixture consisting of sand, soil, manure and wood ash (1: 3: 1: 1.5). Next, you need to evenly distribute the mixture on the bottom of the track, compact and moisten with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Planted seedlings in such a way that the base of each of them only slightly touched the layer of soil mixture at the bottom of the track. To do this, one person holds the sapling at the desired height, the other - he falls asleep with the same soil mixture to the level under the upper bud with leaves. To hide the seedlings from sudden changes in temperature, a small wooden structure is installed over each of them and they are wrapped around it with a film on all sides.
Soil and fertilizer
If you plan to immediately plant seedlings at the place of their permanent growth, you need to prepare the landing hole in the fall.
It is filled with humus, consisting of one or two buckets of mullein with the addition of one glass of wood ash, 400 g of potassium sulphate and 700 g of granulated superphosphate. Upon the arrival of spring, the pit is cleared of humus, and in it you can already plant an apricot seedling.
As soon as the first signs of growth are noticed, it is necessary to make dressing from water and manure for cuttings: take 6 parts of water for 1 part of manure and allow to stand for 7 days. Feeding trees is best done during watering.
Watering and moisture
After planting seedlings and wrapping them in greenhouses, you need to provide them with further proper care. It consists in creating an optimally moist environment for the trees: it is the spraying of the cuttings themselves, and not of the earth around them, until they start to grow actively.
Although Manchurian apricot is also drought-resistant, it needs regular watering during transplantation and vigorous growth. This is especially true of such months as May and June. After the tree needs watering only during a drought, which happens in July - early August.
Irrigation rates are calculated as follows: at least 1 liter of water is needed for 1 square meter of stalked soil. During dry weather, the rate should be doubled. It is important to remember that it is impossible to over-water the saplings in August, since the growth of the shoots can be delayed and they may not mature to the beginning of winter, as a result of which they will freeze.
Loosening and mulching
In the second or third year after planting an apricot tree, it is necessary not only to water it regularly and feed it in the summer, but also to loosen the soil under it, and also to mulch the tree trunk.
When it rains, the soil is usually crusted, so it needs to be loosened periodically. This should be done not only for aeration, but also to keep it clean. It is impossible to dig up the soil, as this can damage the roots of the plant.
Mulching is done with sawdust, peat, straw or grass.
At the end of the fourth year after planting, it is better not to mulch the trees, since this is fraught with the formation of surface roots, which in the subsequent winter period can freeze. It is better to sow lawn grass under a tree, which must sometimes be mowed. Thus, soil quality will also improve.
For the winter, peat chips or sawdust can be used to mulch the soil. This will warm the roots and save the sapling from frost. As soon as the first stable layer of snow falls, it must be carefully tamped around the tree.
Preparing for the winter
Although Manchurian apricots are known for their winter hardiness, they still need preparation for the cold. You need to start cooking trees in August. In order for the wood on the shoots to ripen well, it is necessary to feed seedlings with phosphorus-potash fertilizers. As already mentioned, watering is reduced during this period. We have already described how to insulate the root system for the winter. However, the root neck of the tree also needs warming, because in this case it is not so much the cold and the cold that is how much temperature drops.
This can lead to the formation of a frost on the neck, which will not allow access of oxygen to the roots, and the tree may subsequently weaken and die.
Therefore, a protective layer of mulch should be at least 20 cm in height, and the trunk itself should be wound with agrofiber or spunbond (industrial insulators) from the root to the first twigs.
If the complexion of apricot trees is fully integrated, this can guarantee their protection even from excessively low temperatures. It is also recommended to wrap the trunks of wintering apricots with roofing felt to protect against rodents. Wrap the barrel with this material should not be tight, leaving an air cushion. Top ruberoid can be wrapped with agrofiber. This will provide additional insulation and support air circulation.
You can also build a small greenhouse above each tree. To do this, you need to wrap the seedling with any heat-insulating material, then install 4 pegs around it and wrap with plastic wrap.
Pests and diseases
Most of all, Manchu apricots are affected by fungal diseases. This usually occurs during frequent and heavy summer-spring rains. Due to the high humidity of the leaves and fruits can develop klyasterosporioz, verticillis, moniliosis.
In early spring, when the first leaflets appear, the larvae appear from the testicles. They begin to feed on the tissue juices of the leaf, attaching to its underside. Also, the aphids prefer juices of tender shoots of the plant.
Although the leaves of apricot, affected by aphids, do not curl, they still gradually dry out.
To avoid damage to trees by this pest, it is necessary even before the budding of the buds, and then during the period of their disclosure in the spring, to spray the insecticidal drug "Decis" or its equivalent. Due to its positive characteristics and qualities, Manchurian apricot can take the main place in the green construction of your garden.
By caring for these trees throughout the year, you will receive pleasant emotions and a bountiful harvest of fruits, from which excellent jams, compotes and jelly are obtained. In addition, you will contribute to the spread of rare and useful plants.
Manchurian apricot is a deciduous tree up to 15 m high with a spreading openwork crown. The leaves are lanceolate-oval, ovate or broadly oval, rather large, bare, pointed at the ends, serrate on the edge, up to 12 cm long. The average fruit weight is 15-20 g. The Manchu Apricot is relatively cold-resistant, withstands temperatures down to -30C. Flower buds are sensitive to sudden changes in temperature and frost.
Абрикос маньчжурский является родоначальником следующих сортов:
*Челябинский ранний - the variety is represented by medium growth trees with a densely leafy crown and dark red shoots. Fruits are small, rounded, with a light brown, easily separable bone. The skin is yellow, covered with small dots. The flesh is loose, juicy, light orange, sweet. It is considered a universal grade. Partly self-bearing, winter-hardy, drought-resistant, cannot boast with high yields. Diseases and pests are rarely affected.
*Piquant - the variety is represented by medium growth trees with a spreading densely leafy crown and dark red shoots. Fruits are round, small, weighing up to 17 g, with a brown easily separable bone. The skin is yellow, with a dark red blush, velvety. The flesh is loose, light orange, sweet and sour, tart. The variety is winter-hardy, drought-resistant, practically not affected by pests and diseases. Fruiting year.
* Snezhinsky - the variety is represented by medium growth trees with a spreading densely leafy crown and dark red shoots. Fruits are medium-sized, oval, weighing up to 25 g, with a round brown easily separable bone. The skin is yellow, with a dark red dot blush. The flesh is tender, juicy, light orange, sweet. The variety is partially self-bearing, winter-hardy, high-yielding, resistant to diseases and pests. Fruiting year.
* Uralets - the variety is represented by medium growth trees with sprawling densely leafy crown and red shoots covered with lentils. Fruits are round, small, weighing up to 20 g, with an oval brown easily separable bone. The skin is yellow with a reddish dotted blush. The flesh is juicy, tender, loose, light orange, sweet. The variety is partially self-bearing, highly productive, frost-resistant, drought-resistant, rarely affected by pests and diseases.
Most often, Manchurian apricot is propagated by planting seeds. Bones of culture remain viable for several years. The most effective autumn planting, germination in this case will be 50-90%. Before planting the bone must be subjected to preliminary preparation. Bones are immersed in water, those specimens that float, remove, they are not suitable for planting. Stratification will also be useful. The seeding depth is 1 cm. Shoots that appeared next spring need careful maintenance. After 2 years, the young plants are transplanted to a permanent place.
Despite all the advantages of Manchu, the description of the variety I want to start with its decorative qualities. During flowering, the tree is more like a sakura than a traditional apricot, which was the goal of breeders. The crown resembles a white-pink ball consisting of inflorescences of large white-pink buds (up to 2.5 cm in diameter). During the fruiting period, the color of the tree appears yellow due to the large number of fruits, and in the fall it becomes purple. Red leaves (size 5-12 cm) are kept on the branches until late autumn.
Inconvenient for the gardener is a tall dark brown tree trunk, reaching 15 meters in height, which is uncharacteristic of high-quality fruit trees. The trunk of an adult plant is 50 cm in diameter, its bark is similar in characteristics to a cork tree, deep cracks are not a disease, but a feature of the species. The endurance and strength of the root system, extending to a few meters below ground, implies a landing away from buildings.
The Manchurian Apricot can live for over a hundred years, all this time the root system will be developed and strengthened, capable of destroying the concrete foundation.
Attention! Apricots do not tolerate neighborhoods with currant bushes and raspberries. All other plants can not grow next to the giant, depleting, dehydrating the earth.
Despite such peculiarities of the root system, during transplantation, the seed of the Manchurian apricot is deepened so that the root neck rises 2-3 cm above the ground.
- oval shape,
- slightly flattened from the sides,
- length 4-5 cm
- weight 20 g
- light orange color
- velvety skin.
Tree fructifies abundantly, but the taste of its fruit is called specific. Sweet and sour fruits are great for eating raw and for preparing winter preparations - compotes, jams, confitures, jams.
Work on improving the variety Manchu for a long time was in the Chinese branch of the research center of the Russian Federation. The main task of the scientists was to create an ornamental apricot with signs of Japanese cherry blossoms for central Russia. The goal was achieved, as evidenced by the addition of the plant to the state register in 2005. Fruiting was not a priority.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Unpretentiousness, ease of care, high decorative characteristics, powerful root system - undeniable advantages of the variety. As a stock, Manchurian apricot is used to improve the quality of other winter-hardy apricot varieties. The minuses can be considered the height of the tree, which complicates the harvest and the cutting of the crown. Bitter taste reduces the tasting characteristics of the fruit.
The characteristics of the Manchurian variety, which served Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin as a stock for his experiments, are significantly different from those of the plant of the same name adapted for temperate regions.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Manchurian Apricot thanks to the peculiarities of the bark easily tolerates frosts down to -30 ° C. By drought, an adult plant is more resilient than a young one. Every year the roots go deeper and deeper into the soil, where they are able to independently extract the moisture needed by a large plant. Young trees during dry pores need to ensure systematic watering.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening time
Wild flowering continues for 12 days. In some regions, it begins in early April. In the more northerly this moment comes after the snow melts. Flowers attract bees and wasps with their honey aroma. They are the pollinators of the Manchurian apricot.
Already in early June, the apricot tree of this variety pleases gardeners with mature, but medium-sized fruits. The number of fruits is directly proportional to the size of the crown, the branches of which are covered. Despite the fact that the fruit is not large, the harvest from an adult tree can be generously shared with neighbors.
A gardener from the Moscow region shared his achievement by removing 25 10-liter apricot buckets from an adult tree. Fruiting seedlings begin in the 5th year after planting on the site.
Disease and Pest Resistance
Immunity to viral, fungal infections in a winter-hardy variety of apricots is quite high. Its main enemies are insects, the fight against them does not require much effort, but the sprayer should always be at hand:
- Spider mite is afraid of insecticides - "Regent", "Taboo".
- Cherry elephant does not like the solution of potassium permanganate.
- Copper-containing preparations are used against aphids.
Vertitsellez is terrible for all apricot trees, a soap solution helps against it, spotting is treated with the drug “Chom”.
Features of planting and care
Fertile soil is necessary for growing Manchurian apricots, but it doesn’t matter whether the source of food is silt, sandy loam or stony soil. Planting for plants of this species is preferable in spring, then a sapling grown in greenhouse conditions or in another region will have time to adapt to the climatic conditions of the area.
Standard annual care:
- With the long absence of rain in summer, the tree should be watered abundantly with water warmed by the sun.
- Retaining moisture in the soil at the roots will help mulch - mowed grass, straw, hay.
- Twice a year, basal dressing is done.
- Loosening the soil within a radius of 2-2.5 meters from the trunk.
- In the spring and autumn, the branches are damaged, old and fast-growing, which take away the strength from the plant for fruiting.
- Cut locations are treated with garden pitch.
- Whitewashing of the trunk is also held in the fall and spring.
Attention! When planting seedlings near water, it is necessary to create a drainage 20-cm layer of rubble.